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City.

[blocks in formation]

246,202

242,597
245,271

73,320
519,822

1,908,786)

504,737

253,240
227,696

3,477,971 2,795,000 682,971

408,513 518,714 1,248,266]

840,112

308.952

Per
Gross debt. capita.

Grand total....

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16,393,119
3,219,523
4,636,129
3,554,908

2,358,366

5,864,870

1,557,001

Receipts.

15,988,719)
2,716,376

3,387,863

2,714,918

22,049,459

5,618,668

1,314,483

4,341,041

4,551,237

2,855,820 2,335,998

4,590,325
3,837,142
2,190,167
2,992,763

3,246,967

4,590,734

4,624,557

Net debt.

From the public

2,681,539

3,332,405

1,936,927

2.765.067

2,588,891

and accounts.
prises, offices
funds, enter-
From divisions,

404,400

503,147 1,248,266

Payments in 1908.-Advance Census Bureau figures for the calendar year 1908 show that of $1,236,782,824, which was the total of the municipal payments of 158 citles having a population of 30,000 or over, 32.7 per cent was for the expenses of maintaining and operating the ordinary municipal departments and offices; 2.5 per cent was paid for the expenses of the maintenance and operation of selfsupporting public service enterprises, such as water supply systems, lighting sys tems, etc.; 6.7 per cent was paid in interest on city debt; 22.2 per cent was paid for outlays for new buildings, equipment and public improvements; 23.3 per cent represents payments in liquidation of debt, and 12.5 per cent represents payments of refunds, purchases of investments by city funds, and general transfers. The expenses of maintaining and operating the ordinary municipal departments and offices for the entire 158 cities amounted to $404,997,312, more than one-fourth of which was paid by New York City. The expenses of the government of Philadelphia were less than one-fourth of those of New York City.

The city of over 300,000 population with the smallest running expenses was New Orleans, with Milwaukee a close second.

Expressed in per capita averages, the cities of over 300,000 population with the highest expenses were: Boston, $27 58; New York, $24 71. and Washington, $24 63, and those with the lowest were New Orleans, $12 76, and Baltimore, $13 34. The citles of from 100,000 to 300,000 population, with the highest and lowest per capita Layments for expenses, were Denver, $24 44, and St. Joseph. $5 65.

839,990

308.907

246.202

242.518

249,693

Receipts in 1908.-To meet municipal payments the 158 cities collected $652,334,580 from taxes, licenses, special assessments and other revenues and borrowed $500,905,414. The balance of the municipal receipts, amounting to $135,395,502, was made up of refunds, investments disposed of by city funds and general transfers. The total municipal receipts, therefore, amounted to $1,288,635,496, and were made up of the following items: 37.2 per cent from taxes and other general revenues; 4 per cent from special assessments; 5.4 per cent from services performed by city departments; 38.9 per cent from loans, and 14.5 per cent from refunds, general transfers and miscellaneous sources.

73,320

519.822

Receipts from the general property tax formed the chief item of general revenue, and for the cities of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Iowa, Louisiana, Virginia and Georgia comprised more than 75 per cent of the total.

Liquor licenses and taxes formed 13.4 per cent of the general revenues in the rities of Ohio and 10.2 per cent in the cities of California. New York City received $7.927,300; Chicago, $7,252,687, and Philadelphia, $1,969,459 from this source. The only other cities deriving more than $1,000,000 from liquor licenses were St. Louis, Boston, Cleveland, San Francisco and Cincinnati.

1,908.786

504.737

253,240

227.696

€58,076

From revenues of public service enterprises, such as water supply systems, toll bridges, etc.. New York City realized $18,604,056; Chicago, $5,127.401, and Philadelphia, $4,368,213. The only cities of less than 300,000 inhabitants which received more than $1,000,000 from this source were Jersey City, Los Angeles and Seattle. Chicago derived $2.386,275 from privileges or taxes for the use of the public highways; New York City derived a trifle over one-half as much money from the same source. GROSS AND NET DEBT AT THE CLOSE OF THE CALENDAR YEAR 1907 OF CITIES OF OVER 100,000 POPULATION; ALSO ASSESSED VALUATION OF PROPERTY AND TAXES LEVIED.

Assessed valuation of propety for capita. city corpora

Per

tion.

New York, N. Y....$798,679,054 $189 01 $598,036,464 $142 52 $7,796,175,039 $106,751,890 Chicago, Ill.. 84,449,874 40 07 80,962,554 38 41 477,921,976 32,679,091 Philadelphia, Penn.. 74,387,488] 66,228,636] 45 16 1,287,287,123| 18,855,433

50 73

Tax levies.

City.

St. Louis, Mo.
Boston, Mass..
Baltimore, Md.
Pittsburg, Penn..
Cleveland, Ohio.
Buffalo, N. Y.
San Francisco, Cal.
Detroit, Mich..
Cincinnati
Milwaukee, Wis.
New Orleans, La.
Washington, D. C..
Newark, N. J..
Minneapolis, Minn..
Jersey City, N. J.
Louisville, Ky.
Indianapolis, Ind.
St. Paul, Minn.
Providence, R.. I.
Rochester, N. Y..
Kansas City, Mo..
Toledo, Ohio.
Denver, Col..
Columbus, Ohio.
Los Angeles, Cal..
Worcester, Mass..
Seattle, Wash.
Memphis, Tenn..
Omaha, Neb.
New Haven, Conn.
Scranton, Penn..
Syracuse, N. Y.
St. Joseph, Mo.
Paterson, N. J.
Portland, Ore..
Atlanta, Ga....
Richmond, Va.
Fall River, Mass.
Nashville, Tenn.
Dayton, Ohio.

Grand Rapids, Mich.

Chicago

City.

Gross debt.

City corporation..
Park districts

Per capita.

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Year built..

by city.... Year acquired)

Net debt.

wire pipe.......

Miles of main

ог

50 03

18,632,121 28 18
73,326,686) 120 37
29,471,211 52 52
82,132,444| 60 45
31,019,842 65 19
19,348,865
4,922,874
8,727,728
42,991,720
10,618,977
28,188,326
14,293,286
18,789,188

88 46
45 73
63 48
9,088,821 31 82
16,288,865 66 98
8,665,747 37 74
4,078,237 17 91
9,813,372 46 60
13,656,762
65 70
12,348,766 65 20
7,732,335 41 69
7,714,148 46.85
4,749,232
9,442,098
8.943,913
5,231,121)
17,654,154
6,623,123
6,759,906
3,714,570
2,336,547
8,476,274
1,983,510
4,226,635
7,884,379
3,078,893
6,882,735
3,893,015
4,804,889
4,393,839

45 60
42 56
2,503,664 24 59

(3)

(2)

Sanitary district.. (") (9)} (4)

Folo

St. Louis..

33.0

Assessed valuation of

Per

property for Tax levies, capita. city corpora

tion.

Net cost.

1,394.6 $3,504,126
271.0 (4)

(*)
136,500

23 75 123 85

32 93

30 93

63 49

39 62

51 42 52 91 30 10 19 261 70 27

16 46

37 05
69 92
28 70
64 79

36 68

571,791,577 1,815,709,757 626,756,439 686,742,887 240,262,315 823,776,081 454,708,331 339,217,590

7,650,353

6,507,635

6,820,625 5,460,669 242,988,590 6,775,420

216,975,945
217,366,255
277,727,824
295,787,923

177,499,018 267,039,754 166,302,330 174,244,325 108,549,241 230,683,760 159,045,153 .144,548,041

Present
value.

78,984,280 118,921,855

87,307,905 267,126,304 124,841,138 155,751,045

72,235,336 23,457.487 116,812,984

66,757,430 104,977.771 34,261,501 90,707,516 166,661,695

91,840,350 105,811,707

10,633,783 19,851,105

8,356,501 10,661,831

84,730,844
62,619,338
56,581,280
78,834,500

Figures for 1908-Advance Census Bureau figures for the calendar year 1908 show that at the close of 1908 the net debt of New York City was $684,000,000. This city had more than seven times the indebtedness of any other city and more than one-half of the total of the twenty-nine largest cities of the country. The per capita net debt of New York City was $157 74, and the only other cities having a per capita net indebtedness of over $100 were Cincinnati, $128 61; Boston, $119 48; Galveston, $113 07; Portland, Me., $107 41; Newton, Mass., $106 13; Pueblo, Col., $104 61, and Pawtucket, R. I., $103 78. Of the cities of over 300,000 estimated population the city having the smallest per capita net debt was Detroit, $26 02. Of the cities having a population of from 100,000 to 200,000 those with the smallest per capita net debt were Indianapolis, $17 43, and Scranton, $19 82.

The only cities of over 100,000 population reducing their net debt in 1908 were Washington, D. C.; Kansas City, Mo.; Paterson, N. J., and Cambridge, Mass.

ELECTRIC

4,939,109

4,782,058

4,165,917

3,511,992

3,775,699

3,081,321

LIGHT AND POWER WORKS, AND GAS WORKS, OWNED
AND OPERATED BY CITIES, 1907.
Electric Light and Power Works.

2,993,442 2,636,705

2,127,502

3,426,078

2,855,412

3,358,108 2,109,795

3,621,183

2,086,552

3,664,003

1,791,774

3.308,747

1,423,036 1,487,203 1,618,002

912,444

1,691,638

729,681

1,196,718 1,512,789 1,159,215

1,495,086

1,384,937

906,930

1,324,001 904,984

Character of service.

$2,586,766 Municipal.

828,112 Municipal; lighting parks and boulevards only. 3,894,065 Power plant; not yet im operation; commercial. 136,500 Municipal; lighting public buildings only.

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2 Built by city.

Three plants; year of building not reported.

65,000

85,0001 404,076 74,430

Gas Works.

Present
value.

583,242 Municipal.

187,468 Commercial and municipal. 1,057,252 Commercial and municipal. 40,000 Municipal; lighting public buildings only. 571,285 Municipal.

1,249,714 Commercial and municipal.
150,000 Municipal.
1350,000 Municipal.
175,750 Municipal.

71,000,000 Commercial and municipal.

Four plants in operation: One built in 1890, one built in 1894, one built in 1899 and one built in 1904.

*Two plants: One built in 1890 and one built in 1907. Plant in course of construction.

Character of service.

Not reported.

Two plants: One built in 1896 and one built in 1900.

"Four plants: One at waterworks, built in 1901; one at City Hall, built in 1903; one at city hospital, built in 1905, and one at insane asylum, date not given.

Estimated.

31,167 Municipal.

522,852 Commercial and municipal.

100,000 Municipal.

66,000 Municipal.
50,000 Municipal.

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE.

The

A bulletin dealing with marriage and divorce statistics was issued by the Census Bureau early in 1909. It contained data covering the years from 1887 to 1906. marriages in the United States reported for those years were as follows: MARRIAGES EACH YEAR BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1887 TO 1906.

60,000 Municipal.

79.578 Commercial and municipal. 70,061 Municipal.

523,568 Cmmercial and municipal. 80,000 Commercial and municipal.

$29,000,000 Commercial; leased to pri-
vate corporation.
3,150.000 Commercial and municipal.
900,000 Commercial and municipal.
579.704 Commercial and municipal.
450,000 Commercial and municipal.

65,000 Municipal.

70,000 Municipal.

400,000 Cmmercial and municipal 65,000 Municipal.

North Atlantic division.

Maine

New Hampshire.
Vermont

Massachusetts

Rhode Island
Connecticut
New York

1887-
1906.

State or Territory.

Continental U. S.....12,832,044

3,338,912

86,592 77,764

58,472 468,267

72,836

136,984 1,205,655

5,117

9,069
88,979

6.574 6,264
4,278 4,212

3,106

2.992 27.184

29,654

4,760

8.075 80,162

1905.

1906.
1904. 1903. 1902. 1901.
853,290 804,787 781,145 786,132| 746,733 716,621
226,783 210,624 197.409 203,253 190,596 180,821

6,208 6,200 5,905

4,061

3,146

25,685

4,136

7.660 69,439

3,803

3,078

25,993

4,004

3.135

26.940

4,174 4.473

7,635 74,581

8,078 73,338

5,735 4,001

3,054

24.891

3,846

7,112

65,158

[blocks in formation]

Wyoming

Colorado

New Mexico

Arizona

Utah

Nevada

Washington Oregon

California

Alabama

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

1887

1906.

1905.

1904.

1902.

1901.

1903. 335.809 21,580 20,571 18,942) 19,5521 18,149 15,889 896,533 58,426 56,404] 52,995 57,533 52,415 51.135

1,567,157

104,995

101,429 |

97,428 92,876

80,423

25,374

2.302

2,018

1,404

195,875

12,564

12,511|

1,8221 12,248❘

1,620 11,577

10,954

3,833

3,702

3.652]

3,560

3.270

17,851

17,148

17,172

16,323

11,551

11.258

10.435

10,032

313,725 20,085

20,036

18,248

17,771

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50,244

295,377

170,810

Dist. of Columbia.

Florida

Georgia

[blocks in formation]

4,753

4,131

97,192]

1,776]

11,956

3,772

16,879

10,771

19,260

4,991 42,509 38,404

54,124 48,086

2,675

2,193

1,181

7.307

2,667

1,579

3,853

534

458

9.182

7.946

5.233

5.155

17.720 14,793

24,612
8,166]

4,577,684

279,933 268,441

727,408
493,890

45,365 43,118
28,306 26,492

861,717 53,717 32.798

424,096 27,335 28,119
337,583 17,319 16,315
242,147 15,809 15.182
366,350 20,135 19,616
579,807
44,022

35,750

34,724
3,937

3.740

54,782
170,820 10,344
275,062 16,969

9,985

2,730,718|| 187,455

21,949

359,783 22,087 21,514 21.287 21,926
396,990 24,418 23.772 22.997 23,212
372,525 25,390 24,215 23,309 22,786
313,500 22,061 21.071 22,752
16,859
19,567
7,167

20.061

18,661

243,881 310,767

15,983 15,491

16,751 15.556
20,227 18,778
8.422

18,073

67,412

19,337
6,751

7.906

6.146

5.590

4.701

45,415 620,445

4.875

4,331

39,459

37,956

36,593

617,573

43,987

43,140

39,705

36.362

2,605 2,485 2,581
2,108 1.932 1.784

2,407

23.330

1,657

13.509

1.079 1,000 1,018

1,009

98,877

6,584

6,106 6,559

25,625

17,342

51,259

7,073

87,182
67.475

189,539

17,575
14,919

19,289
35.390

17,376

10,786

19,093

25,093

7,338

2,171 1,541

1,441

1,252

3,746

3,405

416

264,459 269,424 258,482

41,184 43,537
27,364
51,594

24,918

23.160

6,433

246,909

42,069 39.611 28,230 26,966 26,638 52.745 49.703 47.212 26,029 25,653

24,079

17.095 16,731

15,925

15.209 14,652

13.666

20,189

34,159

7.643

4,683

13,524

23,446

6,818

[blocks in formation]

1,601

1,272

3.425

20,425

32.100

3,034

3,379

9,075

6,400

1,464

1,254

3,095

673

6,200 3,922

20,031

30,837

2.464

3,233

8,774

14,439

163.861

19,906

20.781

21.605

5,858

1,295

1.160

2,994

479

502 7.125 4,410

5,169 3,619

12,863 11,624 10,282 The total number of divorces returned by the investigation, covering the twenty years from 1887 to 1906, inclusive, was 945, 625. In the preceding investigation, covering the twenty years from 1867 to 1886, inclusive, the number reported was 328,716

DIVORCES BY STATES AND TERRITORIES; 1887 TO 1906.

18,670

14,767

18,969

5.373

3.948

39.842

1887-
1906.

State or Territory.
Continental U. S. 1945,625 ||72,062 67,976 66,199 64,925 61,480 60,984 55,751 51,437 47,849

1906. 1905. 1904. 1903. 1902. 1901. 1900. 1899. 1898.

35,607

2,382

1,449

920

22,807 2,162 1,925 1.876 1,555 1,365 1,467| 1,299 1,067 1,133

2,380❘ 214 226
29,541

25,170
15,844
9.224
887
2,325

7,586

10,401

3.205 82.209

215 185 136) 179] 158 142 122 2,428 2,192 2,390| 2,107| 2,041| 2,288 1,810 1,511 1,278 1,813) 1,660) 716 862 1,733) 1,732) 1,649) 1,506) 1,411 1,165 1,101 1.141 1,176] 1,073] 977 802 7431 663 557 508 476 538 460 509 450 424 437 51 78 66 54 52 85 25 211 18 136 97 186 200 1701 162 589 545 499 394 366 283 626 663 612 527 543 533 296 223 243 204 136 162

86

72

68

830

752

659

694

862 765
320 296

281

Idaho

Illinois

'Indian Territory. 6.751

Indiana

Iowa

60.721
34,874

5,943 5,715 5,592 5,653 5,393 5,252 4,698 4,666) 4.176
998 935
722 585 505 507 419 4201 358
4,048 3,839 3.473 3,978 3,758 3,622 3.586 3,587 3,276
2,385 2,209 2,149 2,268 2,247 2,275 2,118 1,922 1,787

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[blocks in formation]

7,669 10,145 39,686 6,953

Michigan
Kentucky

Colorado

Illinois

Iowa

Ohlo Virginia Nebraska

555

544

475

468

460

430

437

431

422

1906. 1905. 1904. 1903. 1902.
1,940 1,9291 1,857] 1,8151 1,770
2,050 1,943 2,065 2,095 1,943
882 735 922 740

733

951

911

582

540

404

389

388

381

377

358

348

348

346
343

336

2,069

380

320

Average annual number

of marriages per-
10,000 10,000 tot..
population.

unmar-
ried

adults,

1900.

317

309

307

307

305

4,781

871

181

1,952

679

265 4,235 813

785

1,026 899
752
3,027) 2,966) 2,928 2,962
368 461

412

210

1900.

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7,108

295

2661

604 531
601 568 454 391
30,447 2,172 2,001 2,056 2,052 1,958 1,938
62,655 5,173 4,716, 4,719 4,138 4,352 4,677
4,670 387 355 410 350
4,740 301 289 311 315
12,129 1,074 969 1,030 887
1,599 1,612
966 901 746
22.867 1,458 1,478 1,459
143 145

236

743

16,215 1,981
10,308

1,544
800
1,464

1,247
721

1,077

694

1,453

1,772

1,383
137 160 94 144

151

104

68

530

525

1,717
3,023

1,098

1,531

3,866

520 1,094 |

1,122

1,286

3,375

465

987

73

52

523

475

485

454

192

167

1,774

1,533

617

471

242 193 4,382 4,377 795 611

617

2,619
4211

1890.

1,529
2,927

The act of May 2, 1890, creating the Territory of Oklahoma, gave the United States Court in Indian Territory jurisdiction over divorce; prior to that date there is no record of divorce. Organized from part of Dakota Territory, November 2, 1889. Divorces granted in the counties then comprising Dakota Territory are distributed between North Dakota and South Dakota according as the counties are now located in one or the other of these states. Organized from part of Indian Territory, May 2, 1890. All laws permitting divorce were repealed in 1878.

MARRIAGE AVERAGES IN THE UNITED STATES.

The following table shows the mumber of marriages per 10,000 unmarried adults and per 10,000 population in the Unite! States in 1890 and 1900:

State or
Territory.

327

830

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[blocks in formation]

78. California

79 South Carolina.]

51

518

462

153

1,832

573

174

4,292
678

525

2,389

516

489 377 387

952 8131 9211

43

42 429

432

463

420

145

117

1900. 1899. 1898.

1,447

1,638

417

751

418

1,181 2,092

294
291

807

524

1,260

2,530

989

291

291

290

289

1,189
3,170)

287

286

285

279

270

269

264

258

1,800

479

202 3,597

504

620 2,312

484

1,185

2,478

936

829

1,036| 980 3,006) 2,920

319 751

48

450

405

129

1,493

374

450

1,690

398

386

3,368

372

236❘ 256 255

253

249

247

246

382

358
1,836 1,660
4,212
2731

3,490

239

744

958

594 1,343

122

565

447 1,906) 1,855 420 409

Average annual number of marriages per-10,000 total 10,000 upmarpopulation.

ried

adults,
1900.

837

636

604 466 1,328 1,217 84

99

1900.

77

3,192

410

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314 1,646 3.231

234 209

2461 236

604

606

112

1890.

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