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EXPLANATION OF THE CALENDAR PAGES.
All the calculations in The Tribune Almanac are based upon mean or clock time unless otherwise stated. The Sun's rising and setting are for the upper limb, corrected for parallax and refraction. In the case of the Moon no correction is needed, as in the Sun, for parallax and refraction"; with her they are of an opposite nature and just balance each other. The figures given, therefore, are for the Moon's centre on a true horizon, such as the ocean or a large plain affords.
STANDARD AND LOCAL TIME TABLES.
To obtain standard time take local time and add or subtract the figures given.
Albany, N. Y.
Little Rock, Ark.
| + || + + 1 + +|++ | |++|+ 1 | + | | |+|++|++++
New Haven, Conn....
New Orleans, La..
New York, N. Y.
Ogdensburg, N. Y..
Providence, R. I..
The following is the table of times, based upon the meridian used by the United States and Canada:
Wilmington, N. C....
++++++||+++++ |+|+++++++ | |++|+++ |
It is obvious that to express the time of rising and setting of the Sun and Moon in standard time would limit the usefulness of such data to the single point or place for which they were computed, while in mean time they are practically correct tor places as widely separated as the width of the continent, as already explained, and peraons having the mean time may easily ascertain the correct standard time of any event by making use of the table on this page.
The calculations in each of the geographical divisions of each calendar page will apply with sufficient accuracy to all places in the contiguous North American zones indicated by the headings of the divisions. This statement is based on the fact that in the same latitude, or in the same line running due east and west, the Sun and Moon rise and set at almost the same moment of local or mean time, the difference in extremes being so slight as to be of no importance for ordinary purposes, except in the case of the Moon's rising, southing and setting, when 6m. for Pacific Coast points and 3m. for Mississippi River Valley region, including Chicago, etc., must be added, or 2m. for each hour of longitude.
The heavy dotted lines show the arbitrary divisions of time in the United States. The plus and minus marks on either side of the meridian lines show whether it is necessary to add to or subtract from the standard time of points east or west of these lines to arrive at actual, or mean local, time. See table on page 4.
For the convenience of the railroads and business in general a standard of time was established by mutual agreement in 1883, and it is by this method of calculation that trains are now run and local time is regulated. In accordance with this system the United States extending from 65° to 125° west longitude is divided into four time sections, as shown on the map. Inside of each of these sections standard time is uniform, and the time of each section differs from that next to it by exactly one hour. If the standard time correction for any place not enumerated in the table be desired proceed as follows: Locate the place, as any one can approximately on this map, and then subdivide the hour space in which the place is until the distance in time (60m. one space) from that meridian within whose bounds the place is located is apparent. Then add or subtract the result to mean time as the sign at the top of the map indicates. Example: What will be the standard time of sunrise July 1 at Penn Yan, N. Y.? The map does not give the lines of latitude and longitude, but most people can locate their own place in its respective State on the map with sufficient correctness. By this means I locate Penn Yan at about one-eighth of the distance between the 75th and 90th meridians and within the Eastern time zone. This will give 8m. to be added, or 4 84.
ERAS OF TIME.
The Gregorian year 1911 corresponds to the following eras:
From July 4 the 136th year of the independence of the United States.
The year 1329 (nearly) of the Mahometan era, beginning January 2, 1911. The year 1330 begins December 22, 1911.
The year A. M. 8020 of the Greek Church, beginning January 14 (N. S.).
The year 4708 (nearly) of the Chinese era, beginning January 30.
The year 5771-72 (nearly) of the Jewish era, beginning September 23, or at sunset September 22.
The year 2571 (nearly) of the Japanese era, beginning January 30.
The year 6624 of the Julian Period.
The year 2223 of the Grecian era.
The 1st day of January is the 2,419,038th day since the beginning of the Julian Period.
DATE OF BEGINNING OF ERAS AND OTHER PERIODS.
Antioch, mundane...Sept. 1, 5492 B. C.
.Jan. 1, 4713 B. C.
Mundane, Jewish. .....Oct. 1. 3761 B. C.
Foundation of Rome. April 24,
Julian Year, acc. to
46 B. C.
38 B. C.
30 B. C.
27 B. C.
1 A. D.
776 B. C.
287 A. D.
295 A. D.
EXPLANATORY NOTE.-The DOMINICAL Letter or letters (two for Leap Years), or Sunday Letters, indicates the day of the year on which the first Sunday occurs, the first seven letters of the alphabet being used. Thus for 1911 the Dominical Letter is A, the first letter of the alphabet, and hence the first day of the year will be the first Sunday of the year. In Leap Years two letters are used, the first being for January and February and the latter, being the preceding letter, answers for the last ten months in order to maintain the cycle.⚫ The GOLDEN NUMBER is that number of a cycle of 19 years, which shows how many years have passed since New Moon fell on January 1, for in nearly 19 years the Solar and Lunar years nearly come together. The chief use of this cycle is in fixing the date of Easter, and in this same connection is used the EPACT. The SOLAR CYCLE is the number of years that have elapsed since the days of the week fell on the same days of the year, or when there will be, therefore, a recurrence of the Dominical or Sunday Letter. This would be the case every seven years but for Leap Year; hence, four times seven is the cycle, or 28 years. It is the remainder found by adding 9 to the year and dividing the sum by 28. The ROMAN INDICTION is a cycle of 15 years and is of no utility except to chronologers. It is the remainder found by adding 3 to the year and dividing by 15. THE JULIAN PERIOD is a cycle of 7980 years, and is the product of the three cycles-Golden Number (19), Solar Cycle (28) and Roman Indiction (15) and hence shows the time when these three cycles will coincide, or begin at the same time. The first of this cycle will be completed in the year 2267. It is the year +4713. The DIONYSIAN Period is a cycle of 532 years, and is also called the Great Paschal Cycle, being the product of a complete Solar and Lunar Cycle (28x19). It is the remainder found by adding 457 to the year and dividing by 532, and with the Julian Period is chiefly used by chronologers. The JEWISH LUNAR CYCLE is always three less than the Golden Number, and is used by the Jews in fixing the time of their festivals.
The rule for computing the Dominical Letter for any year is somewhat complicated and for that reason is omitted here.
Wednesday, Friday and Saturday after: First Sunday in Lent-March 8, 10 and 11; Pentecost-June 7, 9 and 10; September 14-September 20, 22 and 23; December 13-December 20, 22 and 23.
GREEK CHURCH OR RUSSIAN CALENDAR. A. D. 1911; A. M. 8020.
1st Month begins.. 2d Month begins. 3d Month begins.. 4th Month begins.. 5th Month begins. 6th Month begins. 6th Month begins..
CHINESE CALENDAR, YEAR 4608.
The year 1911 corresponds nearly with the Chinese year 4608, or the 48th year of the 76th cycle of 60 years, is a leap year, the 6th month being duplicated, and contains 384 days.
JEWISH OR HEBREW CALENDAR. Year 5671-'72, A. M. The Jewish year 5671 is the 9th of the 299th cycle of 19 years.
7th Month begins.. 8th Month begins. 9th Month begins.. 10th Month begins.. 28 11th Month begins.. 26 12th Month begins.
..September 22 ...October 22 ....November 21 .December 20 .January 19, 1912
Fasts and Feasts.
Rosh Chodesh...Sat.-Sun., Dec. 31, 1910-Jan. 1, 1911
Fast of Tebet.
Tuesday, May 16, 1911
First Day of Pentecost.
Fast of Tammuz.
Fast of Av
First Day of New Year,
First Day of Tabernacle.
Sat., Sept. 23, or at sunset of Sept. 22, 1911
First Day of Chanukah..Saturday, December 16, 1911 Thirty-third Day of Omer.
MAHOMETAN CALENDAR, YEARS 1329-'30.
The year 1329 is the 9th of the 45th cycle of 30 years.
Years. No. Name.
Month.Years. No. Name. 13... 8...Sheban .......... .July 28, 1911 1329... 9...Ramadan .*Aug. 26, 1911 1329...10... Schawall ...Sept. 25, 1911 1329...11...Dul Kaeda..Oct. 24, 1911 1329...12...Dulheggia... Nov. 23, 1911 1330... 1...Muharrem...Dec. 22, 1911 1330... 2...Saphar .....Jan. 21, 1912
In the Roman (Julian) Calendar_the_months corresponded exactly with our own, excepting that down to the time of the Emperor Augustus the fifth and sixth months of the year-which, with the Romans, began with March-were called Quintilis and Sextills; afterward they were named in honor of the Emperors Julius and Augustus.
In reckoning the days of each month three fixed points were taken, and any particular day was said to be so many days before the next coming fixed day. These three points were (1) the Kalends, by which name the first of each month was known; (2) the Nones, which fel on the seventh day of the month in March, May, July and October, and on the fifth day in each of the other months; and the Ides, which always fell eight days after the Nones.
This Calendar, although reckoned from September 22, 1792, was not introduced until November 22, 1793. It remained in use till December 31, 1805. The Gregorian Calendar was restored January 1, 1806 (Nivôse 10, Year xiv). The months varied in different years. Nivôse commenced December 21 in 1793, December 22 in 1804 and 1805. The following are the dates for the year 1804, the last complete year of the calendar:
Vendémiaire (Vintage), Sept. 23-Oct. 22.
Germinal (Budding), Mar. 22-Apr. 21.
The months were divided into three parts of ten days each, but to make up the 365 days five days were added at the end of September: (Primidi), dedicated to Virtue; (Duodi) to Genius; (Tridi) to Labor; (Quaruidi) to Opinion; and the fifth (Quint.di) to Rewards. To Leap Year, called Olympic, a sixth day, September 22 or 23 (Sextidi), "Jour de la Révolution," was added.
THE SIGNS AND CONSTELLATIONS
OF THE ZODIAC.
Until recently we supposed that the present relationship between the signs and constellations of the zodiac was generally understood, as all astronomical text books mention their disagreement and explain the cause. The numerous letters of inquiry concerning differences between this data in this almanac and certain others show the necessity for this note of explanation.
Thousands of years ago, the zodiac that belt of the heavens, about 16° in width, within which move the moon and planets, was formed and divided into twelve parts or seasons called signs, each containing certain star groups called con*tellations. Each was given a name of an object or animal, which never did bear any relationship to the configuration of the stars in that group or division, but which did, or is supposed to, have reference to certain astronomical or other facts. Thus Libra, the scales or balance, comes at the autumnal equ.nox, when there Is an equilibrium or balance between the length of day and night the world over. Aquarius, the water bearer, and whose sign is the Egyptian sign for running water, comes at the season of greatest rains in Egypt, etc.
Since the time when these div.sions were made and named, owing to the precession of the equinoxes, resulting from the differing polar and equatorial diameters of the earth, the signs have moved back west nearly a whole division, or constellation, and where P was the first, now is. Hence though the sun now enters the gn March 20, It is a month later when he enters the constellation Y. It must be apparent, therefore, that any supposed influence or relationship which early astrologers attributed to the position of the sun. moon or planes when in certain of these divisions can no longer exist, as the sign now only represents that space er division of the zodiac where the controlling constellation was 2.000 or more years azo, but is not now. Nevertheless, some almanacs still give the signs for the moon's place, which is very misleading to those who attempt to follow her in her course among the stars. Hence, this almanac gives the constellation and discards the ancient picture of the disembowelled man as relics of the age of superstition. sign is retained for sun's place in the seasons and sun's place each month because cf its relationship to the equinoxes and solstices.