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Railway mail service..
Rural delivery service.

Transportation

mail

Item.
Service in postoffices-
Salaries of postmasters.
Salaries of clerks, etc..
City delivery service..
All other expenditures.

Total

Number of

Postoffices

Stations and branches.
Money order offices.
City delivery offices.
Railway postoffice lines.
Railway postal clerks.
Postoffice clerks..
City letter carriers.
Rural letter carriers.
Letters, etc., registered.
Dead letters received.
Pieces of mail handled.
Money orders issued-
Domestic

of domestic

By railroads.
By other means of transpor-
tation

International

Value of money orders issued

Domestic

1906.

International

Extent of post routes, in miles.
Miles of mall service performed.[

65,600
3,854

37,444
1.184]

1,528

13,598

27,124

22,965

35.666 34,165,484

11,663,377

The following table shows the expenditures of the Postal Service by items from 1906 to 1909:

58,461,353
3,036,508

$444,515,790
$63,047,868
478.711
515,185,591

1907.

$23,548,988 33 $24,580,667 25 $25,602,973 86
24,700,645 34 26,647,397 21 30,920,449 68
22,095,211 02 23,356,941 90 26,450,138 33
7,693,704 56| 9,016,327 99 10,027,702 35

|$46,953,438 60 $49,758,071 01 $48,458,255 34
11,449,199 43 12,002,580 70 11,962,539 41
$58,402,628 03] $61,760,651 71] $60,420,794 75
$3,052,890 46 $3,031,038 241 $3,084,025 44

Total
Transportation of foreign mail.

The following table shows the general operation of the service from 1906 to 1909:

Item.

1906.

1907.

1909.

62,659
4,076

37,572

1,240]

1,5431

$78,038,549 25 $83,601,334 35

$93,001,264 22 $102,091,070 61

$14,182,087 57 $15,178,374 82 $17,390,532 15 $18,356,800 13
24,773,613 58 26,666,889 22 34,455,269 59 |

35,586,779 50

14,357

27,527

24,577

37,582 38.255,649

13,005,255

1908.

62.069,783
3,640,136

$479.650.342
$84,080,711
463,406
524,725,747

1908.

61,158

4,640

43,313

1,330]

1,575

15,295

29.312

26,352

39.143
40,151,797
13,145,172

$498, €99.637
$88,972,388
450,378
538,438,722

1909.

$26,572,936 23
34,876,492 71
29,868.757 95
10,772,883 72

31,048

27,620

40,499 40,539,545 11,997,325

[11,361,090,610 12,255,666,367|13,173,340,329 14,004,577,271

$49,869,374 52

12,156,228 81

$62,025,603 33

$2,943,849 32

60,144
4,888

50,043

1.440

1,757

16,044

64,864,570 68,791,938
3,711,640

3,687,471

$491,074,844
$76,754,802
448,618
542,151,121

POSTAL LAWS-GENERAL POSTAL INFORMATION.
Classes of Domestic Mail Matter.-Domestic mail is divided into four classes,
as follows:

First Class-Letiers, postal cards, post cards and matter wholly or partly in writing, whether scaled or unsealed (except manuscript copy accompanying proof sheets or corrected proof sheets of the same), and all matter sealed or otherwise closed against inspection. Rates of postage-Two cents per ounce or fraction thereof. Postal cards, one cent each. "Post Cards" with written messages, conforming approximately to government postal cards in quality and weight and to the regulations prescribed by the Postmaster General, one cent each. On "drop"

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letters, two cents per ounce or fraction thereof, when mailed at letter carrier offices, or when mailed at offices which are not letter carrier offices, if rural free delivery has been established and the persons addressed can be served by rural carrier. The only drop letters entitled to the one cent drop letter rate of postage are those deposited in postoffices where neither letter carrier nor rural delivery service has been established and those deposited in postoffices where rural delivery service has been established, and the persons addressed cannot be served by ural carrier, because they reside beyond the limits of the rural delivery service.

Second Class-Newspapers and publications which have been "Entered as Second Class Matter' issued at stated intervals as often as four times a year, bearing a date of issue and numbered consecutively, issued from a known office of publication, and formed of printed paper sheets, without board, cloth, leather or other substantial binding. Such publications must be originated and published for the dissemination of information of a public character, or devoted to literature, the sciences, art or some special industry. They must have a legitimate list of subscribers and must not be designed primarily for advertising purposes, or for free circulation, or at nominal rates, or have the characteristics of books. Rate of postage -For publishers and registered news agents, one cent a pound or fraction thereof. For other than publishers and news agents, one cent for each four ounces or fraction thereof. Partial or incomplete copies are third class.

Third Class-Books, circulars and matter wholly in print (not included in second second class), proof sheets, corrected proof sheets and manuscript copy accompanying same rate of postage-One cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof unsealed. Seeds, scions, cuttings, roots and plauts, and also correspondence of the blind printed in raised characters, and sent unsealed, are mailable at third class rates. The insertion of the date, name of the addressee and sender in writing does not impair the rights of a circular to the third class.

Fourth Class-Merchandise, and all matter not embraced in the other three classes, and which is not in its form or nature liable to destroy, deface or otherwise damage the contents of the mail bag, or harm the person of any one engaged in the postal service, and not above the weight provided by law. Rate of postage-one cent per ounce or fraction thereof unsealed.

Payment of Postage.-On first class matter the postage should be fully prepaid, but if two cents in stamps be affixed the matter will be dispatched with the deficient postage rated thereon, to be collected of addressee before delivery. Letters and packages of first class matter weighing less than four (4) pounds when prepaid one full letter rate will be dispatched and the deficiency collected of the addressee. Limit of Weight.-A package must not exceed four pounds in weight, unless it be a single book or second class matter.

Registry System.-All mailable matter may be registered if fully prepaid with ordinary postage stamps, and bearing the name and address of the sender, but not matter addressed to fictitious names, other than legitimate trade names, initials or box numbers, or bearing vague and indefinite addresses. The registry fee is ten cents, in addition to the postage, both of which must invariably be prepaid.

Money Order System.-Fees for money orders are as follows: 3 cents to 30 cents for orders on Domestic form payable in the United States and Island possessions (Porto Rico, Hawall, Guam and the Philippine Islands), the United States Postal Agency at Shanghai, in Canada, Mexico, Cuba and Newfoundland, and in Antigua, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, British Guiana, British Honduras, Canal Zone, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, and Virgin Islands (West Indies); 8 cents to 50 cents for International orders payable in Apia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Chill, Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Japan, Liberia, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Orango River Colony, Peru, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Transvaal; 10 cents to $1 for International orders payable in Cape Colony, France, Great Britain, Greece, Honduras (Republic), Italy, New South Wales. Queensland. Russia, Salvador, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria. The maximum amount of a single order is $100.

Postal Conventions.-Postal conventions are now in operation for the exchange of money orders between the United States and the following countries: Great Britain, Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Newfoundland, Jamaica, New South Wales, Victoria, New Zealand, Queensland, Cape Colony, Windward Islands (Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent and St. Lucia), Leeward Islands, Antigua, St. Christopher-Nevis, Dominica, Montserrat and the Virgin Islands), Belgium, Portugal (including the Azores and Madeira), Tasmania, Sweden, Norway, Japan, Denmark, Netherlands, Bahama Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Austria-Hungary, British Guiana, Luxemburg. Bermuda, South Australia, Salvador, Chili, Honduras, Egypt, Hong Kong, British Honduras, Cuba, Russia, Mexico, Bolivia, Apia (Samoa), Costa Rica, Greece, Liberia, Orange River Colony, Peru and the Transvaal.

Special Delivery. The regulations governing "rapid" or "special delivery" provide that any article of mailable matter bearing a 10c. special delivery stamp, in addition to the lawful postage, is entitled to immediate delivery on its arrival at any United States postoffice between the hours of 7 a. m. and 11 p. m., If the office be of the free delivery class, and between the hours of 7 a, m. and 7 p. m. and to the arrival of the last mail, provided this be not later than 9 p. m., if the office be other than a free delivery office. To entitle such a letter to immediate delivery the residence or place of business of the addressee must be within the regular letter carrier limits of a free delivery office, and within one mile of any other office. Special delivery articles are also delivered by rural carriers to bona fide patrons of their routes (those who have erected approved boxes), provided they live not exceeding

one-half mile from the route. An act of Congress, approved March 7, 1907, provided that after July 1, 1907, ordinary stamps to the value of ten cents, in addition to the required postage, could be affixed to a letter or package of mail matter for special delivery, the sender writing "special delivery" on the envelope.

Foreign Postage Rates.-The rates of postage to all foreign countries and colonies (except Canada, Cuba, Panama, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Newfoundland and Mexico) are as follows: Letters, 5c. for the first ounce and 3c. for each additional ounce; single postal cards and post cards bearing written communications, 2c. each; double postal cards, 4c. each; printed matter of all kinds, for each two ounces or fraction of two ounces, 1c.; commercial papers (deeds, bills, invoices, insurance policies, etc.), for the first ten ounces or less, 5c.; for each additional two ounces or fraction of two ounces, 1c.; samples of merchandise, for the first four ounces or less, 2c.; for each additional two ounces or fraction of two ounces, 1c.; registration fee, 10c.; letters (only) for Great Britain and Ireland and Newfoundland, for each ource or fraction thereof, 2c.; to Germany by sea direct, for each ounce or fraction thereof, 2c.

Ordinary letters and postcards for any foreign country (except Canada and Mexico) must be forwarded whether any postage is prepaid on them or not. All other mailable matter must be prepaid, at least partially. Matter mailed in the United States addressed to Canada, Cuba, Panama or Mexico is subject to the same postage rates and conditions as it would be if it were addressed for delivery in the United States. Full prepayment is required upon all registered articles; and postage upon all articles other than letters is required to be prepaid, at least in part. If the postage is not prepaid in full, double the amount of the deficiency will be collected of the addressee when the article is delivered. The rate on "commercial papers" per 2 ounces is the same as for "printed matter," except that the lowest charge on any package, whatever its weight, is 5c. The rate on samples of merchandise per 2 ounces is also the same as for "printed matter," except that the lowest charge on any package, whatever its weight, is 2c.

Articles of every kind and nature which are admitted to the United States domestic mails are admitted, at our domestic postage rates and conditions, to the mails exchanged between the United States and the United States Postal Agency at Shanghai, China. Articles addressed for delivery at the following places in China, namely: Chefoo (Yental), Chin-Kiang, Chung-King. Hankow. Hang-Chow Ichang, Kaiping, Kaigan, Kingiang, Nanking, New-Chwang, Ningpo, Ourga, Peking, Shanghai, Taku, Tier.stin, Wenchow, Wuchang, Wuhu and Yental, are transmissible in the mails made up at San Francisco, Seattle and Tacoma for the United States Postal Agency at Shanghai; but for places other than Shanghai Postal Union rates and conditions apply.

Parcel Post.-The first parcel post convention between the United States and any country in Europe was signed between the United States and Germany on August 26, 1899, and went into operation October 1. It was the beginning of a postal service by means of which articles of merchandise may be exchanged by mail between the two countries, provided they are put up in packages which do not exceed 11 pounds in weight. The postage rate for parcels going from the United States to Germany was fixed at 12c. for each pound or fraction of a pound. Articles of merchandise may be sent in unsealed packages, by parcel post, at 12c. a pound, to Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Mexico (limit of weight to same places 4 pounds 6 ounces), the Colony of the Leeward Islands, the Republic of Colombia, Salvador, Costa Rica, the Danish West India Islands (Saint Thomas, Saint Croix, and Saint John), British Guiana, Dutch Guiana, the Colony of the Windward Islands, Newfoundland, the Republic of Honduras, Trinidad (including Tobago), Chill, Germany, Guatamala, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Venezuela, Bolivia, Hong Kong, Japan, Norway, Belgium, Great Britain and Ireland, Australia, Sweden, Peru, Denmark, Bermuda, Ecqua dor, the Netherlands, Uruguay, Italy, France (limit of weight 4 pounds 6 ounces), Austria and Hungary.

Postage Rates Between the United States and the Possessions of the United States. All mail matter from the United States for the Island of Guam, the Philippine Archipelago, the Canal Zone, Tutulla (including all adjacent islands of the Samoan group which are possessions of the United States), or from one to another of these islands, is subject to the United States domestic classification, conditions and rates of postage.

PENSION LAWS AND STATISTICS.

Persons Entitled to Pensions.

Revolutionary

War.

The act of March 18, 1818, thirty-five years after the termination of the Revolutionary War, was the first general act passed granting a pension for service only. Its beneficiaries were required to be in indigent circumstances and in need of assistance. About 1820 Congress became alarmed at the large number of applicants for pensions under this act (there were about 8,000) and on May 1, 1820, passed what has been known as the "alarm act," which required all pensioners then on the ro!! to furnish a schedule of the amount of property then in their possession. Many of the pensioners whose schedules showed they possessed too much property were dropped from the rolls. Pensioners were dropped who owned as small an amount as $150 worth of property. On May 15, 1828, or forty-five years after the war, service pension was granted to those who served to the end of the War of the Revolution. On June 7, 1832, or forty-nine years after the close of the war, a general law was enacted pensioning survivors who served not less than six months in said war.

On July 4, 1836, being fifty-three years after the termination of the war, an act

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was passed granting pension for five years to Revolutionary War widows, provided they were married to the soldier or sailor before the close of his last service and that his service was not less than six months. On July 7, 1838, or fifty-five years after the close of the war, the above act was amended so as to provide where the marriage took place before January 1, 1794. On July 29, 1848, or sixty-five years after the war, the above laws were amended to include those who were married prior to January 1, 1800. On February 3,1853, or seventy years after the war, an act was passed striking out the limitations as to the date of marriage.

The first law granting pension for service in the War of 1812 was passed February 14, 1871, fifty-six years after the close of the war. This act required sixty days' service, and widows were not entitled "unless they were marWar of ried to soldier or sailor prior to the treaty of peace February 17, 1815. The act of March 9, 1878, sixty-three years after the close of the war, reduced the period of service to fourteen days, and made no limitation as to date of marriage in case of widowa.

1812.

On July 27, 1892, fifty years after period included in the act, pension was provided for those who served thirty days in the Black Hawk, Creek, Cherokee and

Florida wars with Seminole Indians from 1832 to 1842 and to their widows. Indian On June 27. 1902, the benefits of said act were extended from that date Wars. to the survivors of the Florida and Georgia Seminole Indian war of 1817 and 1818; the Fevre River Indian war of Illinois of 1827; the Sac and Fox Indian war of 1831; the Sabine Indian disturbances of 1836 and 1837; the Cayuse Indian war of 1847-48 on the Pacific Coast; the Florida wars with the Seminole Indians from 1842 to 1858; the Texas and New Mexico Indian war of 1849 to 1856: the California Indian disturbances of 1851 and 1852; the Utah Indian disturbances of 1830 to 1853, and the Oregon and the Washington Territory Indian wars from 1851 to 1856, and to the surviving widows.

On January 29, 1887, thirty-nine years after the close of the war, War with an act was passed providing for soldiers and sailors and their widows Mexico. for service of sixty days, if 62 years of age, or disabled or dependent.

There has never been any law pensioning widows of soldiers whose death was due to service in time of peace prior to March 4, 1861. No provision has ever been made for mothers and fathers and brothers and sisters if the death of soldier or sailor resulted from service prior to March 4, 1861. The laws relating to pensions have been more liberal since 1861 than they were prior to that date. To make it plainer, as an lustration of this fact, a sailor who lost both arms in the service and line of duty prior to March 4, 1861, would be entitled to a rating beginning at $350 per month and to the various rates provided from time to time to February 12, 1889, when he would receive $100 per month.

In

Any officer, soldier, sailor or marine, disabled by reason of wound received or disease contracted in the service of the United States, and in the line of duty, may be pensioned for such disability during its continuance. case of his death from causes originating as above set forth, his widow or his child or children under 16 years of age become entitled to pension. If he has left no widow or child under 16. his dependent mother, father, or orphan sisters and brothers are en

Arts of July 14,
1862, and

March 3, 1873.
titled, in the order named.

Any officer, soldier, allor or marine who served ninety days or more in the military or naval service of the United States during the late War of the Rebel

llon, who has been honorably discharged therefrom, and who is suffering from disability of a permanent character, not the result of his own vicious habits, which incapacitates him from the performance of manual labor in such a degree as to render him unable to earn a support, is entitled to pension under this act of not less than $6 a month nor more than $12 a month. In case of the death of any person named above his widow becomes entitled to pendon, provided she married him prior to June 27. 1890, and that she is without other means of support than her daily labor. If she remarries or dies the child or children f such soldier or sallor under the age of 16 years becomes entitled. The act of May 1900, which is an amendment of the act of June 27, 1890, provides that in determinInability to earn a support each and every infirmity shall be duly considered, and the aggregate of the disabilities showr be rated. It is also provided that a widow ay have title to pension If she is left without means of support other than her daily abor and an actual net income not exceeding $250 a year.

All women employed by the surgeon general of the army as nurses during the late War of the Rebellion for a period of six months or more, and who were honorably relieved from such service, are entitled to pensions, provided they are unable to earn a support. On March 15, 1904, an order was issued to take effect April 13, 1904, which Provided that in the adjudication of pension claims under the act of June 27, 1890,

as amended by the act of May 9, 1900, it should be taken and conOrder 78 and aidered as an evidential fact, if the contrary did not appear, that Art of April 24, 1906.

when a claimant had passed the age of 62 years he would be disabled one-half in ability to perform manual labor and, if all other legal requirements were properly met. would be entitled to he ted at $8 per month; after sixty-five years, at $8 per month; after sixty-eight Hearn, at $10 per month, and after seventy years, at $12 per month. The acts of April 24, 1906, and March 4, 1907, provided that the age of sixty-two years

Act of June 27,
1890, as Amended
by the Art of
May 9, 1900.

Art of
August 5, 1892.

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and over should be considered a permanent specific disability within the meaning of the pension law..

An act of Congress, approved February 6, 1907, provided that any person who served ninety days or more in the military or naval service of the United States

during the late Civil War, or sixty days in the war with Mexico. Art of

and who has been honorably discharged therefrom, and who February 6, 1907. has reachej the age of sixty-two years or over, shall, upon mak

ing proof of such facts according to such rules and regulations as the Secretary of the Interior may provide, be placed upon the pension roll, and be entitled to receive a pension as follows: In case such person has reached the age of sixty-two years, twelve dollars per month; seventy years. Afteen dollars per month; seventy-five years or over, twenty dollar per month; and such pension shall commence from the date of the filing of the application in the bureau of pensions after the passage and approval of this act: Provided. That pensioners who are sixty-two years of age or over, and who are now receiving pensions under existing laws, whose claims are pending in the bureau of pensions, may, by application to the Commissioner of Pensions, in such forms as he mey prescribe, receive the benefits of this act: and nothing herein contained shall prevent any pensioner or person entitled to pension from prosecuting his claim and receiving a pension under any other general or special act: Provided, That no person shall receive a pension under any other law at the same time or for the same period that he is receiving a pension under the pro visions of this act: Provided further. That no person who is now receiving or shall hereafter receive a greater pension under any other general or special law than he would be entitled to receive under the provisions herein shall be pensionable under this act.

The first section of the Act of April 19, 1908, provides that from and after its passage "the rate of pension for widows, minor children under the age of

sixteen years, and helpless minors as defined by existing laws, Act of

now on the roll or hereafter to be placed on the pension roll and April 19, 1908. entitled to receive a less rate than hereinafter provided shall be

$12 per month." The second section of the act grants penalons at the rate of $12 per month to the widows of persons who served ninely days or more In the army or navy of the United States during the Civil War and were honorably discharged, without regard to their pecuniary condition, provided they were married prior to June 27, 1890. All pensions granted under the second section of this act commence on the date the applications are filed in the bureau of pensions. The conditions or title under this section of the act are identical with those imposed upon widows by the act of June 27, 1890, as amended by the act of May 9, 1900, with the exception that the requirements as to dependence are eliminated. This act therefore supersedes the act of June 27, 1890, in so far as the claims of widows are concerned, and pensions are not now being granted to widows under the act of 1890 upon applications executed and filled on or after April 19, 1908

There is no law granting service pensions to any person for service Service

renderoul since 1858, aside from the allowances made under the Pensions.

provisions of sections 4756 and 4757, Revised Statutes, for twenty years' and ten years' service, respectively, in the United States Navy

or Marine Corps. There were added to the rolls during the year ended June 30, 1910, the names of 29,219 new pensinners. The number of pensioners lost from the rolls during the year was 51,830, showing a decrease of 25,111 on the rolls as compared with the close of the fiscal year 1909. The 921,083 pensioners on the rolls June 30, 1910. were classified as follows:

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