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from the eligible lists of the Civil Service Commission over 1,800 postoffice clerks to enlarge the working forces of city postoffices, and more than 1,000 additional letter carriers. The railway mail service received about 750 new employes, all of whom were taken from the Civil Service eligible list. The aggregate salaries of the new employes appointed during the year 1909-10 from the Civil Service lists exceed $2,000.000. The department also made liberal increases, based upon efficiency, in the compensation of employes already in the service. Salaries of postoffice clerks were advanced, in the aggregate, $1,750,000, while the aggregate salaries of letter carriers were increased $1,226,000. Railway mail clerks received increases of salary amounting to almost $250,000.
The following table shows the growth of the postal service by years from 1879 to 1909: Number of Postoffices, Extent of Post Rontes, and Revenue and Expenditures of the Postoffice Department, Including Amounts Paid for Transportation of the Mails, 1879 to 1909.
[From the annual reports of the Postmaster General.]
Extent of pcst routes.
Revenue of the Department.
Total expenditure of the
The act of Congress of 1910 estalishes postal savings banks in the United States. For the text of the act see pages 116 to 118 of this volume. Under its provisions the board of trustees of the postal savings bank system, Postal consisting of Postmaster General Hitchcock, Secretary MacVeagh, of Savings the Treasury Department, and Attorney General Wickersham, on October Banks. 22, 1910, approved a list of forty-eight postoffices at which the new system of postal savings is to have its first trial. The offices chosen include one for each state and territory. They have been selected after careful investigation by the officials of the Postoffice Department, with a view of making the first test of the service as thorough as possible under the limited appropriation provided by Congress. The amount appropriated for the first year of the system was only $100,000, and from this sum must come all the expenses of equipment, including the engraving and printing of forms, certificates, bonds, etc., as well as the cost of clerical assistance.
The forty-eight offices first designated were all of the second class. They were: Bessemer, Ala.; Globe, Ariz.: Stuttgart, Ark.; Oroville, Cal.; Leadville, Col.; Ansonia, Conn.; Dover, Del.; Key West, Fla.; Brunswick, Ga.; Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; Pekin, Ill.; Princeton, Ind.; Decorah, Iowa; Pittsburg, Kan.; Middlesboro, Ky.; New Iberia, La.; Rumford, Me.; Frostburg, Md.; Norwood, Mass.; Houghton, Mich.; Bemidji, Minn.; Gulfport, Miss.; Carthage, Mo.; Anaconda, Mont.; Nebraska City, Neb.; Carson City, Nev.; Berlin, N. H.; Rutherford, N. J.; Raton, N. M.; Cohoes, N. Y.; Salisbury, N. C.: Wahpeton, N. D.; Ashtabula, Ohio; Guyman, Okla.; Klamah Falls, Ore.; Dubois, Penn.; Bristol, R. I.; Newberry, S. C.; Deadwood, S. D.; Johnson City, Tenn.; Port Arthur, Tex.; Provo, Utah; Montpeller, Vt.; Clifton, Forge, Va.; Olympia, Wash.; Grafton, W. Va.; Manitowoc, Wis., and Laramie, Wyo.
The following table shows the extent of the postal savings bank system in other countries:
POSTAL SAVINGS BANKS ABROAD.
New South Wales.
Cape of Good Hope.
1893 Transvaal 1896 Sierra Leone 1896 Bulgaria
Orange River Colony. 1898 Dutch East Indies.
|(number). [ Mileage.
28,685 4,301 100.299
Federated Malay States.
Does not include statistics of Japanese Postal Savings banks in China and †Cash deposits only; does not include value of public securities credited to depositors.
Number of depositors.
Colonial Savings Bank reorganized as a postal savings bank April 1, 1904.
The 282 postal savings banks in the Philippines had net deposits of $1,648,024 at the beginning of June, 1910. Filipinos constituted 65 per cent of the depositors; Americans, 29 per cent; Europeans, 4 per cent, and Asiatics, 2 per cent. RURAL FREE DELIVERY SERVICE.
The following table exhibits the growth of the rural free delivery service from 1897 to 1909:
AverTotal age deposits. holding.
of accounts for each 1,000 population.
The maximum salary of rural carriers was increased in 1907-'08 from $720 to $900. The number of counties in the various states having rural delivery service in 1909-10 is shown in the following table:
Carriers Annual (number). Mileage. cost.
24.566 552,725 $12.645,275 32,055
721,237 35.318 820.318
20.864.885 25.011.625 26.747.000
Number of counties.
The following table shows the expenditures of the Postal Service by items from 1906 to 1909:
By other means of transportation
| $46,953,438 60 $49,758,071 01 $48,458,255 34
11,449,199 43 12,002,580 70 11,962,539 41 12,156,228 81 |$58,402,628 03] $61,760,651 71 $60,420,794 75) $62,025,603 33
Transportation of foreign mail.] $3,052,890 46 $3,031,038 241 $3,084,025 44] $2,943,849 32 The following table shows the general operation of the service from 1906 to 1909:
POSTAL LAWS-GENERAL POSTAL INFORMATION. Classes of Domestic Mail Matter.-Domestic mail is divided into four classes. as follows:
First Class-Letiers, postal cards, post cards and matter wholly or partly in writing, whether scaled or unsealed (except manuscript copy accompanying proof sheets or corrected proof sheets of the same), and all matter sealed or otherwise closed against inspection. Rates of postage-Two cents per ounce or fraction thereof. Postal cards, one cent each. "Post Cards" with written messages, conforming approximately to government postal cards in quality and weight and to the regulations prescribed by the Postmaster General, one cent each. On "drop"
letters, two cents per ounce or fraction thereof, when mailed at letter carrier offices, or when mailed at offices which are not letter carrier offices, if rural free delivery has been established and the persons addressed can be served by rural carrier. The only drop letters entitled to the one cent drop letter rate of postage are those deposited in postoffices where neither letter carrier nor rural delivery service has been established and those deposited in postoffices where rural delivery service has been established, and the persons addressed cannot be served by ural carrier, because they reside beyond the limits of the rural delivery service.
Second Class-Newspapers and publications which have been "Entered as Second Class Matter" issued at stated intervals as often as four times a year, bearing a date of issue and numbered consecutively, issued from a known office of publication, and formed of printed paper sheets, without board, cloth, leather or other substantial binding. Such publications must be originated and published for the dissemination of information of a public character, or devoted to literature, the sciences, art or some special industry. They must have a legitimate list of subscribers and must not be designed primarily for advertising purposes, or for free circulation, or at nominal rates, or have the characteristics of books. Rate of postage -For publishers and registered news agents, one cent a pound or fraction thereof. other than publishers and news agents, one cent for each four ounces or fraction thereof. Partial or incomplete copies are third class.
Third Class-Books, circulars and matter wholly in print (not included in second second class), proof sheets, corrected proof sheets and manuscript copy accompanying same rate of postage-One cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof unsealed. Seeds, scions, cuttings, roots and plants, and also correspondence of the blind printed in raised characters, and sent unsealed, are mailable at third class rates. The insertion of the date, name of the addressee and sender in writing does not impair the rights of a circular to the third class.
Fourth Class-Merchandise, and all matter not embraced in the other three classes, and which is not in its form or nature liable to destroy, deface or otherwise damage the contents of the mall bag, or harm the person of any one engaged in the postal service, and not above the weight provided by law. Rate of postage-one cent per ounce or fraction thereof unsealed.
Payment of Postage.-On first class matter the postage should be fully prepaid, but if two cents in stamps be affixed the matter will be dispatched with the deficient postage rated thereon, to be collected of addressee before delivery. Letters and packages of first class matter weighing less than four (4) pounds when prepaid one full letter rate will be dispatched and the deficiency collected of the addressee. Limit of Weight.-A package must not exceed four pounds in weight, unless it be a single book or second class matter.
Registry System.-All mailable matter may be registered if fully prepaid with ordinary postage stamps, and bearing the name and address of the sender, but not matter addressed to fictitious names, other than legitimate trade names, initials or box numbers, or bearing vague and indefinite addresses. The registry fee is ten cents, in addition to the postage, both of which must invariably be prepaid.
Money Order System.-Fees for money orders are as follows: 3 cents to 30 cents for orders on Domestic form payable in the United States and Island possessions (Porto Rico, Hawaii, Guam and the Philippine Islands), the United States Postal Agency at Shanghai, in Canada, Mexico, Cuba and Newfoundland, and in Antigua, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, British Guiana, British Honduras, Canal Zone, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, and Virgin Islands (West Indies); 8 cents to 50 cents for International orders payable in Apia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Chili, Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Japan, Liberia, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Orange River Colony, Peru, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Transvaal; 10 cents to $1 for International orders payable in Cape Colony, France, Great Britain, Greece, Honduras (Republic), Italy, New South Wales. Queensland. Russia, Salvador, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria. The maximum amount of a single order is $100.
Postal Conventions.-Postal conventions are now in operation for the exchange of money orders between the United States and the following countries: Great Britain, Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Newfoundland, Jamaica, New South Wales, Victoria, New Zealand, Queensland, Cape Colony, Windward Islands (Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent and St. Lucia), Leeward Islands, Antigua, St. Christopher-Nevis, Dominica, Montserrat and the Virgin Islands), Belgium, Portugal (Including the Azores and Madeira), Tasmania, Sweden, Norway, Japan, Denmark, Netherlands, Bahama Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Austria-Hungary, British Guiana, Luxemburg. Bermuda, South Australia, Salvador, Chili, Honduras, Egypt, Hong Kong, British Honduras, Cuba, Russia, Mexico, Bolivia, Apla (Samoa), Costa Rica, Greece, Liberia, Orange River Colony, Peru and the Transvaal.
Special Delivery. The regulations governing "rapid" or special delivery" provide that any article of mailable matter bearing a 10c. special delivery stamp, in addition to the lawful postage, is entitled to immediate delivery on its arrival at any United States postoffice between the hours of 7 a. m. and 11 p. m., if the office be of the free delivery class, and between the hours of 7 a. m. and 7 p. m. and to the arrival of the last mail, provided this be not later than 9 p. m., if the office be other than a free delivery office. To entitle such a letter to immediate delivery the residence or place of business of the addressee must be within the regular letter carrier limits of a free delivery office, and within one mile of any other office. Special delivery articles are also delivered by rural carriers to bona fide patrons of their routes (those who have erected approved boxes), provided they live not exceeding
one-half mile from the route. An act of Congress, approved March 7, 1907, provided that after July 1, 1907, ordinary stamps to the value of ten cents, in addition to the required postage, could be affixed to a letter or package of mail matter for special delivery, the sender writing "special delivery" on the envelope.
Foreign Postage Rates.-The rates of postage to all foreign countries and colonies (except Canada, Cuba, Panama, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Newfoundland and Mexico) are as follows: Letters, 5c. for the first ounce and 3c. for each additional ounce; single postal 'cards and post cards bearing written communications, 2c. each; double postal cards, 4c. each; printed matter of all kinds, for each two ounces or fraction of two ounces, 1c.; commercial papers (deeds, bills, invoices, insurance policies, etc.), for the first ten ounces or less, 5c.; for each additional two ounces or fraction of two ounces, 1c.; samples of merchandise, for the first four ounces or less, 2c.; for each additional two ounces or fraction of two ounces, 1c.; registration fee, 10c.; letters (only) for Great Britain and Ireland and Newfoundland, for each ource or fraction thereof, 2c.; to Germany by sea direct, for each ounce or fraction thereof, 2c.
Ordinary letters and postcards for any foreign country (except Canada and Mexico) must be forwarded whether any postage is prepaid on them or not. All other mailable matter must be prepaid, at least partially. Matter mailed in the United States addressed to Canada, Cuba, Panama or Mexico is subject to the same postage rates and conditions as it would be if it were addressed for delivery in the United States. Full prepayment is required upon all registered articles; and postage upon all articles other than letters is required to be prepaid, at least in part. If the postage is not prepaid in full, double the amount of the deficiency will be collected of the addressee when the article is delivered. The rate on "commercial papers" per 2 ounces is the same as for "printed matter," except that the lowest charge on any package, whatever its weight, is 5c. The rate on samples of merchandise per 2 ounces is also the same as for "printed matter," except that the lowest charge on any package, whatever its weight, is 2c.
Articles of every kind and nature which are admitted to the United States domestic malls are admitted, at our domestic postage rates and conditions, to the mails exchanged between the United States and the United States Postal Agency at Shanghai, China. Articles addressed for delivery at the following places in China, namely: Chefoo (Yental), Chin-Kiang, Chung-King, Hankow, Hang-Chow, Ichang, Kaiping, Kaigan, Kinglang, Nanking, New-Chwang, Ningpo, Ourga, Peking, Shanghai, Taku, Tier.stin, Wenchow, Wuchang, Wuhu and Yentai, are transmissible in the mails made up at San Francisco, Seattle and Tacoma for the United States Postal Agency at Shanghal; but for places other than Shanghai Postal Union rates and conditions apply.
Parcel Post.-The first parcel post convention between the United States and any country in Europe was signed between the United States and Germany on August 26, 1899, and went into operation October 1. It was the beginning of a postal service by means of which articles of merchandise may be exchanged by mail between the two countries, provided they are put up in packages which do not exceed 11 pounds in weight. The postage rate for parcels going from the United States to Germany was fixed at 12c. for each pound or fraction of a pound. Articles of merchandise may be sent in unsealed packages, by parcel post, at 12c. a pound, to Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Mexico (limit of weight to same places 4 pounds 6 ounces), the Colony of the Leeward Islands, the Republic of Colombia, Salvador, Costa Rica, the Danish West India Islands (Saint Thomas, Saint Croix, and Saint John), British Guiana, Dutch Guiana, the Colony of the Windward Islands, Newfoundland, the Republic of Honduras, Trinidad (Including Tobago), Chill, Germany, Guatamala, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Venezuela, Bolivia, Hong Kong, Japan, Norway, Belgium, Great Britain and Ireland, Australia, Sweden, Peru, Denmark, Bermuda, Ecqua dor, the Netherlands, Uruguay, Italy, France (limit of weight 4 pounds 6 ounces), Austria and Hungary.
Postage Rates Between the United States and the Possessions of the United States. All mail matter from the United States for the Island of Guam, the Philippine Archipelago, the Canal Zone, Tutuila (including all adjacent islands of the Samoan group which are possessions of the United States), or from one to another of these islands, is subject to the United States domestic classification, conditions and rates of postage.
PENSION LAWS AND STATISTICS.
Persons Entitled to Pensions,
The act of March 18, 1818, thirty-five years after the termination of the Revolutionary War, was the first general act passed granting a pension for service only. Its beneficiaries were required to be in indigent circumRevolutionary stances and in need of assistance. About 1820 Congress became alarmed at the large number of applicants for pensions under this act (there were about 8,000) and on May 1, 1820, passed what has been known as the "alarm act," which required all pensioners then on the ro!] to furnish a schedule of the amount of property then in their possession. Many of the pensioners whose schedules showed they possessed too much property were dropped from the rolls. Pensioners were dropped who owned as small an amount as $150 worth of property. On May 15, 1828, or forty-five years after the war, service pension was granted to those who served to the end of the War of the Revolution. On June 7, 1832, or forty-nine years after the close of the war, a general law was enacted pensioning survivors who served not less than six months in said war.
On July 4, 1836, being fifty-three years after the termination of the war, an aut