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Madame Montessori's "Pedagogical Anthropology," in which her educational theories are set forth more in detail than in her previous work, appeared in English for the first time during the year. Current movements in secondary education are represented by Prof. Monroe's Principles of Secondary Education ("written by a number of specialists"), and Prof. Johnston's symposium on High-School Education. Terman's "Health of the School Child" represents a useful addition to the list of books on school hygiene. Notable among the publications of the year in this field are the proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of School Hygiene. The theory and practice of the kindergarten are stated from several points of view in the report of the Committee of Nineteen of the International Kindergarten Union, published under the title of "The Kindergarten."


Reports covering the year 1913-14 show that education in the Territories and insular possessions of the United States is making notable progress, the development on the industrial side offering, in the case of Porto Rico and the Philippines particularly, valuable lessons for the various States.

The schools for natives maintained by the United States Government in Alaska comprise 70 schools, with an enrollment of 3,666 pupils. There were 43 schools for whites in Alaska under Territorial control.

The Territory of Hawaii reported 33,288 pupils of all nationalities in the schools in 1913-14, an increase of 350 over 1913. Privateschool enrollment decreased by 1,009, while public-school enrollment increased 1,359. The public-school system in the Territory included 168 schools; 713 teachers, of whom 200 are Americans; and 26,090 pupils, with an average attendance of 25,019. Hawaii's expenditures for education in 1914 were $742,310, an increase of $65,000 over 1913, and double the expenditure for 1901.

Enrollment in the schools of the Philippine Islands was 252,959 for September, 1914, an increase of about 100,000 over the year before. The increased enrollment was made possible by better provision for buildings; between March, 1913, and September, 1914, the number of schoolhouses increased from 2,934 to 4,304. The special development of industrial instruction fitted to local needs has proceeded vigorously since the systematizing of the work in 1910, when a plan was adopted designed "to increase industrial efficiency and create an educated class in sympathetic touch with labor and the development of the community."


The international character of education has recently been emphasized by the severance of bonds of science and scholarship that had existed so long as to seem virtually indestructible. The outbreak of war in Europe found the nations in the midst of an era of constructive achievement in education. Measures pending during 1913-14 have for the most part been deferred; this very fact, however, makes it possible to evaluate to some extent what is now a completed chapter in educational progress. It is significant that the lines of achievement are much the same in the leading civilized nations; these are mainly the spread of elementary educational advantages to all classes of the population; provision for vocational training by public agencies; and conservation of the health of school children.

The report of the Canadian Royal Commission on Industrial Training and Technical Education, appointed in 1910, was completed during the year; it is an admirable addition to the world-wide surveys of industry and education that are characteristic of our time. Its recommendations called for an annual appropriation by the Government of $3,000,000 a year for a period of 10 years. This represents a considerable sum for a country whose educational system comprises an enrollment of 1,333,971 pupils and a teaching force of 40,496.

The States of Central and South America are actively engaged in extending the advantages of primary education to all their inhabitants; they have long enjoyed the advantages of secondary and higher education and technical training.

In England the school enrollment for 1914 was 5,618,030, practically the same as last year. England and Scotland have both made notable progress recently in the development of welfare activities— medical inspection, open-air schools, and school clinics.

In France recent efferts for development have been marked in the field of continuation schooling. In Sweden a thorough investigation of elementary instruction has resulted in reorganization at a number of points; and Denmark has continued the rural education development which has been such a striking lesson to the rest of the world.

For completeness of the school provision Germany remains conspicuous. The elementary and middle schools, corresponding roughly to the elementary and secondary schools of the United States, enrolled about 11,000,000 pupils, or a little over 16 per cent of the population. There were 26,621 continuation schools in the German Empire in 1912, with an attendance of 1,342,825 pupils.

Education in Austria-Hungary is complicated by an intricate political and racial situation. Illiteracy is high in parts of the dual kingdom, and recent efforts have had to do with reducing it. For

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the last year reported, however, the school enrollment was nearly 16 per cent of the total population and 92 per cent of the population between 6 and 14 years of age.

In Spain Government support has of late gradually been secured for reforms in the organization and control of primary schools. An important part of the new policies of the nation is larger control of primary education by the State.

Italy is similarly struggling with the primary education problem. The national appropriation for education in 1912-13 was double that for 1911. There was a direct effort to eliminate illiteracy by transferring the control of primary schools to the provincial authorities in certain cases.

Russia presents a stupendous educational problem. With her hundred and seventy millions of people, scattered unevenly over twỏ continents; with a population composite of many races, the Slav forming but one-half; and with religious conditions that have made for diversity in educational ideals, the establishment of a system of public education in Russia presents difficulties surpassing those of any other great nation. The six million pupils reported in school comprise but 3 per cent of the total population, as compared with 14 to 18 per cent in most civilized nations. The Government's appropriation for 1912, the last year reported, was $68,000,000, which was an increase of $12,000,000 over the previous year.

In the far East Japan is conspicuous for her development of a modern system of education. There were 7,809,140 pupils in schools of all kinds for 1912 (the last year reported), as compared with 6,627,110 in 1908-9. The expenditures for education totaled $45,000,000. For China it may be said that in behalf of its 300,000,000 people the present Republic is carrying out the educational system as reorganized in 1905, laying main stress on elementary schools and training for teachers.

Another 225,000,000 of people are affected by the attempt to establish a system of modern education in India. Large grants have recently been made from imperial revenues to assist the several Provinces in developing their systems of education.

Australia and New Zealand have been making careful investigations preliminary to changes and improvements in their educational system. New South Wales is experimenting with a type of evening vocational schools having a two years' course. Every State in Australia has provided for medical inspection and supervision of children attending public schools. With an enrollment in public. schools during 1913 equivalent to 16.3 per cent of her population, and an average attendance of 89.2 per cent, New Zealand continues to maintain the high standards and progressive spirit that have long characterized the educational work of that colony.





Professor of Educational Administration, Teachers College, Columbia University.

CONTENTS.-Extension of the scope of public instruction-Adaptation of schools to the varying capacities and needs of the school population-Centralization of control, or the development of the larger unit of administration-The scientific attack upon administrative problems-Development of the professional administrative officer or of the profession of school administration.

It is possible to discuss recent progress in educational administration either by describing individual examples of changes in city, county, and State administration, or by discussing critically what appear to be large movements or issues. The second method is followed in the present chapter. Whatever may be lost by omission of detailed description of experiments will be more than offset by bringing into bold relief problems that are of general significance and principles that may be expected to find their application in a great variety of practices. Recent progress in educational administration, as well as the more significant problems for future thought and experimentation, may be considered under the following heads: (1) The extension of the scope of public education; (2) the adaptation of schools to the varying capacities and needs of the school population; (3) the centralization of control, or the development of the larger unit of administration; (4) the scientific attack upon administrative problems; and (5) the development of the professional administrative officer or of the profession of school administration.


A generation ago free education in most communities consisted of an elementary school course in which children were taught the three R's, together with a modicum of history and geography. Public high schools had, of course, begun to develop, but attendance in these schools was small, and the majority of communities made no such provision for public education. More recently the public high school has come to be recognized as a necessary part of the system of public education. The rapid increase in the number of high schools, and in the number of pupils who attend them, leads one to conclude that it will be only a very short time before high-school facilities are offered

to all of the children of our country. It is in the light of this phenomenal growth of secondary schools in the United States that one is led to ask whether those other and newer types of educational activity, more recently introduced and as yet not widespread, may be expected to be universally accepted and incorporated in our public-school systems. Are we, in other words, ready to provide in our system of free public schools an opportunity for education to all boys and girls and to all men and women who are willing to avail themselves of such provision?

There is evidence in the experiments now under way throughout the United States that the school population is eventually to be measured only by the whole population. At least one may feel justified in suggesting that the extension of the scope of public education to include at the one end of the system kindergartens, and possibly even day nurseries-while at the other extreme are provided senior high schools or junior colleges, summer schools, continuation schools for boys and girls who must go to work, night schools for youth and adults, vocational schools and social centers-points in the direction of a school system that will offer education to everyone who is willing to accept it. A discussion of the advantages to individual children or adults that accrue from this enlargement of the scope of public education may possibly be considered to better advantage in the discussion of the adaptation of schools to the varying capacities and needs of the school population.

The scope of public education has been enlarged not simply in terms of a greater variety of opportunity afforded by schools organized for different groups in the population, but also by reason of the fact that education has come to be thought of as having to do with the physical welfare, with the moral and social training, and with preparation for vocation, as well as with intellectual growth or develments. Responsibilities once centered in the home, the church, or the community activity outside of schools, are now turned over to and accepted by the school. It has been but a step from the inauguration of medical inspection to provision for medical and dental treatment in connection with public education. The older type of school building and equipment was frequently charged with a responsibility for many of the ills developing in childhood. Our modern school plants seek to provide opportunities for play and for correct physical exercises through the gymnasium and through supervised play on the school grounds. The feeding of school children who are hungry, provision for proper clothing, and even pensions for families who are compelled to send their children to school rather than enjoy an income from their labor, are coming to be accepted as corollaries of compulsory education and of our belief in the necessity for physical education.

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