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i., 208.* He also mentions (without acknowledging that the information appears in Scolari's note) that the portrait of Dante is put among Illustrium Jurisconsultorum Imagines.t Biagi in his continuation of Colomb de Batines, under the head of Dante Giureconsulto, alludes to a controversy which appears to have arisen on the subject, beginning with a work by Niccolini.Ş Other works are those of Ortolan, already mentioned, and G. de Marinis de Raffaele. ST Marinis's views are largely affected by the influence of Beccaria and his school; and in what has been said on the question of punishment the writer is much indebted to him. But his instances are often anything but convincing, and he suffers from the not unusual failing of attributing to Dante views of which he was probably entirely innocent. Shortly put, his theory is that according to Dante punishment to be justified must fulfil certain conditions. It must be (1) analogous and proportioned, (2) confined to the offender, (3) reformative, (4) deterrent, (5) equal, (6) reparable, (7) prompt, (8) legal, (9) inflicted by proper authority. These are no doubt excellent conditions, but to attribute them all to a Florentine writing in the fourteenth century is perhaps rather a strong measure.
+ Rome, 1566.
| Dante Alighieri Autore d'una Teorica della Pena Superiore ai Tempi che apparve (Bari, 1884).
IV.-THE LATE SIR TRAVERS TWISS.
oldest contributors to this Magazine, Sir Travers Twiss, D.C.L., Q.C., who died at Fulham on the 14th of last month, aged 87 years. He was the eldest son of the Rev. Robert Twiss, of Trevallyn, Denbighshire, and was born at Westminster on March 19th, 1809. He went to University College, Oxford, in 1826, and two years later appeared in the first class in Mathematics, and the second class in Classics, being subsequently elected Fellow, and also appointed tutor of University College, where he continued to reside for many years. In 1835 he was Public Examiner in Classics, and in 1838 in Mathematics, both of which examinerships he held for three years. In 1838 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society; in 1842 Drummond Professor of Political Economy; and in 1847 wrote his “ View of the Progress of Political Economy in Europe since the 16th Century.” In 1846 he began to write on International Law, publishing an Essay on the Oregon question. In 1848 he wrote a Treatise on the Relation of the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein to the Crown of Denmark and the German Federation ; in 1850 “ Letters Apostolic of Pius IX. considered with reference to the Law of England and the Law of Europe.” In 1837 he had published an Epitome of the works of Niebuhr, following it up with an Edition of Livy. In 1852 he was appointed Professor of International Law at King's College, London, which he held for three years, when he accepted the Regius Professorship of Civil Law at Oxford, which he held for fifteen years. He was called to the
Bar at Lincoln's Inn 28th January, 1840, and became an advocate of Doctors'
Commons in the same year, becoming Commissary-General of the City and Diocese of Canterbury in 1849, Vicar General of the Archbishop in 1852, Chancellor of the Diocese of London in 1858, and Advocate-General of the Admiralty in 1862, receiving the honorary fellowship of University College, Oxford, in 1864. On the passing of “An Act to Amend the Law Relating to Divorce and Matrimonial Causes in England” (20 & 21 Vict., c. 108) in 1858, which struck a heavy blow at the ancient jurisdiction of Doctors' Commons, Twiss became a Queen's Counsel, and ten years later was promoted to the high office of Queen's Advocate General, receiving a few months after the rank of knighthood. He was created a Bencher of his Inn in 1858.
He served on many Royal Commissions and public enquiries, viz. :-In 1852 on the Commission of Enquiry into Maynooth; in 1867 on the Enquiry into the Laws of Neutrality; in 1868 on the Naturalization and Allegiance enquiry; in 1869 on the Law of Marriage, and on the Rubrics; and also he was one of the Commissioners to settle the boundary line between the provinces of New Brunswick and Canada. In 1884 he drew up the Constitution for the Free State of the Congo, and in the following year acted as legal adviser to the British Embassy during the West African Conference at Berlin,
On the 21st of March, 1872, in consequence of domestic trouble, he resigned all his public appointments, and devoted himself exclusively to literary work. He had written, in 1861, “The Law of Nations considered as Independent Political Communities” and “The Law of Nations in Time of Peace and War.” He brought out new Editions of these in 1875 and 1884, translating the work into French with the assistance of M. Alphonse Rivier of the University of Brussels. He wrote a valuable edition of “ The Black Book of the Admiralty,” under the direction of the Master of the Rolls in 1874, and contributed articles to the Nautical Magazine, the Revue de Droit International, as well as frequently to this Magazine, in which the last of his articles, viz., "An International Arbitration in the Middle Ages," was published in our November number of last year. He was Vice-President and one of the founders of the Institút de Droit International in 1872, and also one of the promoters of a kindred society, the Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations.
He was buried at Fulham Cemetery, Middlesex, on January 20th, in the presence of many devoted friends who mourned his loss, among whom were Mrs. Richard Marsden, his niece ; Dr. Tristram, Q.C., Chancellor of the Diocese of London, and Judge of the Consistory Court; Professor Holland, D.C.L., of the University of Oxford, member of the Institut de Droit International; Mr. Alfred Burton, M.R.C.S. (Eng.); Dr. Stubbs, of the Middle Temple ; and Sir Sherston Baker, Bart. Her Majesty the Queen communicated her regret, and the King of the Belgians his sympathy, to the relatives of the deceased,
Sed omnes una nianet nox,
V.-CURRENT NOTES ON INTERNATIONAL
Foreign Judgments "in rem." A very curious question arose in the recent case of Minna Craig Steamship Co. v. Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London and China, 1897 (I Q.B.), 55. The plaintiffs, an English Company, owned a ship, the Minna Craig, which sailed from India to a German port. Her master was induced by fraud to sign Bills of Lading for goods which were never in fact put on board. The bills were indorsed for value without notice of the fraud to the Defendant Company, whose registered place of business was in England.
During the ship's voyage a winding-up petition was presented against the Plaintiff Company. On arrival at Hamburg, the defendants, who had in the meantime discovered the fraud, arrested the ship and took proceedings to enforce against her a lien, to which, by German law, non-delivery of the goods entitles the holder of a Bill of Lading. The German Court declared in favour of the lien, and ordered it to be satisfied by sale of the ship. The plaintiffs brought an action in England against the defendants to recover from them the fruits of their foreign judgment, as money had and received to the plaintiffs' use, alleging it to be devisible among the general body of creditors. The Court (Henn Collins, J.) held that the plaintiffs could not recover.
It will be observed that there were really two conflicting principles applicable to the case. Firstly : the rule, not altogether free from doubt, that the “ winding-up of a
company impresses the whole of its property with a trust “ for application in the course of the winding-up for the