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Horticulture.-Instruction is given in this subject by means of lectures during the winter and demonstrations in private and market gardens during the summer. Daily demonstrations are also given in the county garden. Courses of 12 lectures each were given at ten centres to an average attendance of 20. One demonstration was given at each of 22 centres to an average attendance of 15. Great interest is taken in this subject by the students, especially those drawn from the ranks of agriculture both farmer and labourer, and once having acquired the more modernised systems of culture, they delight in putting them to the test. Instances of this can be seen on every hand throughout the county.
School or other Gardens.-There were gardens attached to 24 Elementary Day schools in this county all of which were worked on the individual plot system. The total number of pupils who received instruction was 364. The instruction is given by the head teacher with three exceptions where outside instructors are employed. The lads are on the whole interested in the work. Hints for the guidance of head teachers and scholars are written by the county instructor in horticulture and published monthly in the County Schools Monthly Journal for general reading. In addition, the gardens are inspected and advice given periodically by the county instructor.
Fruit-growing Stations.-There is one in this county, 1 acres in extent, which is much used and frequently visited. It is planted with a considerable variety of the chief kinds of fruit grown in this country, vegetables also being grown in between some of the rows of the larger kinds of fruit. It is open daily for inspection, and students who attend the various courses of lectures in the county on horticultural subjects may at any time come to the place, see the methods adopted, and obtain advice on any matter connected with fruit or vegetable culture.
Training of Elementary School Teachers.
Agriculture. This work is conducted through the College, Lectures on agricultural subjects were given at eight centres to various farmers' clubs and associations. From one to three lectures were given at each centre to an average attendance of 22.
Field Experiments.-Experiments on the manurial requirements of hops were carried out through the College at two centres, and on the cultivation of hops at one other centre.
Experimental Farm.-The experimental work conducted on the farm attached to Wye College is for the benefit of this county together with Surrey.
Poultry Keeping.-Courses of four lectures were given at 25 centres to an average attendance of 19. A useful feature in connection with this work is that numbers of poultry-keepers place their yards under the inspection of the county teacher, who visits them and gives advice during summer time, and, as occasion offers, during winter time when lecture work is in progress. There are now some 500 individuals in the county whose poultry yards are thus visited, and it is calculated that, whereas when this work commenced the head of poultry owned by those who were visited numbered some 17,000, it now numbers at least 60,000.
Bee Keeping.-Courses of five lectures and demonstrations were given at nine centres in the winter to an average attendance of 16. In the summer apiaries were set up at these centres, and were periodically visited.
Farm Hygiene.-This work is conducted through Wye College. Courses of three lectures were given at each of nine centres and a single lecture was given at one other centre to an average attendance of 19.
Farriery. This work is conducted through the College. The itinerant instructor visited four centres and remained in each district about 16 weeks. Instruction in practical work was given for two hours on three evenings a week. The total number of pupils was 52. Of those 37 took the full course, while the remainder attended for periods involving two to six lessons each. Certificates were awarded to 41 pupils.
Manual Processes.-No instruction is given by the county in this class of subject except in basket work.
Horticulture. The county instructor in this subject' is assisted in his work by three assistant instructors employed partially only. Courses of four lectures were given at 25 centres to an average
attendance of 26. Inspections were held at 21 centres in private gardens and allotments. A special feature of this work, as stated in a previous report, is the system of prize-giving adopted for the best gardens and allotments at centres where lectures have been held, and the foundation of village gardening societies.
In addition to the above, lectures on the practice and science of horticulture were given through Wye College. Courses of four lectures were given at two centres, of three lectures at seven centres, and of two lectures at one centre, while a single lecture was given at three other centres. At five of these centres the lectures were given to Gardeners' Societies. The average attendance was 26.
of the head of the county staff. Particulars of the work carried out at the Institute last year will be found on page 67. The County Council not only defrays, except for the Board's grant, practically the whole of the cost of instruction at this Institute, but acts in a very generous manner to students within the county area by paying their travelling expenses to and fro, or making them an allowance towards cost of living in Preston.
Agriculture. Instruction is given in this subject at the Harris Institute, where a complete course is held during the winter from September to April. Lectures are also given throughout the county. From one to three lectures were given at each of 38 centres-61 lectures in all-to an average attendance of 32. The agricultural staff also visits farms, on application, to advise on cropping, manuring, insect pests, diseases of plants, &c. Advice is also given to farmers by correspondence.
Field Experiments.-Experiments, chiefly manurial in character, were carried out on grass, turnips, mangolds, potatoes, carrots and oats. With potatoes, experiments on varieties, kind of "seed," whole or cut sets, spraying, &c., were conducted, while with certain legumes various bacterial cultures were tested. The work was conducted on 16 farms, including the County Council farm, from one to four sets of experiments being conducted on each farm. The results of these experiments were dealt with in 30 out of the 61 lectures enumerated under the previous heading.
Experimental Farm.-A certain area of the farm attached to the dairy school at Hutton (see below) is devoted to experimental work. The experiments during the year were manurial ones on grass, potatoes and mangolds.
Dairying. A fixed dairy school is maintained at the County Council farm at Hutton. A good herd of dairy shorthorns is kept on the farm. Five junior courses lasting eight weeks each, and one advanced course lasting 12 weeks, are held each year, and in addition one course is held for students taking the examination for the National Diploma in Dairying. During the year 24 men and 72 women attended the school, and of these six were noncounty students. Five of the diploma students were awarded the National Diploma in Dairying. An itinerant school is also maintained by the county. The instructress in butter-making also tests milk for local farmers for the purpose of ascertaining the butterfat contained, and gives advice on the management of dairies. Twenty classes, each lasting a fortnight, were given at eight centres. The total attendance was 133, all of whom took the full course. The teacher of cheese-making visits the farmers and gives instruction in the making of Lancashire cheese and in the management of cheese dairies. He spends from one to four days at each farm, and pays frequent visits to see how the work is progressing. Fifty-two visits (one to four days each) were paid during the year, and 536 casual visits were made.
Poultry Keeping.-There is a poultry school at the County Council farm where systematic courses of instruction, lasting eight weeks each, are given to the dairy students, and also to