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110 AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION PROVIDED BY COUNTY
and sheep; manurial experiments on pastures; laying down land to permanent pasture; experiments on the destruction of moss, &c. The above were conducted by the County Agricultural Committee, members of which have from time to time at farmers' clubs, &c., explained the results obtained. There is a great demand for the annual reports on all these experiments, and 5,000 copies printed last year proved insufficient to meet this demand so that a second edition of 3,500 copies had to be printed.
Experimental Farm.-Most of the above experiments are carried out on an experimental station rented for the purpose. About 100 acres are under experiment. The station is managed by the Chairman of the County Agricultural Committee.
Dairying.--An itinerant school is maintained by the county. During the year seven centres were visited, and from 14 to 21 days' instruction was given at each. The total attendance was 105, of whom 62 took the full course.
Poultry Keeping.-There is a poultry station also at the abovementioned experimental station. A large number of feeding and laying experiments of a very instructive and practical character are conducted there, and there is a large demand for the reports on this work.
Farriery. An itinerant teacher was employed for a short time. He visited three centres and gave two demonstrations at each. The average attendance of shoeing smiths was five.
School or other Gardens.-Gardens were attached to four Elementary Day schools in this county. These were all worked on the individual plot system and instruction was given to a total of 60 pupils.
Training of Elementary School Teachers.-Some of those attending the local agricultural lectures are school teachers.
Organisation. The agricultural educational work of the two counties of Cumberland and Westmorland is now carried on under a joint committee which reports periodically to the Education Committee of each county, and the work is conducted partially through the staff employed at the Farm School, Newton Rigg, and partially through the Armstrong College, Newcastleupon-Tyne.
School or College. The agricultural department of the Armstrong College receives an annual grant from the County Council. The farm school, referred to above, is maintained conjointly by the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland.
Agriculture. In addition to the work in progress at the farm school, lectures are given in the rural districts by the Principal of the above school. One lecture was given at 23 centres, two lectures at another centre. The average attendance was 25. These lectures can only be given in the spring and autumn, which are not good seasons for attendance at lectures, as during the winter months, when the male students are in residence at the farm school, the services of the Principal cannot be spared for outside lecturing purposes.
Field Experiments.-These were carried out under the supervision of the Armstrong College on ten farms on the manuring of meadow hay, the improvement of moss-grown pasture, and on a rotation. With the exception of the pasture experiment the others have been in operation for 12 years. The number of lectures enumerated under the previous heading, which were specially explanatory of the results of these experiments, was four.
Experimental Farm.-The farm at Newton Rigg comprises 66 acres of pasture land and 47 acres of arable. So far as is practicable with the working of this farm on ordinary lines, experiments are carried out with crops, and with live stock both in feeding and breeding, and the results are published in the local papers and are also issued together in the annual report of the Institution.
Dairying. In conjunction with Westmorland, this county assists in maintaining a fixed dairy school at Newton Rigg. Three courses of eight weeks each were held during the summer, and 11 pupils attended from this county. The ten lads who attended the winter session of 16 weeks took butter-making once a week as part of their work.
A travelling school is also maintained conjointly by these two counties. Instruction is given in the making of butter and soft cheese. The school visited eight centres for ten days each, and gave instruction to 141 pupils, all of whom took the full course. The attendance of the pupils was excellent, and although three of the classes were small the remainder were so well filled that the average was slightly better than usual.
Poultry Keeping.-The dairy pupils who attend Newton Rigg have regular instruction in poultry management and in the preparation of poultry for the table. In addition, lantern lectures and demonstrations are given in the various villages in the county. One lecture was given at 18 centres and two lectures at one other centre to an average attendance of 41. The attendance at all lectures was very good considering the scattered population and the effect of bad weather. At most of the centres much interest was taken in the lectures.
Bee Keeping.-Lectures and demonstrations are given by qualified experts of the Cumberland Bee Keepers' Association, to which the County Education Committee make an annual grant. Three lectures and demonstrations were given at one centre and one at 17 other centres. In most cases the lectures were well attended and considerable interest shewn. Frequent visits were paid by the experts to individual bee keepers; their hives were examined, diseased stocks dealt with, and general assistance given.
Horticulture. This work is carried out through the Armstrong College. Lectures and demonstrations were given at 85 centres to an average attendance of 23. In most cases a single lecture was given at each centre, but in some cases as many as four lectures were given, and where such courses were given the
attendance was better.
School and other Gardens.-Three gardens were attached to Day schools, all of which were worked on the individual plot system, and instruction was given to 45 pupils. There was also one Evening school garden at which eight pupils received instruction.
Fruit-growing Stations.-There are three fruit-growing stations, with an average acreage of about one-third of an acre. They are all doing well.
Training of Elementary School Teachers.-Saturday classes were held at six centres, and instruction given in such subjects as botany, geology, experimental science, &c., to an average attendance of about 46. Two summer vacation courses were held, each
for a fortnight during July and August, in nature study. The average attendance was 58.
The above classes were restricted to head and assistant teachers, whom they were intended to assist in carrying out courses of instruction in nature study, &c., as part of the school curriculum. Preference was given to teachers from rural schools. In the summer vacation classes country rambles, under the guidance of the Director of the course, were a special feature, in order that students might make a practical acquaintance with natural objects.
Field Experiments.-These were carried out through the College at ten centres. Manurial and variety experiments were conducted on swedes and mangolds, and manurial experiments on potatoes and seeds hay. All the lectures enumerated under the previous heading were explanatory of the results of these experiments.
Experimental Farm.-The experimental work carried out on the farm attached to the College is for the benefit of this county together with other counties in the Midlands which support it.
Dairying. The number of pupils from this county who attended the dairy courses at the College during the year was nine. There is also an itinerant school from the College which is used from time to time. The school visited four centres each for ten days, and gave instruction in butter-making and soft-cheese making. The total attendance was 51.
Bee Keeping. This work is carried out through the Derbyshire Bee-keepers' Association, which receives a grant from the County Council. A lecture was given at five centres, to an average attendance of 78. The Association also arranges for experts to visit hives for the purpose of giving advice, &c.
Farm Hygiene.-Courses of eight lectures were given by the above lecturers at six centres, to an average attendance of 26. This instruction is much sought after in the rural districts.
Horticulture.-Lectures and demonstrations are given in this subject through the College. Courses of four lectures each were given at 22 centres, to an average attendance of 25. In addition, 286 allotments were inspected and prizes and certificates awarded.
School or other Gardens.-There were gardens attached to 21 Elementary Day schools in this county, all of which were worked on the collective plot system, and instruction was given to 385 pupils. There was also one Evening school garden at which 12 pupils received instruction.
Fruit-growing Stations.-There were seven fruit-growing stations with an average acreage of about one-half an acre each. Several demonstrations were from time to time given on them.
Training of Elementary School Teachers.-Saturday classes were held at one centre at which 33 teachers attended. Three Summer vacation courses, each lasting a fortnight, were held at the College. Instruction was given in botany, plant economy, school garden work, &c. The classes were attended by 12 teachers (eight men and four women) from this county. Those teachers attending the Saturday classes were assisted by means of exhibitions covering the cost of their railway fares, not exceeding £2 each. Those attending the Summer vacation courses at Kingston receive exhibitions covering half the cost of their board and lodgings.