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Photograph from Wellman-Seaver Morgan Company


In the handling of coal one of the principal difficulties is the lack of storage facilities. Neither at the mines nor at the terminals is there provision for reserves. The mines cannot produce any more coal in any given day than the railroads can provide cars for its removal. Nor can the railroads haul more coal in a given day than the ultimate consumer can use. The result is that there is no real reservoir at either end, and the industry always has a hand-to-mouth existence. If storage facilities for coal, such as are used in the iron-ore trade, could be utilized the industry could better adjust itself to the working of the law of supply and demand. Some of the newer coaling plants can load 2,000 tons of coal into that it costs a day to keep a 10,000-ton in commission, it will be seen how impor

of a ship in an When it tant rapid loading and unloading operations are.

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International Film Service, Inc.


A very cold and snowy winter at all times presents to the railroader a situation that a layman sitting before a warm fire or impatiently waitwinter involve difficulties and trials for train crews that would discourage the most indomitable. ing for his coal bin to be filled can little appreciate. When transportation facilities are taxed beyond their limit, conditions such as prevailed last

absorbed, and that these would thereupon assume the crystalline form.

He decided to attempt a duplication of the process. Packing a cylinder of soft iron with the carbon of sugar, he placed the whole in a crucible filled with molten iron, which was raised to a temperature of 3,000 degrees by means of an electric furnace. The soft cylinder melted and dissolved a large portion of the carbon. The crucible was thrown into water and a mass of solid iron was formed. It was allowed further to cool in the open air, but the expansion which the iron would have undergone on cooling was checked by the crucible which contained it. The result was a tremendous pressure. Opening up the crucible Moisson found his theory correct. He had duplicated Nature's process in a small way and had achieved Nature's results.


Thus we see that the difference between peat and diamonds is only a difference in degree of heat and pressure applied to carbon in geological ages gone by, and the marvelous story of coal links the beautiful ferns and the stifling car



T IS a stimulating privilege to see into the heart of a generous, sympathetic, and patriotic people. Such a privilege has been the rich experience of the Board of Managers of the National Geographic Society since an announcement, first appearing in the pages of the GEOGRAPHIC Some months ago, invited the members of the Society to contribute to a fund for the establishment of a Geographic Ward in American Military Hospital No. 1 (then the American Ambulance Hospital), at Neuilly, a suburb of Paris.

bonized atmosphere of millions of years. ago to the scintillating diamond and the dark mine of the living present.

One fain would let his enthusiasm outpacé his judgment with such an inspiring story to chronicle and write a book rather than an article, for there is so much that remains untold. The picture of the world before coal was utilized remains undrawn; the vastness of coal beds of the earth and their influence upon nations and peoples remain unappraised; the history of coal utilization remains unwritten; the need of coal conservation and the inefficiency of modern engines, which waste from 85 to 95 per cent of the energy in the coal they use, remain undiscussed; the life of the miner and the heritage he bequeathes to humanity have been barely mentioned.

These and many other phases of the thrilling story of King Coal and his beneficent reign upon the earth must be passed over. Sitting by a warm fireside, reading a favorite magazine, how little we reckon all the ramifications of the wonder tale of the seed-time and harvest and utilization of Nature's great gift of heat and energy to man!

That two wards have been established instead of one and twenty beds are now being supported instead of ten, as originally contemplated, is tremendously gratifying; but far more significant and inspiring than this fact has been the tender

spirit of solicitude and often of self-sacrifice reflected in every contribution for this noble cause.

From every quarter of America and from members in distant parts of the world the response has come. The membership, in spite of the extraordinary demands made upon them for the support of Liberty Loans, Red Cross and War Service Community drives, and the expanded needs of their local charities, have yet found the occasion and the means to subscribe generously toward this fund for the care and comfort of our wounded boys in these Geographic wards.

Even more moving has been the response of those whose contributions have been made at the expense of personal privation, and how beautiful has been the tribute of those who have given not only

money, but the fruits of their individual industry.


Whereas a "fellow-feeling makes one wondrous kind," suffering and sorrow make us supremely sympathetic, as attested by the following letter to the Editor received from Mrs. Cynthia A. Mann, secretary of the Children's Home Finding and Aid Society of Idaho, at Boise:

"I saw in the July number of the GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE that your Society had two wards in American Military Hospital No. 1, Neuilly, France, and that it cost $600 a year for a bed without any extras. I want to do all possible in my little way and encourage the unfortunate wards in my charge (I am teacher in our orphans'. home). I paid them for pulling weeds, and they saved their pennies and earned nearly $4.00. I told them we would send $10 for an ice-cream treat; and I wish to feel that I have maintained a bed for at least ten days, so please find enclosed a draft for $26.50. Please be sure of the treat, for our little ones feel that they worked very hard. Two of them blistered their hands. We weighed the weeds; one little 9-year-old pulled 25 pounds and earned 50 cents. Some under 6 years pulled a pound.

"If the boys Over There could know of the love and ardor of their affection they would enjoy the treat doubly. I have made four scrap-books, which every one pronounces very interesting, and I spent much time, thought, and labor to make them worth while for the entertainment of our dear lads while in hospital. Wit, humor, patriotism, sentiment, valor, devotion to home, country, and truth are illustrated by picture and story. Some old, old gems; others new, grown out of the times. I wish to send these to your wards. How can this be done? Would you be kind enough to write me. I wish I wish we might hear from some of the patients. It would be a great day in The Children's Home. And what a memory to have for all time, 'We sent the soldier boys a treat and they sent us word they got it and it was fine.""


At the opening of the autumn term of Flora Macdonald College, Red Springs, N. C., the president, Mr. C. G. Vardell, wrote to the Society saying that the faculty and student body had read with deep interest Carol Corey's article, "A Day in the Geographic Wards," and that they would like to support a bed in one of them. He added that the young lady students, instead of taking the amount from their allowance, proposed to earn the money by doing the work around the college which housemaids had been doing, and thus show the real spirit of their purpose. In reply to a letter heartily approving the plan, Mr. Vardell wrote, on September 25:

"Your very kind letter of the 21st has been received. I read it to my student body last night and they received it with tumultuous applause. They are gladly doing this service, and I call it real war


"How shall we remit the money to you? Once a month, if you say so. If possible, the students would like a small, inscribed placard at the head of the bed. Will they be allowed to make scrapbooks and provide small things especially for that bed? They want it to be just the best bed that ever was spread in any hospital and are prepared to do all they can to make it qualify as such."

The remittance has been coming to the Society regularly on the first of each month, and over one of the beds in the Geographic wards there is framed today a neatly printed legend, reading:



Pathos, industry, devotion to our country's cause and to our soldiers' needs are reflected in the many letters which have accompanied contributions of afghans, pillows, pajamas, bathrobes, slippers, comfort bags, and many other useful articles for the equipment of the wards and to convey a touch of "home" to the youths who are suffering from nostalgia as well as bodily pain in a foreign land.



A famous English poet has pointed out that we may live without poetry, music, and art, but "civilized man cannot live without cooks." Ask an American doughboy if life would have been worth living at the front without the Salvation Army cook, comforter, and general utility cheerer. That this noble servitor for the American soldier is doing her all under fire is attested by the fact that she is wearing her shrapnel sombrero, and the only jewelry which adorns her person is the "bracelet" of her identification disk.

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