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extreme femininity, to leave the matter entirely to the men.

And what a wonderful government these Frenchmen have made through their vote! Democracy is indeed the test of all national activities. The French government shows genuine respect for the average citizen; indeed, every Frenchman seems proud that he is simply an average citizen. Hence the whole tendency of the government is to work consciously against legalization of social inequalities.

Any man with ability and ambition can rise to any position. The bourgeoisie or middle class—that is, the traders, professional men, military officers, peasant-proprietors, etc.-is so large that all other classes are negligible, and necessarily there is extremely wide social equality.

Again, French democracy, since it is popular, is admirably authoritative. The people show a surprising submission to a large amount of state administration. It is not the supine submission found in Germany or the uninquiring attitude found in a large portion of England's lowest classes; it is willing, intelligent

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Thus, four million men is the tribute that war has exacted of what Mr. Holliday rightly characterizes as the most civilized country on the globe for the salvation of her own people and the safeguarding of her democratic institutions.

obedience to administrative machinery created by the people themselves.

Perhaps, as stated before, there is too much machinery; perhaps there is too much centralization of national activities under government control in one spot (Paris); but, after all, the widespread interest in active self-government, the healthful, vigorous, often passionate, public discussion, the political alertness of the people as a whole, means safety for France.

There may be too much centralization in Paris; but every Frenchman, whether he lives in a Normandy village or in the mountains that look toward Switzerland, is proud of this city that has long been the light of the world.

"The light of the world!" May not the words be applied justly to all France? What would Europe be without her? One can conceive of a Europe existing without Germany or Russia, but the glory of the continent would be extinguished if France should die. It is for her and what she has long represented in liberty that the world battled yesterday. That nation. which seeks to destroy France is foredoomed to destruction.


What if America had suffered such losses in proportion to her population? Every man between the ages of 21 and 30 who registered for military service in the United States on June 5, 1917-more than nine and a half million in number— would be a casualty today, and there would still be a million and a half men to be added from the registration lists of September 12, 1918. Mothers, fathers, wives, brothers, sisters, and sweethearts. would be mourning for five million American dead.

For every ten men, women, and children in France at the outbreak of the war one able-bodied citizen in the prime of manhood has either laid down his life or suffered bodily injury. The casualties in no other army save the Serbian even approached such sweeping percentages.

Truly, the sons of France gave themselves without stint for the cause of world democracy.

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Originally a fort, the Kremlin is now museum, mausoleum, and treasure-house of things precious in Russian life and Russian religion. In no other equal area in the world is there crowded such an array of historic cathedrals and monasteries, sacred relics, trophies of war, sacerdotal robes, gold and silver vessels, precious stones, pearls, and jewels to the value of millions of dollars, etc. The principal buildings, reading from the left, are: (1) Treasury and Museum; (2) Grand Palace; (3) Cathedral of Annunciation, where the Tsars were baptized and married; (4) Cathedral of Archangels, where all the Tsars were buried until Peter the Great; (5) Cathedral of Our Saviour behind the Golden Gate; (6) Cathedral of Assumption, where the Tsars were crowned (see pages 381 and 382); (7) The Bell Tower; (8) Monastery of Miracles (see page 384).



The Church Reorganized While Bolshevik Cannon
Spread Destruction in the Nation's
Holy of Holies


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The Cathedral itself has been badly treated. A shell struck its central dome and, bursting among the five domes of smouldering gold, viciously smote a second. The hole in the chief dome between the ghostly frescoes of the saints measures 7 feet in length and nearly 6 feet in width. In the drum of the dome is an ominous crack.

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EXTERIOR OF THE USPENSKI CATHEDRAL (SEE PAGES 379, 390, AND 393) Showing the shell hole in the central dome. In this church the Tsars were crowned.


The damage has not even yet been examined in detail by architects, and it is

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not known, therefore, whether such wanton devastation can be repaired.

The window glass is everywhere smashed or shot through. Within the Cathedral there are strewn about splinters of a 6-inch shell, which exploded there, and fragments of white stone, brick, and rubble. The gold and silver candelabra, those constellations among which all within the church seems to float through space, are bent as by storm; the Altar and the Sanctuary are strewn with broken glass, brick, and dirt; the Shrine of the

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