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pecially endear him to the "best people," did much to popularize the works of his American namesake, Henry George; and these two Georges will have a good deal to do with directing British policy for some time after the war.

But, though the British may become substantially self-supporting as to agriculture, they will, of course, remain primarily an industrial, commercial, maritime, and financial people. With all the drafts that war has made on its manpower, England has actually increased its iron and steel production.


As to ship-building and its relation to world commerce hereafter, those kindly folk who fear the loss of British sea supremacy would do well to see the Clyde, the Tyne, and the Belfast shipbuilding districts, and to learn about the new national shipyards on Bristol Channel. After nearly four years of war, in which it had borne the lion's share of shipping losses, the British merchant marine was still able, during the critical weeks of last spring and summer, to transport 60 per cent of the first American army of two million soldiers sent across the Atlantic.

The country's industrial plant has been expanded during the war beyond all popular knowledge. Moreover, the expansion has been directed by an unwavering purpose to make the new establishments easily adaptable to peace production.

The nitro-cellulose plant at Gretna Green covers an area of nine miles by five. It requires a hundred miles of plant railways. It has been built entirely since. the war began, and, as it produces noth


ing but high explosives, might be reasonably regarded as one industry whose product would hardly find a market in peace times.

Yet its management assured me there was every prospect that the demand for explosives in engineering work plus the market for celluloid specialties in endless variety would keep the establishment busy with merely some rather easy adaptations of its products.


The new Ministry of Reconstruction, the Board of Trade, foreign trading houses, bankers, consular service, have coöperated throughout the world to strengthen Britain's hold on foreign markets.

In anticipation of changed conditions. after peace returns, of increased credit requirements to restock the warehouses. and restore the public utilities of the world, a series of great banking consolidations has taken place in England in the last year. They are part of the economic mobilization for the competitive struggle after the war.

The alien property authorities of Kingdom and Empire have been quietly tracing out and untying the bonds by which intriguing German interests had established hold on many industries, markets, financial and commercial opportunities. The German salesman who goes out to offer his wares hereafter will find himself dealing with a very much reconstructed commercial world. Whatever he may have thought of British competition prior to August, 1914, he will find it the real thing along about August, 1920.



HE work which the United States has undertaken in connection with the war is so vast, and the spirit in which it is being carried out is so magnificent and so enthusiastic, that what we Canadians have accomplished must of necessity appear rather small in comparison.

You of the United States are to have the honor and glory of being to a large extent the deciding factor in bringing this terrible war to a happy conclusion, and of turning what might possibly have been a drawn battle into a glorious victory. The efforts which you are putting forth are the delight and admiration of your

Allies and the dismay of Germany and the Kaiser.

We Canadians are delighted at the manner in which you have taken up your task.

The story of Chateau Thierry has stirred all our hearts.

The help you have given far exceeds the men and munitions you have furnished, great and valuable though they are, for you put new heart and vigor and sureness of victory into the French and British troops, who had begun to be a little war-weary and stale after four years of struggle.


After four years of hostilities, it is difficult to place ourselves in thought back to the early days, when the great German military machine, which had been preparing for forty years, crashing through Belgium and northern France.


The sky was clouded and the outlook dark; the brave men of France and Britain were being overwhelmed by superior numbers; we had few guns to answer the German artillery, and ammunition was so short that many of our guns were restricted to five rounds a day-it was at that time and under those circumstances that Canada had the privilege, on account of our British connection, of getting into the fray, and we all feel a joy and pride that we were able to do something, even though but little, to help stay the Tun in those gloomy days.

At the beginning of August, 1914, we were not only unprepared for war, but had so long breathed the atmosphere of peace, that we were unable at first to realize the importance of what had happened and the magnitude of the crisis into which the world had been plunged.


As to our duty, there was no doubt. From the Atlantic to the Pacific we felt that it was both our duty and our privilege to put our whole weight into the struggle, side by side with the mother country. But what were we able to do? In what way could we help?

As for military organization, we had

practically none. We had 60,000 militia. but they had had little training and had taken their duties lightly. Bernhardi had said that in the event of a European war Britain's dominions and colonies could be completely ignored. As for financial help, we had been a borrowing country, and how could we begin to lend?

But our national spirit rose to the needs of the occasion. Our people quietly determined to do their best. The call went out for 25,000 volunteers to go overseas. and within a few months we had sent off not 25,000, but 33,000. Within two months of the outbreak of war some of our troops who had been hardened in South Africa were fighting in France. and within seven months even our green troops were on the field engaged in a lifeand-death struggle with the Huns-and holding them!

Further detachments were despatched as quickly as they could be raised and drilled, until we now have a total of over 550,000 enlistments, and will soon have 600,000, and of these about 450,000 are already in Europe. Every month is adding to the number. We have promised that we will send over not less than 500,000, and we propose to keep that promise.



Our enlistments, including those secured under the Military Service Act. already number about one in thirteen of our population. In the same proportion the figures for the United States would be around 8,000,000, which is about the number you are preparing to raise.

We began with voluntary enlistments, but, just as in the mother country, we had to come ultimately to the draft system. You have profited by our experience, and have very wisely adopted the draft system from the beginning. fully agree with you that this is the only right and fair method, and that it is besides vastly more efficient and more economical.


And how about the casualties? In the early days of the war, when we were short of artillery, and even of rifles, and were unprepared for poison gas, we suf

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The gas shell is deadly even before it is fired from a gun, and these industrious young women are required to wear gas masks while engaged in not only forsaken, but forgotten. the hazardous occupation of filling the projectiles. Overalls and caps are also part of the equipment, and for the time being feminine finery is

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so that in addition to the deaths, 30.2 per cent had been wounded or made prisoners. It is a comfort to know that between 30,000 and 40,000 of the wounded were ultimately able to return to the firing line.

The total casualties were 41.5 per cent of the number who had gone overseas. But even this does not tell the full story. Most of those who had but recently gone across had, of course, not been long exposed, and the casualties were chiefly among those who had gone over early. Among them the casualties were tremendous. Those noble fellows paid a terria terrible price, and I can assure you that among them were many who were the very cream of the Canadian nation.*


When I think of those early days, my mind goes back to April and May, 1915, to the second battle of Ypres. It was

then that the Germans made their drive for Calais and the Channel ports.

Alongside our Canadian boys were French troops from Morocco, and against them the Germans first used their devilish gas. The Moroccans broke and fled, and small wonder. Nothing remained but our Canadian boys between the Germans and Calais, and they were many times outnumbered by troops that were supported by efficient artillery.

*According to official figures issued from Ottawa on November 12, Canadian casualties, up to eleven days before the signing of the armistice, totaled 34,877 killed in action; 15,457 dead of wounds or disease; 152,779 wounded, and 8,245 presumed dead, missing in action, and prisoners of war-a total of 211,358.

Our lads spread out to cover the extra ground, but were driven back. Some of the Canadian guns were captured, and our Montreal Highlanders and others were determined that no Canadian guns should fall into the enemy's hands, and charged through a wood and retook them. The Germans thought that we must have heavy reserves or we would never attack in such a way, and instead of pushing through they entrenched themselves as did our boys also, and time was gained.

In the next few days reserves were brought up and Calais was saved. It is said that a German major was taken prisoner, and as he was being led back to the rear and saw nothing where he expected to find masses of troops, he was distracted, and again and again cried, "Let me go for half an hour and Calais will be ours." But Calais was saved, and the course of the war has been different because of what our Canadian boys did. that day.

Many of those who took part in that terrible struggle I knew personally. Before my eyes there rises the picture of Major Norsworthy. In his early thirties, handsome and vigorous, he had brains, sound judgment, self-reliance, and energy such as few possess, and had he lived he would certainly have been one of the most prominent financial men of Canada.

And Captain Guy Drummond, aged about 28, son of Sir George Drummond, inheritor of wealth and honored name, tall, refined, the very finest type of the high-principled gentleman. When last seen he was using his knowledge of French, trying to rally the flying Moroccans. But they, poor fellows, were past being rallied, as they fled, gasping for air, their faces blue, and with death already fastened upon them, for of those who fully inhaled that devilish poison few would survive a year of agony, and the rest would be invalids for the remainder of their lives.

But perhaps the story as told by a fine young fellow, a private, Billy Maclagan, who has often been in my own house, may bring the details home to us more closely. Billy went over with the first contingent, and is one of the few, the very, very few, who have gone through

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