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Photograph by Nevin O. Winter


The Holy City of the Ukraine is visited annually by hundreds of thousands of pilgrims, It is the Jerusalem of the Little Russians. The catacombs, where repose the bodies of saintly recluses, are among Kiev's most sacred places, and here the pious ones kiss the shriveled hands laid out as hallowed relics by the monks. Contagion frequently spreads as a result of this practice.

In wide, level spaces, or in gentle undu-
lations, they reach out until sky and hori-
zon meet in a barely perceptible line.
Parts of it remind one very much of our
own western prairies. In spring and
summer it is an ocean of verdure, with
the varied shades of green of the grow
ing vegetation interspersed with flowers
of many hues; later, in the autumn, after
the crops are harvested, it becomes a
brown waste of stubble and burned-up
pastures; in winter it is a white, glisten-
ing expanse of snow.

The unending forest land of the north has disappeared-not suddenly, but by degrees. Most of it is treeless, however, and a feeling of sadness and almost depression involuntarily creeps upon one as he travels over the steppes for the first time.

There are not many old towns in the

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While the Kharkov district of Russia has developed greatly as a manufacturing and industrial center in recent years, the chief occupation of the population is agriculture. The breeding of sheep, cattle, and horses is also an important activity, and at the four great fairs held annually in Kharkov, before the war, thousands of horses were bought and sold.

spicuous feature will be a church or two and the many windmills on the horizon.

Photograph by Nevin O. Winter

Windmills are exceedingly common and dot the landscape on every hillside. Some will be still, while others, with their broad, far-reaching arms, furiously beat the air that blows over the steppes. Silvery gray they appear from age, as all are built of wood, and they are usually unpainted. Many of them seem ready to fall to pieces from age.


The general use of windmills is due not so much to lack of water, for they will be found near streams, but the flatness of the country does not give enough fall to allow the use of water-power. They are used to grind grain, and the farmers may be seen bringing their domestic grists to them, as they did to the

pioneer water-mills in our own country. In many ways can the dissemblances of the Ukrainians with their former Muscovite compatriots of the north and east be traced. They speak a dialect which varies considerably from that spoken to the north and northeast of them. Their language is said to be nearer the old Slavonic than that of the Great Russians.

The people are handsomer than the Great Russians. Better nourishment probably has something to do with this, or the natural distinction between a northern and southern people, but the admixture with other races has also left its trace. They are, in general, taller and more robust.

The natural brightness and vivacity of the Slav temperament, which one will also find exemplified in the Pole, has not been dimmed by the infusion of the more stolid and melancholic Finnish blood, as

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Photograph by Nevin O. Winter


With wide and well-paved streets, many of them bordered with trees, Odessa is one of the most beautiful as well as one of the greatest commercial cities of Russia. Situated on the shores of the Black Sea, 20 miles north of the mouth of the river Dniester, it has a population slightly larger than Baltimore. Before the war, the value of its exports averaged more than eighty million rubles annually. With Bucharest it shared the questionable distinction of being one of the gayest cities of Europe.

is the case with the Great Russian. They have a buoyancy of temperament which leads to a light-hearted gaiety of spirits, such as one does not find among the Muscovites.


In so far as outside influences have affected the Slav temperament in the Ukraine, it has been that of the Greek and the Tatar. The warm and bright colors of their costumes are somewhat reminiscent of the Orient. They are great lovers of beads, of which they will wear many strings, and the national costume of the women includes a wreath of flowers worn on the head.

A vein of romance and poetry runs through the Little Russians. It may not be very deep, but it is wide-spread. It

is the home of Russian folk-lore. Lyrical ballad and improvised ballad still spring almost spontaneously from the lips of the peasants. Their nature is rather poetical and they are very musical. The love songs of Little Russia are distinguished. by their great tenderness. They have songs for all occasions, sacred and profane. They are also great lovers of flowers.


The lover of peasant costumes will be in his glory here in the Ukraine. Nowhere in Russia is there so much color in costumes as here, and the general effect is extremely pleasing. The market in Kiev or Kharkov is a study in color.

Red is the prevailing color among the

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The women of the Ukraine are especially fond of bright colors, and one of the feature of the native costume is the necklace of varihued beads. The industrial development of th Ukraine region has provided a cheap method of producing cloth, so that the home spinning wheel and the loom gradually began to disappear a decade or more ago.

women, but there are many other bright bits. The costume is also extremely artistic. The red turbans of the women have embroidered borders and their skirts also have a border which reaches almost to the knee. The women generally wear their skirts rather short, scarcely reaching to the ankles-a style becoming more and more popular the world over today. The blouses are made out of pretty patterns, with unique and original designs worked into the material. Even the heavy coats, which they wear for warmth, have their own design, and all will follow practically the same pattern.

Even the men have their little vanity, having their shirts embroidered in red and blue designs, and the younger men have quite a dandified look.

GO BAREFOOTED TO SAVE THEIR BOOTS Both sexes wear coarse boots, many of them being made of plaited leather, if they are able to purchase them. In summer many will come to the city barefooted, for in that way they save their boots; and leather boots, even in peace times, cost many rubles. In war times they are beyond the reach of the ordinary peasant.

On festive occasions many of the young women are wonderful to behold. They don highly colored dresses and have long bright pink, blue, and red ribbons tied. in their hair, which stream behind them as they walk. Oftentimes they wear garlands of real or artificial flowers. Several strings of large and small coral or glass beads complete this pretty outfit; and many of the maidens, with their gypsy-like complexions, look very charming when attired in this manner.

These people have a great love for vivid colors in everything and even decorate their rooms with striped or checked red and white towels. The icon (holy image) shelf is sure to be decorated with these fancy towels and paper flowers. A guest of honor would be given a seat under this little domestic shrine.


Kharkov is the second city of the Ukraine and is almost two-thirds the size of Kiev. Its long, broad, and dusty streets, rather roughly paved, are flanked

by houses of a nondescript architecture. They are usually two stories high and in colors red, yellow, blue, and magenta stucco predominate.

Huge signboards prevail everywhere in the business section on the stores with samples of the goods sold therein painted upon them. The peasant who cannot read can understand the pictures at least.

The glittering domes of a number of large, flamboyant Orthodox churches give a semi-oriental general effect.

Kharkov's importance is due to the fact that it is the center of a large agricultural district, one of the most fertile sections in all Russia.

There is a very large bazaar here, which draws thousands of visitors on several occasions during the year. It is a great distributing center for agricultural supplies and is also quite an educational center, with one of the greatest universities in all Russia.


By the new alignment Odessa and the province of Kherson have been added to the Ukrainian Republic. This city of half a million is one of the newest cities in Europe. While Moscow can boast of a thousand years of history, Odessa is only a little over a hundred years of age. Its rapid growth will compare with the cities of the new world. It dates from 1794 and it owes its existence to Catherine the Great. Just a few years. before that this territory had been ceded to Russia by Turkey. Her purpose was to establish a strong city as near to Constantinople as possible. A magnificent statue of the empress, representing her as trampling the Turkish flag scornfully beneath her feet, now adorns one square.

Odessa is not a typical Russian city. Mark Twain said that the only thing truly Russian about it was the shape of the droshkis and the dress of the drivers. One might add the gilded domes of a few churches. It is an attractive city in many ways and it has the reputation of being a very fast city. It has been in recent years a very important post.

The business of the city is largely in the hands of the Jews, who comprise a third of the population. There has not

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