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EW KENÄSINGTON. A borough in defended by Forts Trumbull and Griswold. Just
Westmoreland County, Pa., 18 above the city, on the east side of the river, is miles northeast of Pittsburg; on a small United States naval station. New Lonthe Allegheny River, and on the don is a delightful place of residence and popular Buffalo and Allegheny River divi- resort in summer. Among its features of interest
sion of the Pennsylvania Railroad are a fine soldiers' and sailors' monument, a ( Map: Pennsylvania, B 3). It is konwn as a
handsome public library, the New London County centre of large steel and iron industries, and for Historical Society and Library, the Hempstead its brewing interests. There are also in the vicin- House, one of the oldest houses in Connecticut, ity manufactories of glass and white lead. Popu- the Old Town Mill, erected in 1646 and still in lation, in 1900, 4665.
operation, the little schoolhouse in which Nathan NEW LEBANON. A town in Columbia Hale was a teacher, Boulder Park on the Thames, County, N. Y., 24 miles southeast of Albany; on
White Beach, a popular and attractive bathing the Chatham and Lebanon Valley Railroad beach, Williams Park, Memorial Park, and the ( Map: New York, G 3). It includes several great railroad drawbridge completed in 1890. villages, among which Lebanon Springs, a pop
The annual Yale-Harvard boat race is rowed ular summer resort, noted for thermal springs,
on the Thames. New London was formerly and Mount Lebanon, the site of a Shaker village, the seat of extensive whaling and sealing inare best known. The town is engaged prin- terests, which are still of some importance, cipally in agriculture, and in manufacturing though manufacturing, is the leading industry. patent medicines, thermometers, and barometers, The principal establishments are silk mills, a glass, flour, lumber, chairs, brooms, and baskets. woolen mill, ship yards, foundries and machine Population, in 1890, 1765; in 1900, 1556.
shops, cotton-gin factory, bed-quilt mills, and
printing-press works. The government, under a NEW LEINSTER. The former name of charter of 1894, is administered by a mayor, Stewart Island (q.v.).
chosen every three years, and a unicameral counNEW LEX'INGTON. A village and the cil that controls elections to subordinate departcounty-seat of Perry County, Ohio, 21 miles ments, excepting that of the schools, which is south by west of Zanesville; on the Toledo and chosen by popular vote. The water-works are Ohio Central, and the Cincinnati and Muskingum owned and operated by the municipality. PopuValley railroads (Map: Ohio, F 6). It has Saint lation, in 1890, 13,757; in 1900, 17,548. Aloysius Academy and a handsome court house. New London was founded in 1646 by John There are some manufactures, clay works being Winthrop, the younger, and until 1658, when it among the leading establishments, and in the received its present name, was known as Nauvicinity are extensive coal fields. Population, in meag. During the 'Great Awakening of 1741 1890, 1470; in 1900, 1701.
there was a remarkable manifestation of religious NEW LIGHT. A fish. See CRAPPIE.
enthusiasm here. On September 6, 1781, General
Arnold, at the head of a large British force, and NEW LON'DON. A city, port of entry, and assisted by a fleet of thirty-two vessels, attacked one of the county-seats of New London County, New London, killed a number of its inhabitants, Conn., 14 miles south of Norwich, the other and burned nearly all of the wharves and stores. county-seat, and 51 miles east of New Haven; (See GROTON.) New London was incorporated in on the Thames River, about three miles above 1784. Consult: Caulkins, History of New Lonits entrance into Long Island Sound, and on don (New London, new ed. 1900); Starr, A Centhe New York, New Haven and Hartford and tennial Historical Sketch of the Town of New the Central Vermont railroads (Map: Connecti- London (ib., 1876); and an article, “Historic cut, G 4). It has direct communication with New London,” in New England Magazine, vol. v. New York by steamboat, and an excellent harbor (Boston, 1887).
NEW MADRID. A city and the county-seat ferred to, as Catholic Union: Essays Towards a of New Madrid County, Mo., 40 miles south by Church of the Future (1844); A State Church west of Cairo, Ill.; on the Mississippi River, and Not Defensible (1845); The Soul, Its Sorrows on the Saint Louis Southwestern Railroad (Map: and Aspirations (1849). Others are on political Missouri, G 5). The centre of a productive re- or social topics, as: Radical Reforms, Financial gion, it has a large river commerce in grain, lum- and Organic (1848); Lectures on Political Econber, cotton, live stock, etc. There are cotton omy (1851); On the State Provision for Vice gins, and manufactories of lumber, veneer, staves, (1871); Remedies for the Great Social Evil and flour. Population, in 1890, 1193; in 1900, (1889); Europe of the Near Future (1871). A 1489. New Madrid was founded in 1788 as a large number are devoted to historical, classical, Spanish settlement, by a few American frontiers- and scientific subjects, the most important of men. For a time during the Civil War it was an which are: Contrasts of Ancient and Modern Hisimportant Confederate military station, but on tory (1847) ; translations into 'unrhymed metre' March 14, 1862, it was abandoned and fell into of the Odes of Horace (1853) and the Iliad of the hands of the Federal forces.
Homer (1856); a treatise on Difficulties of EleNEWMAN, nū'man, EDWARD (1801-76). An mentary Geometry (1841); Handbook of ModEnglish entomologist and publisher, born at ern Arabic (1866) ; Orthoepy (1869); MiscelHampstead. In 1833 he founded The Entomologi- lanies (1869-89); Dictionary of Modern Arabic cal Magazine; in 1840 The Entomologist; in 1843
(1871); Early History of Cardinal Newman The Zoölogist; in 1844 The Phytologist. His (1891). He died at Weston super-Mare, October more important works are: History of British 4, 1897. Ferns (1840); an enlarged edition of Montagu's NEWMAN, HENRY RODERICK (1833-). An Dictionary of British Birds (1866); Illustrated American water-color painter, born in New York Natural History of British Moths (1869); and City. He gave up the study of medicine, to beBritish Butterflies (1871).
come an artist, at the age of eighteen years. He NEWMAN, FRANCIS (?-1660). An English went to France in 1870, and, after traveling colonist in America, Governor of New Haven through Switzerland, settled in Venice (1871), Colony in 1658-59. He was born in England, and and later removed his studio to Florence. Rusemigrated to New Hampshire in 1838, but after kin has expressed admiration for his works, a few months removed to the Connecticut Valley, which consist mostly of architectural, landscape, and became prominent in the affairs of the and flower pieces. "Venice," "Tuscan Spring,' colony at New Haven. There he served as an “The Florence Cathedral," and "The Gulf of ensign and lieutenant in the colonial militia or Spezia” are ainong his most elaborate paintings. trained bands (1642-45) as secretary of the His other works include: “A Study of Pink and colony under Governor Theophilus Eaton (1646- White Oleanders,” “Grapes and Olives," "Flow47), and as a magistrate and assistant in 1653. ers," and "An Architectural Study." In the latter year he was one of the commission
NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY (1801-90). An ers sent from the Connecticut River towns to English religious leader, first in the Church of Manhattan to demand satisfaction af Peter England and later in the Roman Catholic Church, Stuyvesant, Governor of New Netherlands, for He was born in London, February 21, 1801, and injuries sustained by the English colonists at the
educated first at a private school at Ealing, then hands of the Dutch. In July, 1654, he became at Trinity College, Oxford, which he entered one of the commissioners of the United Colonies when he was not quite sixteen. of New England, and in May, 1658, he succeeded scholarship two years later, and took his degree Eaton as Governor of the New Haven Colony, re- in 1820. In 1822 he was elected to a fellowship taining the office until September, 1659.
at Oriel, then the highest distinction of Oxford NEWMAN, FRANCIS WILLIAM (1805-97). scholarship, which brought him into close relaAn English scholar and writer, brother of John tions with many of the most distinguished men Henry Newman. He was born in London, June of the time; among them was a brother fellow, 27, 1805, and, with his brothers, attended the Edward Bouverie Pusey (q.v.), with whom he school at Ealing. Thence he passed to Worcester was to be most closely associated in the work of College, Oxford, and in 1826 obtained a fellow- the Oxford Movement. He was ordained deacon ship in Balliol College. He withdrew from the in 1824, and combined with his college position university in 1830, declining the subscription the curacy of Saint Clement's Church. A year to the Thirty-nine Articles. After a tour in later, his friend Whately having become principal the East he was appointed classical tutor in of Saint Alban's Hall, Newman was made viceBristol College (1834). In 1840 he accepted a principal, but resigned the appointment on being similar professorship in Manchester New Col- named tutor in his own college (1826). In 1828, lege, and in 1846 was appointed to the chair of on the election of Hawkins as provost of Oriel Latin in University College, London, which he (partly through Newman's influence, though held till 1869. During all this time he was an Keble was also a candidate), Newman succeeded active contributor to literary and scientific peri- him as vicar of Saint Mary's, the university odicals, and maintained a leading part in the church, and the position which he thus gained controversies on religion, in which he took the gave him a commanding power, by the wonderful line directly opposite to that chosen by his elder sermons which he preached in this pulpit, over brother, being no less ardent as a disciple of the a whole generation. He resigned his tutorship extreme rationalistic school than John Henry in 1832, owing to differences with Hawkins as Newman of the dogmatical. These opinions, and to college arrangements. He made his first visit the system founded upon them, form the subject to the Continent soon after and returned just in of his work, Phases of Faith, or Passages from time to hear Keble's famous assize sermon on the History of My Creed (1850). Of his many National Apostasy (July 14, 1833), which he alpublications, several regard the controversy re- ways considered as the actual origin of the
Movement. (For the complete history of its de- were his Letter to the Duke of Norfolk (1875), velopment, see OXFORD MOVEMENT.) Here it is in which he explained and defended the position enough to say that from the first Newman was of Catholics as affected by the Vatican decrees in its acknowledged head; the charm of his per their bearing on civil allegiance, in reply to sonality, the ascetic fervor of his life, and the Gladstone; and his memorable Apologia pro Vita fame of his preaching gave him a tremendous Sua (1864), which contained a most striking power. He was one of the chief contributors to account of the inner workings of his mind durthe Tracts for the Times, twenty-nine of which, ing his whole manhood, and increased the veneraincluding the famous No. 90, which proved the tion felt for him by all his countrymen, of whatend of the series, are from his pen. The same ever shade of theological opinion. It grew out year that witnessed their beginning (1833) saw of a memorable controversy with Charles Kingsthe publication of his book on The Arians, which ley, who, by general consent, had much the worse was followed in 1837 by The Prophetical Office of the argument. In 1877 Newman was elected of the Church; in 1838 by works on Justifica- an honorary fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, tion, on the Canon of Scripture, and on Anti- and revisited his loved alma mater for the first christ. In this year also Newman became editor time in twenty-two years. Leo XIII. created him of the British Critic, holding the position until a cardinal in 1879, allowing him still to reside in 1841, and began in conjunction with Keble and England. He died at Birmingham, August 11, Pusey to publish a Library of Translations from 1890. the Greek and Latin Fathers. On a formal re- Both as a great spiritual force and as a masquest from the Bishop of Oxford, he discontinued ter of literary expression, Newman will always the publication of the Tracts in 1841, after the deserve a large space in any history of nineteenth storm of opposition which No. 90, "Remarks on century England. His literary style, always Certain Passages in the XXXIX. Articles," had pure, melodious, and elevated, and owing much aroused.
to years of familiarity with the Authorized VerAlready in 1839 in the course of his study of the sion of the Bible, is full of undecaying beauty, . history of the Monophysite controversy a doubt But it was only an expression of his mental had come to him whether, after all, the Anglican habit. The dialectical skill which marks all his position was tenable; and the condemnation of controversial work was governed by the conhis position by bishops and heads of colleges science whose supremacy he was never tired of showed him that his place in the Movement was enforcing; and the chaste beauty of his style was gone. Parallel reasoning on the history of the but the outcome of that intense realization of the Arian controversy, and the curious compromise spiritual world which is the most characteristic of the Jerusalem bishopric (see JERUSALEM), feature of all his teaching. still further shook his allegiance to the Church
A complete list of his writings would occupy of England.
too much space. A uniform edition of the more In 1842 he retired from Oxford to the neigh- important of them was published under his own boring village of Littlemore, where he passed supervision (London, 1868-81). Besides those three years in seclusion, with a number of young already named, mention should be made of his: men who had attached themselves to him, wrest- Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (1870); ling in silence with the problem thus presented two works of fiction, Callista, a Sketch of the to him. In the early part of 1842 he published a
Third Century (1856), and Loss and Gain, a formal retractation of his adverse criticisms of story of Oxford life in his own day (1848) ; nuthe Roman Catholic Church, and in the following
merous volumes of sermons, all characterized by autumn, while he had not yet made up his mind, his qualities; and some extremely beautiful it seemed to him more honest to resign his living. verse, of which the best, with “The Dream of The train of reasoning which occupied him Gerontius," is included in Verses on Various Octhroughout 1845, when he was engaged in the casions (1868). Consult, besides most of the composition of his Essay on the Development of books referred to under OXFORD MOVEMENT: Christian Doctrine, finally brought him to the Letters and Correspondence of J. H. Newman point, and on October 9th he became a Roman During His Life in the English Church (LonCatholic.
don, 1891); and sketches by R. H. Hutton As his influence in Oxford and among thought- (ib., 1891), Walters and Barrow (ib., 1901), and ful Anglicans had been tremendous, so the ef- Whyte (New York, 1903); also an admirably fect of this step was correspondingly great. A thoughtful study of his writings in Shairp, Studyear after his reception he went to Rome and ies in Poetry and Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1866). was there ordained priest. Soon afterwards he His earlier life is also told by his brother Francis returned to England and introduced the Congre- (London, 1891), and in The Anglican Career of gation of the Oratory (q.v.), which he thought Cardinal Newman (ib., 1892); his later, partly specially adapted to the needs of the large towns. in Fitzgerald, Fifty Years of Catholic Life and The greater part of his later life was spent in Progress (ib., 1898). ' the house of the Oratory at Birmingham; from 1854 to 1858, however, he was in Dublin, as rec- NEWMAN, JOHN PHILIP (1826-99). tor of the unsuccessful Catholic University there. American clergyman, Bishop of the Methodist Always deeply interested in education, he had Episcopal Church. He was born in New York planned to establish a house of the Oratory at City, and educated at Cazenovia (N. Y.) SemiOxford, which might have allowed the young men nary, which he quitted in 1848 to enter the minof his Church to gain the advantages of the istry. He followed the itinerant life of a Methouniversity; the project, opposed by Manning, fell dist clergyman until 1860, when he went abroad through, but since his death his ideas have been for travel and study, visiting Egypt and Palesvindicated by the establishment of a Catholic tine, subsequently embodying the results of hall there. Constant literary activity marked all this trip in From Dan to Beersheba, or the Land these years, of which the most remarkable fruits of Promise as It Now Appears (1864). After
New Orleans was taken by the Federal army in 31° 20' and 37° north, longitudes 103° 2' and 1864 he was sent there to organize the Methodist 109° 2' west, and is bounded on the north by Episcopal Church, and remained until 1869, Colorado, on the east by Oklahoma and Texas, meanwhile editing, in addition to his other on the south by Texas and Mexico, and on the labors, the New Orleans Advocate. Leaving west by Arizona. It forms almost a perfect New Orleans, he became pastor of the Metropoli- square, the line being somewhat broken on the tan Church at Washington, D. C. His per- southern boundary. The length along the westsonality was a combination of clergyman and ern boundary is 400 miles; the greatest width, man of the world; his pulpit eloquence, which in- 358 miles. Area, 122,580 square miles. New clined rather to the grandiose, nevertheless won Mexico exceeds in size every State in the Union for him a large popularity both within and out- except Texas, California, and Montana. side his denomination. At the end of his first TOPOGRAPHY. The whole Territory is very pastorate in Washington in 1872, President Grant elevated, only a small portion in the south lying appointed him inspector of consulates in Asia, below 4000 feet. The topography may be divided and in this capacity he made a tour of the world, into several more or less well marked regions, which resulted in another work of travel, The running north and south. The eastern third of Thrones and Palaces of Babylon and Nineveh the Territory belongs to the Great Plains, which from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean skirt the whole eastern base of the Rocky Moun(1876). In 1878 he assumed a pastorate in New tains. In the northeastern part of the Territory York City, and in 1881 was a delegate to the first this plain is watered by the Canadian River, Ecumenical Methodist Conference in London, south of which it slopes gradually into the level where he read the invited essay on Scriptural and arid plateau known as the Llano Estacado. Holiness, said to mark his highest achievement West of this is the valley of the Pecos River, the as a writer. From 1882 to 1884 he was acting lowest part of the Territory, falling near the pastor at the Madison Avenue Congregational southern boundary below 3000 feet. From the Church, New York. In 1885 he returned to the Pecos Valley the land rises westward into the pastorate of the Metropolitan Church, Washing. Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, which iston, and in 1888 was elected bishop of the Metho- sues from Colorado in a continuous line of lofty dist Episcopal Church, with his official residence peaks, several of which are over 12,000 feet high. at Omaha, Neb. In addition to the works men
Toward the centre of the Territory the range tioned, he published: Christianity Triumphant becomes broken into isolated groups and mesas (1884); Evenings with the Prophets on the Lost inclosing in the north park-like grassy plains, Empires (1887); The Supremacy of Law (1890); but toward the south arid and desolate valleys Conversations with Christ (1901).
filled with lava beds and salt marshes. West of NEW MARKET. A market-town on the bor
the Front Range is the narrow valley of the Rio
Grande, traversing the whole length of the Terder of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, England, 15 miles northeast of Cambridge (Map: England, Territory stretches the great, broad plateau, the
ritory. Finally, through the western part of the G 4). The market-house and the celebrated
Continental Divide, which extends into Mexico Jockey Club are the chief edifices. The town
as the Sierra Madre. Its average height is 7000 owes its prosperity to the horse-races. The racecourse of Newmarket, upward of four miles in feet, though it sinks to 5000 feet in the south,
and it is diversified by a number of mesas and length, is said to be the finest in the world, and
isolated ranges from 8000 to 11,000 feet high. the training ground bears a similar reputation
CLIMATE AND VEGETATION. The climate is refor excellence. There are eight race-meetings held here annually. Population, in 1891, 8631; markably dry and healthful, and the air pure and
clear. În the lower regions of the south the in 1901, 10,686. Consult Hore, History of Newmarket and Annals of the Turf (3 vols., London, climate is mild throughout the year, but in the 1886).
zero. At Santa Fé the mean temperature for the NEWMARKET. A town of York County year is about 50°, for the warmest month 70°, Ontario, Canada, 34 miles north of Toronto on and for the coldest 30°. The average rainfall for the Northern Railway (Map: Ontario, D 3). It the whole Territory is about 15 inches, being nohas busy trading interests and some manufac- where sufficient for the needs of agriculture. tures. Population, in 1891, 2143; in 1901, 2125. Many of the mountain basins and river valleys
are covered with nutritious grasses, one of the NEW MECK'LENBURG (formerly New IRELAND). The second largest of the Bismarck
most common genera being the grama-grass Archipelago (q.v.), situated in the Pacific Ocean, cata) often forms a dense sod over the alkali
(Bouteloua). The salt-grass (Distichlis spi 350 miles northeast of New Guinea, and sep
flats which abound especially on the western arated from New Pomerania, the largest of the
plateau. Bunch grasses cover many of the group, by Saint George Channel (Map: Australasia, H 3). It is elongated, has an area
mesas and mountain slopes, but the sage brush of 4920 square miles, and consists for the
is predominant in many of the plains, and the most part of mountains covered with forests of plateau toward the west becomes arid and desolarge trees. Little is known of the interior of ciduous trees grow in the river-valleys, and some
late. Sycamore, cottonwood, oak, and other dethe island, but the coast lands are very fertile. Colonization of the island has been unsuccessful;
of the foothills carry growths of piñon and dwarf there is a trading station on the north coast, but cedar, while extensive forests of pine, spruce,
and cedar cover the higher mountains. With the tants, the bulk of the population, whose number possible exception of the alkali flats, the soil,
wherever there is any, is said to be fertile and is unknown, being savage Melanesians.
capable of becoming productive when irrigated. NEW MEXICO. A southwestern Territory For flora and fauna, see these sections in the of the United States. It lies between latitudes article UNITED STATES,