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Page. Across Pinnacle Pass.
129 First full View of St. Elias
135 Summit of Pinnacle Pass (lills
137 Across Seward Glacier to Dome Pass
142 Up the Agassiz (lacier
147 Camp on the Newton Glacier.
150 Highest Point reached.
151 Alone in the highest Camp.
154 The Return.
163 Part III—Sketch of the Geology of the St. Elias Region
167 Generel Features...
167 Yakutat System
107 Pinnacle System
170 St. Elias Schist.
173 Geological Structure.
174 Part IV–Glaciers of the St. Elias Region
176 Natural Divisions of Glaciers
176 Alpine Glaciers
176 Characteristics of Alpine Glaciers above the Snow-Line. 180 Characteristics of Alpine Glaciers below the Snow-Line
183 Piedmont Glaciers
185 Part 1-Height and Position of Mount St. Elias
189 Appendix A-Official Instructions governing the Expedition
192 Appendix B-Report on topographic Work; by Mark B. Kerr 195 Appendix C-Report on auriferous Sands from Yakutat Bay; by J. Stanley-Brown
196 Appendix D-Report on fossil Plants; by Lester F. Ward.
Plate 2–Sketch Map of Alaska ----
53 3—Map of the St. Elias Region, after La Pérouse
60 4-M:p of the Eastern Shore of Yakutat B:ly, after Dixon 02 5—Map of the St. Elias Region, after Malaspina
64 6-Map of Bay de Monti, after Malaspina--
66 7- Map of Disenchantment Bay, after Malaspina.
08 8—Sketch Map of St. Elias Region, by Mark B. Kerr
75 9–The Hubbard Glacier; drawn from Photograph by A. L. Broadbent -.
100 10—Wall of Ice on Eastern Side of the Atrevida Glacier; from a Photograph .
102 11-View on the Atrevida Glacier; from a Photograph.
10+ 12—Entrance of an Ice-Tunnel; from a Photograph..-
106 13—Deltas in an Abandoned Lake-Bed; from a Photograph.
108 11-A River on the Lucia Glacier; from a Photograph (reproduced from the contury, April, 1891).
Page. Plate 15—Entrance to a Glacial Tunnel; from a Photographi. 112 16—View of the Malaspina Glacier from Blossom Island; from a Photograph.
114 17—Moraines on the Marvine Glacier; from a Photograph. 116 18—View of the Hitchcock Range from near Dome Pass
118 19—View of Mount St. Elias from Dome Pass; drawn from a Photograph
---- 146 20—View of Mount St. Elias from Seward Glacier; drawn from a Photograph
Figure 1-Diagram illustrating the Formation of Icebergs
101 2–View of a glacial Lakelet; from a Photograph
119 3-Section of a glacial Lakelet
120 4Diagram illustrating the Formation of marginal Crevasses - 128 5—Crevasses near Pinnacle Pass; from a Photograph
130 6—Snow Crests on Ridges and Peaks; from Field Sketches.
143 7-Faulted Pebble from Pinnacle Pass
171 8-Faulted Pebble from Pinnacle Pass
THE SOUTHERN COAST OF ALASKA.
The southern coast of Alaska is remarkable for the regularity of its general outline. If a circle a thousand miles in diameter be inscribed on a map of the northern Pacific with a point in about latitude 54° and longitude 145° as a center, a large part of its northern periphery will be found to coincide with the southern shore of Alaska between Dixon entrance on the east and the Alaska peninsula on the west. On the northern part of this great coast-circle lies the region explored in the summer of 1890 and described in the following pages.
From Cross sound, at the northern end of the great system of islands forming southeastern Alaska, westward along the base of the Fairweather range, the mountains are exceedingly rugged, and present some of the finest coast scenery in the world. There are but two inlets east of Yakutat bay on this shore which afford shelter even for small boats. These are Lituya bay and Dry bay. Ships may enter Lituya bay, at certain stages of the tide, and find a safe harbor within; but the approaches to Dry bay are not navigable. West of Yakutat bay the coast is equally inhospitable all the way to Prince William sound.
As if to compensate for the lack of refuge on either end, there is in the center of this great stretch of rock-bound coast, over 300 miles in extent, a magnificent inlet known as Yakutat bay, in which a thousand ships could find safe anchorage. On some old maps this bay is designated as " Baie de Monti," "Admiralty bay” and “ Bering bay,” as will be seen when its discovery and history are discussed on another page.
The southern shore of Alaska, for a distance of 200 miles along the bases of the Fairweather and St. Elias ranges, is formed of a low table-land intervening between the mountains and the sea. Yakutat bay is the only bight in this plateau sufficiently deep to reach the mountain to the northward. This bay has a broad opening to the sea; the distance between its ocean capes is twenty miles, and its extension inland is about the same. Its eastern shore is fringed with low, wooded islands, among which are sheltered harbors, safe from every wind that blows. The most accessible of these is Port Mulgrave, near its entrance on the eastern side.
The shores of Yakutat bay, on both the east and the west, are low and densely wooded for a distance of twenty-five miles from the ocean, where the foot-hills of the mountains begin. At the head of the bay the land rises in steep bluffs and forms picturesque mountains, snow-capped the year round. These highlands, although truly mountainous in their proportions, are but the foot-hills of still nobler uplifts immediately northward. The bay extends through an opening in the first range to the base of the white peaks beyond. This opening was examined a century ago by explorers in search of the delusive" Northwest passage," in the hope that it would lead to the long-sought "Strait of Annan ”--the dream of many voyagers. It was surveyed by the expedition in command of Malaspina in 1792, and on account of his frustrated hopes was named “Puerto del Desengaño," or " Disenchantment bay,” as it has been rendered by English writers.
The waters of Yakutat and Disenchantment bays are deep, and broken only by islands and reefs along their eastern shores. A few soundings made in Disenchantment bay within half a mile of the land showed a depth of from 40 to 120 fathoms. The swell of the ocean is felt up to the very head of the inlet, indicating, as was remarked to me by Captain C. L. Hooper, that there are no bars or reefs to break the force of the incoming swells.
The Piedmont Plutcau and the Mountains.
The lowlands bordering Yakutat bay on the southeast are composed of assorted glacial débris. Much of the country is low and swampy, and is reported to contain numerous lakelets. Northwest of the bay the plateau is higher than toward the southeast, and has a general elevation of about 500 feet at a distance of a mile from the shore; but the height increases toward the interior, where a general elevation of 1,500 feet is attained over large areas. All of this plateau, excepting a narrow fringe along the shore, is formed by a great glacier, belonging to what is termed in this paper the Piedmont type. There are many reasons for believing that the plateau southeast of Yakutat bay was at one time covered by a glacier similar to the one now existing on the northwest.*
The mountains on the northern border of the seaward-stretching table-lands, both southeast and northwest of Yakutat bay, are abrupt and present steep southward-facing bluffs. This escarpment is formed of stratified sandstones and shales, and owes its origin to the upheaval of the rocks along a line of fracture. In other words, it is a gigantic fault scarp. The gravel and bowlders forming the plateau extending oceanward have been accumulating on a depressed orographic block (or mass of strata moved as a unit by mountain-making forces), which has undergone some movement in very recent times, as is recorded by a terrace on the fault,scarp bordering it. West of Yakutat the.geological structure is more complex, and long mountain spurs project into the platform of ice skirting the ocean. Filling the valleys between the mountain spurs, there are many large seaward-flowing glaciers, tributary to the great Peidmont icesheet.
This brief sketch of the geography of Yakutat bay, together with the accompanying outline map of Alaska (plate 2), will, it is hoped, aid in making intelligible the following historical sketch and the narrative of the present expedition.
* This matter will be discussed in part IV of this paper, where it is also shown that Yakutat bay itself was formerly occupied by glacial ice.
PREVIOUS EXPLORATIONS IN THE ST. ELIAS
BERING, 1741. The first discovery of the southern coast of Alaska was made by Vitus Bering and Alexei Cherikof, in the vessels St. Peter and St. Paul, in 1741. On July 20 of that year, Bering saw the mountains of the mainland, but anchored his vessels at Kyak island, 180 miles west of Yakutat bay, without touching the continental shore. A towering, snow-clad summit northeast of Kyak island was named “Mount St. Elias," after the patron saint of the day.
Cook, 1778. The next explorer to visit this portion of Alaska was Captain James Cook, who sailed past the entrance of Yakutat bay on May 4, 1778. Thinking that this was the bay in which Bering anchored, he named it " Bering's bay." Mount St. Elias was seen in the northwest at a distance of 40 leagues, but no attempt was made to measure its height.
LA PÉROUSE, 1786.7 Yakutat bay, in which we are specially interested, was next seen by the celebrated French navigator, J. F. G. de la Pérouse, in command of the frigates La Boussole and L’Astrolabe, on June 23, 1786.
The chart showing the route followed by La Pérouse during this portion of his voyage is reproduced in plate 3. In the splendid atlas accompanying the narrative of his travels, the explorer pictures the quaint, high-pooped vessels in which he cir
* For more complete bibliographic references than space will allow in this paper, the reader is referred to Dall and Baker's “Partial list of books, pamphlets, papers in serials, journals and other publications on Alaska and adjacent regions ;” in Pacific Coast Pilot: Coasts and Inlets of Alaska ; second series. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, 1879; 4°, pp. 225–375.
† Voyage de la Pérouse autour du monde. Four vols., 4°, and atlas; Paris, 1797 ; vol. 2, pp. 130–150.