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lel to and north of Salouen river, reaching So and once again seeing houses on April 15. They arrived at Batang early in June, their route some distance west of it having joined the Imperial highway from Pekin to Lassa over which l’Abbe Huc travelled. From Tatsien-lou, where the French Tibetan mission is located, their route turned southward to Red river, which was reached, at Manhoau, on September 21, when their journey practically ended, as Hanoai was reached two days later.

An excellent map of the itinerary, by Prince Henri, accompanies the article.

A. W. G.

Third Annual Report on the Statistics of Railurays in the l'nited States to the Interstate Commerce Commission, for the year ending June 30, 1890: Washington, Government Printing Office, 1891 (advance copy, pp. 1-100).—This pamphlet, by Professor Henry ('. Adams, is issued in advance of the full report, which is promised to comprise about 875 pages. It contains a summary, digest and discussion of the full report.

It appears that the total railroad mileage on June 30, 1890, was 163,597, an increase of 5,838 miles during the year. The increase came mainly from southeastern and western states. This mileage was owned by 1,797 distinct corporate bodies, but entirely controlled in one way or another by only 747 companies. To illustrate the extent to which consolidation of railroad property has gone, it may be stated that 47.5 per cent of all railroad mileage is controlled by but forty companies, and that 65.4 per ('ent is controlled by seventy-five companies. The greatest mileage controlled by one company is 6,053, operated by the Southern Pacific company.

The total capital and bonded debt of railroad companies was $9,871,378,389, or $60,340 per mile. Stock and bonds were about equal in amount. Mr. Adams estimates the value of railroad property by capitalizing at 5 per cent the dividends and interest on bonds paid during the year, reaching as a result $6,627,461,140, or about 33 of the nominal capital and bonded debt. The justice of this method may fairly be questioned. A comparison of the ruling prices of dividend paying stocks with the rate per cent of the dividend shows that 5 per cent stocks are above par and that 4 per cent stocks average nearly par.

Moreover, it is well known that many railroads are built and operated, not for their own immediate earnings but to give value to other property of the companies, notably to lands, from the sale or lease of which the companies derive profits. Again, many railroads are built, not for present but for future profits, after they shall have induced settlement of their territory; and, furthermore, numerous branch roads have been built as defensive measures to prevent rivals from occupying territory; and in many cases earnings are used in betterment of property instead of distributing it as dividends. In all these cases the roads hare value, although they are not paying dividends.

Taking all these matters into account, it does not appear that the railroad stocks of the country have, collectively, been watered to any great extent, if by "watering " is meant expanding nominal values above actual values.

Concerning dividends paid on stock, Mr. Adams presents a table showing that 63.76 per cent of all stock paid no dividends; that but 6.47 per cent paid less than 4 per cent; that 25.26 per cent paid from 4 to 8 per cent, the remainder paying above 8 per cent. It appears that in the northeastern states much the highest dividends were paid, while in the west, so far as dividends are concerned, the stockholders have to wait for future developments.

The total passenger mileage for the year was 11.817,785,617, a slight increase over the previous year. The total freight mileage was 76,207,047,298, an increase of nearly 10 per cent over that of the previous year. The gross earnings of the year were $1.051.877.632, and the operating expenses $692,093,971, leaving as the income from operations $359,783,661. The income from other sources was $126,767,061, and the total deductions from income were $381,792,138, leaving as the net income 8101,758,587, out of which there was paid as dividends on stock $89,688,204.

The magnitude of the railway interests of the country is set forth in the above enormous figures. It is still further emphasized by the fact that nearly three-quarters of a million men are in the employ of this industry. Assuming that each such employé supports two others besides himself, it is seen that the railroad interest supports two and a quarter millions, or more than one thirtieth of the inhabitants of the country.

H. G.

213, 214

238

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Puige.
ABBE, CLEVELAND, cited on isostaths.. 13 BERING, Virus, Explorations by...

58
-, Record of communication by... visi BERG, M., cited on thunderstorms...
discussion by ...

viii Bien, MORRIS, Contribution to explora-
ABORIGINES of South America
7 tion fund by

75
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Russian, Quotation BIGELOW, F. H., Record of communica-
from records of

212
tion by

viii
Adams, HENRY C., Review of report on BIRNIE, JR., Rogers, Contribution to ex-
railway operations by

245
ploration fund by

75
ADELUNG, J. C., Geographic work by.. 211. BLACK GLACIER, Brief account of........ 101, 104
-, Quotation from, on de l'Isle's map..... 212 BLODGETT, J. H., Record of discussion

by

vii, ix
ADMIRALTY bay

56 Blossom ISLAND, Description of 113, 1:22
AFRICA, Area of...

32 BOARD ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES, Institution
-, Conquest and division of
31 of the...

39
Natural divisions of.........

238 BONVALOT, G., Crossing of Tibet by 253
, Population of

BOUSSIN, HENRY, Mention of

79
- (The Heart of); E. C. Hore
238 BRAZIL, Revolution in

36
Agassiz glacier, Ascent of
147 -, Sketch of

17
-- named

73 BROKA, GEORGE, Explorations by 73, 74
Age of St. Elias range .....

175 BUACHE, PHILLIPE, Geographic work by... 208
ALASKA (.\n expedition to Mount St. BUCHAN, Alex.. Reference to work of......
Elis); I. C. Russell

53 Buckle, Sir HENRY, Quotation from, on
- Boundaries of......
237 tropical America

29
Early works concerning

206 BY-LAWS, Proposed amendment to the ... xii
· Report of committee on exploration
in
248 Camp hands

166
ALLEN, JAMES, cited on isostaths............ 44 CARPENTER, Z. T., Contribution to explo-
ALPENSTOCKS, Necessity for .....

165 ration fund by
ALPINE glaciers...
176, 180 CARTOGRAPHY, Discussion of...

251
ALTON, EDMUND, Contribution to explora - (The) and Observations of Bering's
tion fund by...

First Voyage; A. W. Greely.

205
ALVORD, H. E., Remarks by, at field CASCADE GLACIER named

144
meeting

CENTURY COMPANY, Offer of coöperation
AMAZON, Discovery of the
11 by

249
-, Sketch of the

CHAIX Hills named.

73
AMENDMENT to by-laws proposed.. xii | CHARIOT, THE, Mention of

140
ANDES, General description of the... 1 CHATHAM, Mention of..

66
ANEMOMETER formula devised by C. F. CHERIKOF, ALEXEI, Explorations of....... 58
Marvin
49 CHINA, Exploration in ......

25:3
ANGOT, A., Reference to work of..... 46 CHRISTIE, J. H., Member of expedition... 76
ANTIQUITIES of Peru

-, Work of..82, 83, 84, 96, 103, 112, 113, 12:3, 162
ARCHANGELICA, Mention of....

89, 114 CLIMATE of South America.
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, Sketch of

19 (LOVER, RICHARDSON, Contribution to ex-
Asia, Exploration in

2.33
ploration fund by.

75
ATREVIDA, Mention of the

(3, 92, 105 COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY, Explorations
AURIFEROUS sands from Yakutat bay... 196 by

.... 70, 72
AVALANCHES

145, 153 Offer of coöperation by
COLD WAVES, Prediction of

51
BAIE DE MONTI

56 COLLETT, M. J., Review of map described
named by La Pérouse

by

250
BAKER, MARCUS, cited on early eclipses.. 220 COMMERCE of South America.... 17, 19, 23
-- Mount St. Elias

232 Cook, COLONEL JAMES, Explorations of ...... 58
Explorations by
70, 72 CORDILLERAs of South America

1
Reference to bibliography by
58 CORWIN CLIFFS, Mention of ...

138
- Record of discussion by

viii, ix CORWIN (The) in Disenchantment bay..... 100
BASE LINE, Measurement of
86 Return of the..

163
Bates, H. W., Quotation from, on South CREVASSES ..
America......

........ 181, 182
2. - at Pinnacle pass.

130
BEAR, Meeting with the

94, 109 Cross SOUND, visited by Vancouver's ex-
BELCHER, SIR EDWARD, Explorations by..68, 69 pedition..

07
BELL, A. GRAHAM, Contribution to explo CRUMBACH, J. H., Member of expedition
ration fund by

75 Work of .. 96, 103, 122, 127, 151, 131, 1:57, 1339
BELL, CHARLES J., Contribution to explo Curtis, W. E., Record of communication
ration fund hy.

by.......

Xi
BELLIN, S., Geographic work by ........... 207 CYCLONE8, Theory of.

42
BERING BAY, Mention of

56
BERING's first voyage (The cartography DAGELET, M., Mention of..........

00
and observations of); A. W. Greely... 2165 DahlgREN, ULRICA, Presentation of flag
- provisions
219 by......

viii

8

6

Page,

hy..

95, 115

1792 ...

Page.
DALL, W. H., cited on Bering's firsi roy FORMATIONS of the St. Elias region......... 167
205 Fossils at Pinnacle pass..

140
supplies

219

-, Description of, of Yakutat system ..... 172
de l'Isle's map

218 Fossil PLANTS, Report on, by Lester F.
early eclipses
219 Ward.......

199, 200
Mount St. Elias

231 FRANCE, Review of Staff Map of.............. 250
Explorations by....

70, 72
Quotation from, on map hy de l'Isle... 207 Gabbro on the Marvine glacier.

123
Record of discussion by:

vii GALIANO, Dox DIONISIO ALCALA, Mention
Reference to bibliography by

58 of....
DALTON, Jonx, Glacier named for
98 GALIANO GLACIER, Visit to

89, 90
-, Mention of

73 GANXETT, HENRY, Contribution to explo.
D'ANVILLE, M., cited on early eclipses 229 ration fund by
Davis, W. M., Reference to meteorologic Instructions from....

144
review by..

47 Review of railway operations by
DEDEKEN, P., Crossing of Tibet hy... 233 -- Statf Map of France, hy.
DEFINITION of formations in St. Elias re GANNETT, S. S., Computation of height of
gion
167 Mount St. Elias, by..

235
DEKALK, COURTENAY, Record of commu GEOGRAPHIC Dames, Board of

30
nication by

ix GEOGRAPHY of the Air; A. W. Greely
DE L'Isle, J. N., Authenticity of map

Land; H. G. Ogden.

31
211, 213 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, Acknowledgmenis to
Geographic work by

206 Instructions from ...

.192, 193, 194
Map by........
207 - Offer of cooperation by

249
Quotation from, on eclipses

220 GEOLOGY of the St. Elias region......... 167, 174
DE MONTI BAY, Arrival at
79

190, 191
DESCUBIERTA (The), Mention of

03 GUBERT, G, K., Instructions from..... 192, 193
DESENGAÑO BAY, named by Malaspina 63 - Record of discussion by .......... vii, ix, X
DEVIL'S CLUB (Panax horridum), Mention Remarks by, at field meeting
of

Report on exploration by

250
Digges' Sound, named by Vancouver 68 GLACIAL currents

187
DILLER, J. S., Contribution to exploration river, Example of

183
fund by

streams

183, 184
Dip at Pinnacle pass ...
140 GLACIER BAY, Mention of.

67
DISCOVERY (The), Mention of

66 GLACIERS in Disenchantment bay in
DISENCHANTMENT BAY, Canoe trip in..... 96, 103

64, 65, 97
-, Last view of...

163

observed by Malaspina........ 64, 65
Mention of

56

Puget
visited by Malaspina...

03, 64

of the St. Elias region
Dixon, CAPTAIN GEORGE, Explorations of..60,62 west of ley bay

187
DOBBINS, J. W., Contribution to explora GRACE, M. P., Financial operations by..... 23
tion fund by....

75 GREELY, A. W., Contribution to explora-
Dobos, Arthur, Geographic work by 210 tion fund hy..

75
DOME PASS named
146 cited on Mississippi floods ...............

38
DONEY, L. S., Member of expedition...... 76 -; Geography of the Air..
- Work of
85, 158, 159, 160, 162 - Note by, on polar regions

252
D'ORLEANS, PRINCE HEYRI, ('rossing of

- the crossing of Tibet

23
Tibet by....

2.33 Record of communication by.. vii, viii, xi
Douglass, E. M., Record of discussion by xi ; The Cartography and Observations
DOUGLASS, COLONEL, Explorations of......... 02 of Bering's First Voyage ....

205
DRY BAY, Mention of.........
53, GUIANA, Sketch of

1:
Du Bocaue, BARBIC, Geographic work by. 211 GUIDES, L'se of, in ascending St. Elias..... 166
--, Quotation from, on de l'Isle's map..... 216 Guyor Glacier named...

73
Di Fosse, E., cited on early publications. 207
DI HALDE, Père, Geographic work by.... 206 HAENKE, D. Tadeo, Haenke island named
--, Quotation from, on de l'Isle's map..... 218 for......

65

HAENKE ISLAND, Condition of, when seen
EARTHQUAKES, South American

2 by Malaspina......
ECLIPSEN, Early, observed in

.......... 63, 64, 65, 97
Kam-
visit to...

96, 103
shatka

219, 229 Hans, Juris, cited on cyclones......
EIFFEL TOWER, Use of, in meteorology. 46 HAYDEN, DR. F. V., Glacier named for.... 108
EKHOLM, Nils, cited on isostaths

43 HAYDEN, EVERETT, Contributions to ex-
ELDORADO, Early accounts of ...... ......... 14 ploration fund by....
ELECTION of officers,

xii -, Record of discussion by..... vii, viii, ix, xi
ESPERANZA, Point, Mention of...
14, 85 Report on exploration by......

250
EXPEDITION (An) to Mount St. Elias, HAYDEN GLACIER, Brief account of..108, 110, 111
Alaska; I. C. Russell......

53 Hays, J. W., Contribution to exploration
EXPLORATION in Alaska .......

248
fund by......

75

HAZEN, H. A., Reterence to work of... 50
FARENHOLT, LIEUTENANT COMMANDER 0. HEIGHT and position of St. Elias

189, 190
E., of U. S. S. Pinta..

79 HENDRICKSES, REVEREND CARI J., Mention
FAULTed pebble from Pinnacle pass.. 171, 172 of
FAULTS...

83, 136 Hill, S. A., Reference to work of.....
Thrust, in Hitchcock range

118 Hill, R. T., Record of communication by..xiii
FERREL, William, cited on cyclones..... 42 HITCHCOCK, PROFESSOR EDWARD, Range
Reference to treatise by

named for. .....

112
FINLEY, J. P., Reference to work of 50 HITCHCOCK RANGE, Brief account of......... 112
FLORAL HILLs, Brief account of ...

105, 108
-- from Pinnacle pass ..

133
FLORAL Pass, brief account of...... 105, 108, 110 Structure of

118

**** ".............. 67, 68

176

80), 83

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Page.

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HOOGEWERFF, J. A., Record of communi LEACH, Boyntox, Contribution to explora-
cation by
viii tion fund by...

75
HOOPER, CAPTAIN C. L., Navigation of Dis LEVÉE systems of the Mississippi...
enchantment bay..

56, 100 LIBBEY, PROFESSOR WILLIAM, Explorations
Offer of coöperation by
2449 by

72, 73
HURE, E. C., Record of address by.. vii LINDENKOHL, A., Computation of position
-; The Heart of Africa..
2338 of Mount St. Elias by.

235
HOSMER, E. S., Contribution to explora LINDSLEY, W. L., Member of expedition.. 76
tion fund by...

75 Work of.... 122, 131, 134, 135, 1:39, 144
Return of...

83

149, 150, 153, 157, 158, 164
Volunteer assistant

76 LITTLEHALES, G. W., Record of discussion
HOTCHKISS, JED., Record of communica-

by......
tion by
ix, x LITUYA BAY, Mention of

35
Testimonial to ..
X LOB-NOR, Character of..

253
HOVEY, H. C., Record of communication LOGAN, SIR W. E., Mountain named for... 141
by ................. ...

X LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY, Acknowledg-
Kemarks by, at field meeting.,

ments to

247
HOWELL, E. E., Record of communication LUCIA GLACIER, Brief account of...

192
by....

xi
-- Crossing of...

105, 106, 108, 109
HUBBARD, GARDINER G., Contribution to LYXY CANAL, Mention of...

78
exploration fund by....

75
Glacier named for.

99 MALASPINA, ALEJANDRO, cited on Mount
Presentation of fag by.....

viii
St. Elias........

231
Record of presidential address by.... xiii Explorations of

62, 66
; South America: Annual address by MALASPINA GLACIER, Character of..

187
the President....
1 - described and named...

71, 72
HUBBARD GLACIER, Brief description of 99 Excursion on.....

120, 121, 102
Học, L'ABBÉ, Route of...
255 from Blossom island

118, 119
HUGHES, T. McKENNEY, Record of com-

Mention of.....

56
munication by...
x MALDONADO, Reference to...............

62, 63
MAPs of Alaska, Rare

206
ICEBERGS, Formation of ......... 98, 99, 101, 102 - (Staff) of France, Review of the... 2.50
- in Yakutat bay, Description of.....

87 MARYIN, C. F., Reference to work of.... 18
Ice tunnels

181 MARVINE, A. R., Glacier named for.... 112
INCAs of Peru

8

MARVINE GLACIER, Account of ..... 112, 122, 124
INDIANS of South America........

7 McCARTENEY, C. M., Contribution to ex-
INSTRUCTIONS from Geological Survey 192 ploration fund by.

193, 194 MCGEE, W.J, Record of communication by, xiii
National Geographic Society 191 Record of discussion by

X, xi
IRVING, PROFESSOR R. D., Mountain named MELVILLE, G. W., Record of communica-
for..

144
tion by.

viii
MENDENHALL, T. C., Record of discussion

xi
Jackson, SHELDON, Record of discussion
by..........

METEOROLOGY, (ondition of..
ix

MEYER, Hugo, Reference to work of........ 47
JOHNSON, J. B., Record of discussion by.. xi
JOHNSON, WILLARD D., Contribution to ex-

MIRAGE in Yakutat bay

87
MISS1881 PPI RIVER, Flood of v.
75

37
ploration fund by.....
Exploration planned by.

Monsoons, Characteristics of
75

47
Record of discussion by

vii
MONGOLIA, Exploration in......

255
Moon, Mountains of the......

240
Report on exploration by.

250
MORAINES ...

195
JUDD, J. G., Contribution to exploration
fund by

Medial, on the Marvine glacier. 123

134
JUNGEN, ENSIGN C. W., Mention of...........

on the Malaspina glacier.....
81
- near Yakutat bay..

191
MOUNTAINS of South America

1
KAMSHATKA, Cartography of....

217 MOUNT AUGUSTA, Avalanches on the sides
Early eclipses in...

219, 229
of

145
KERR, MARK B., assigned as an assistant.. 75 Elevation of....

117
- cited on Mount St. Elias

39 MOUNT BERING, Height and condition of.. 63
- Report on topographie work by ....... 196 MOUNT COOK, Appearance of......

92
KHANTAAK ISLAND, Village on

.... 79, 80
· named

72
King, HARRY, Contribution to explora-

Rocks composing

92
tion fund by...
75 Mount FAIRWEATHER, Height of.

69
KNAPP, HON. LYMAN E., Mention of... 79 MOUNT LOGAN named

141
KNIGHT ISLAND, Scenery near
83 MOUNT Malaspisa, Elevation of.

117
- named by Puget

68

-- named
KNOWLTON, F. H., Report on fossil plants.. 199 Mount Newton named

146

MOUNT Sr. Elias, Expedition to......
LA BOUSSOLE, Mention of....

58 - (see St. Elias, Mount).
LAKE CASTANI named..
73 MOUNT VANCOUVER named

72
LAKELETS on the glaciers
119, 120 MUIR GLACIER, Visit to.

78, 79
LAKES, Abandoned beds of, near Blossom MULGRAVE, LARD, Port Mulgrave named
island...
116 for.......

60
LA PÉROUSE, J. F. S., Explorations of... 58, 60
La Plata river, Sketrh of...

5 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, Instruc-
LASSA, recent attempt to reach.....
25: tions from

194
L'ASTROLABE, Mention of........

58 NÉVÉ tields..

180, 181, 182
LAURIDSEN, P., riteri on early maps 215 NEWELL, F. H., Record of communication
-, Quotation from, on de l'Isle's map..... 217 by

xi

by

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