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Feldspar is sparingly present, and includes both monoclinic and triclinic forms, whose crystallographic boundaries are invariably lacking.

Treatment of the sand with dilute acid produces effervescence, which is not due to incrustations of sodium carbonate. By persistent search among partieles separated in a heavy solution, a few grains were discovered which, from their complete solubility with effervescence in very dilute acid, as well as their optical properties, left no doubt as to their being calcite.

The mica group has only one representative, biotite, and this occurs most sparingly. Though much of the sand was examined, but few fragments were found. Its foliated character renders it easily transported by water and explains its absence from among the heavy minerals.

Shaly, slaty and schistose material forms the major part of the coarser grains. Thin sections from the largest pieces plainly indicated hornblende schist.

A region of glaciers would seem to be favorable not only to the collertion of meteorie material, but also to the destruction of the country rocks, the setting free of their mineralogic constituents in a comparatively fresh state, and their transportation to the sea. It was hoped that this sand would yield some of the rarer varieties of minerals, but tests for native iron, platinum, chromite, gneiss, and the titaniferous minerals proved ineffectual. Titanium is present, but in such small quantities that it could only be detected by means of hydrogen peroxide. The use of acid supersulphate and the borotungstate of calcium test of Lasaulx failed to reveal the presence of native iron.

It will be seen from the foregoing enumeration that the sand is made up of grains of gold, magnetite, garnet, hornblende, pyroxene, zircon, quartz, feldspar, calcite and mica, associated with fragments of a shaly, slaty and schistose character. While the information at hand is hardly sufficient to warrant much speculation concerning the rock masses of the interior, still there is no doubt that the sand is derived from the destruction of metamorphic rocks.

APPENDIX D.

REPORT ON FOSSIL PLANTS.

BY LESTER F. WIRD.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
L'NITED STATES GEOLOGICIL SURVEY,

Washington, D. (., Varch 12, 1891. Mr. I. C. RUSSELL,

United States Geological Survey. MY DEAR SIR: The following report upon the small collection of fossil plants made by you at Pinnacle pass, near Mount St. Elias, Alaska, and sent to this division for identification has been prepared by Professor F. H. Knowlton, who gave the collection a careful stuly during my absence in Florida. Previous to going away I had somewhat hastily examined the specimens and seen that they consisted chiefly of the genus Sulir, some of them reminding me strongly of living species. I have no doubt that Professor Knowlton's more thorough comparisons can be relied upon with as much confidence as the nature of the collection will permit, and I also agree with his conclusions.

“The collection consists of seven small hand specimens, upon which are impressed no less than seventeen more or less completely preserved dicotyledonous leaves.

‘These specimens at first sight seem to represent six or eight species, but after a careful study I think I am safe in reducing the number to four, as several of the impressions have been nearly obliterated by prolonged exposure and cannot be studied with much satisfaction.

“ The four determinable species belong, without much doubt, to the genus Salir. Number 1, of which there is but a single specimen, I have identified with Salix californica, Lesquereux, from the auriferous gravel deposits of the Sierra Nevada in California.* The finer nervation of the specimens from the auriferous gravels is not clearly shown in Lesquereux's figures, nor is it well preserved in the Mount St. Elias specimens; but the size, outline, and primary nervation are identical.

“Number 2, of which there are six or eight specimens, may be compared with Salix racana, Heer,t a species that was first described from Greenland and was later detected by Lesquereux in a collection from Cooks inlet, Alaska. The Mount St. Elias specimens are not very much like the original figures of Heer, but are very similar, in outline at least, to this species as figured by Lesquereux. They are also very similar to

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* Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. VI, no. 2, 1878, p. 10, pl. i, figs. 18-21. † Flor. foss. Arct., vol. I, 1868, p. 102, pl. iv, figs. 11-13; pl. xlvii, fig. 11. Proc. Nat. Mus., vol. V, 1882, p. 447. & loc. cit., pl. viii, fig. 6.

some forms of the living S. rostratu, Richardson, with entire leaves. It is clearly a willow, but closer identification must remain for more complete material.

“ Number 3, represented by four or five specimens, is broadly elliptical in outline, and is also clearly a Sulix. It is unlike any fossil form with which I am familiar, but is very similar to the living S. nigricans, For., var. rotundifolia, and to certain forms of S. xilesiaca, Willd. The nervation is very distinctly preserved, and has all the characters of a willow leaf.

“Number 4, represented by three or four very fine specimens, is a very large leaf, measuring 13 cm. in length and 3) (m. in width at the broa lest point. It may be compared with Sulir macrophylla, Heer,* but it cannot be this species. It is also like some of the living forms of S. nigra, Marsh., from which it (liffers in having perfectly entire margins.

While it is manifestly impossible, on the basis of the above identifications, to speak with confidence as to the age or formation containing these leaves, it can hardly be older than the Miocene, and from its strong resemblance to the present existing flora of Alaska it is likely to be much younger.” [F. JI. Knowlton.] Very sincerely yours,

66

LESTER F. WARD.

* Tert. Fl. Helv., vol. II, 1836, p. 29, pl. Ixvii, fig. 4.

Page.
Desengaño bay, named by Malaspina.. 63
Digges' sound, named by Vancouver... 68
Diller, J. S., Contribution to explora-
tion fund by.........

75
Dip at Pinnacle pass.....

140
Discovery (The), Mention of....

66
Disenchantment bay, Canoe trip in..96, 103
-- last view of.....

163
mention of..

50
visited by Malaspinit.

63, 64
Dixon, Captain George, Explorations

of....
De Monti bay, Arrival at.

79
Descubierta (The), Mention of...

63
Devil's club (Panax horridum), Men-
tion of...

95, 115
Dobbins, J. W., Contribution to explo:
ration fund by..

75
Dome pass, named..

146
Doney, L. S., Member of expedition... 76
Work of.......

85, 158, 159, 160, 162
Douglass, Colonel, Explorations of...... 62
Dry bay, Mention of..........

55

.... 60, 62

50

70, 72

89, 130

Page.
Admiraliy bay..

56
Agassiz glacier, Ascent of..

147
- named..

73
Age of St. Elias range..

175
Alpenstocks, Necessity for.

165
Alpine glaciers.....

176, 180
Alion, Edmund, Contributions to ex-
ploration fund by....

75
Archangelica, Mention of..

89, 114
Atrevida (The), Mention of..
Arevida glacier....

92, 105
Auriferous sands....

196, 197, 198
Avalanches.....

145, 155
Baie de Monti...
- named by La Pérouse
Baker, Marcus, Explorations by...
reference to biliography by.

58
Base Line, Measurement of

86
Bear, Meeting with......

94, 109
Belcher, Sir Edward, Explorations
by......

68, 69
Bell, A. Graham, Contribution to ex-
ploration fund by...

75
Bell, Charles J., Contribution to ex-
ploration fund by...

75
Kering bay, Mention of...

50
Bering, Vitus, Explorations by.......... 58
Bien, Morris, Coniribution to explora-
tion fund by.....

75
Birnie, Jr., Rogers, Contribution to ex-
ploration fund by.

75
Black glacier, Brief acccount of... 101, 104
Blossom island, Description of ...... 113, 122
Boussin, Henry, Mention of

79
Broka, George, Explorations by...... 73, 74
Camp hands.

166
Carpenter, Z T., Contribution to ex-
ploration fund by

75
Carroll, Colonel Jamex.
Cascade glacier named....

144
Chaix hills Damed...

73
Chariot, The, Mention of....

140
Chatham, Mention of

06
Cherikof, Alexei, Explorations of..... 58
Christie, J. H., Member of expedition.. 76
- Work of............ 82, 83, 84, 96, 103, 112,

113, 123, 162
Clover, Richardson, Contribution to
exploration fund by.......

75
Cook, Colonel James, Explorations of.. 58
Corwin (The) in Disenchantment bay.. 100
- Return of ..........

163
Crevasses..

181, 182
- ai Pinnacle pass..

130
Cross sound, visited by Vancouver's
expedition....

67
Crumbach, J, H., Member of expedi-
tion ...

76
Work of.......... 96, 103, 122, 125, 151

131, 135, 139
Dagelet, M., Mention of..

60
Dall, W. H., Explorations by .....

70, 72
- reference to bibliography by..... 58
Dalton, John, glacier named for... 98
- mention of......

73
Definition of formations in St. Elias
region...........

167

Farenholt, Lieutenant Commander 0.

F., Commander of U.S. S. Pinta..... 79
Faulted pebble from Pinnacle pass., 171, 172
Faults....
- Thrusi, in Hitchcock range.

118
Floral hills, brief account of.. 105, 108

- pass, brief account of......... 105, 108, 110
Formations of the St. Elias region. 167
Fossils at Pinnacle pass...

140
description of Yakutat system... 172
Fossil plants, Report on, by Lester F.
Ward..

199, 200

Gabbro on the Marvine glacier

123
Galiano, Don Dionisio Alcala, mention
of

63
Galiano glacier, Visit to....

.... 89, 90
Gannett, Henry, Contribution to ex-
ploration fund by

75
Instructions from

194
Geology of the St. Elias region.... 167

190, 191, 174
Geological Survey, Instructions from... 192

19, 194
Gilbert, G, K., Instructions from... 192, 19:3
Glacial currents...

187
– river, best example of.............

183
- streams....

183, 184
Glacier bay, mention of...

67
Glaciers in Disenchantment bay in
1792...

64, 65, 97
observed by Malaspina..... 64, 65
Puget......

67, 68
of the St. Elias region....

176
west of Icy bay.......

187
Greely, A. W., Contribution to explora-
tion fund by...

75
Guides, use of in ascending St. Elias... 166
Guyot glacier named....

73

Haerke, D. Tadeo, Haenke island
named for.....

65
- island, Condition of, when seen by
Malaspina......

63, 64, 65, 97
visit to...........

96, 103

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Page.
Hayden, Dr. F. V., glacier named for... 108
Hayden, Everett, Contributions to ex-
ploration fund by.....

75
Hayden glacier, Brief account of........ 108

110, 111
Hays, J. W., Contribution to explora.
tion fund by.....

75
Height and position of St. Elias..... 189, 190
Hendricksen, Reverend Carl J., men-
tion of......

80, 83
Hitchcock, Professor Edward, range
named for..

112
range, brief account of

112
from Pinnacle pass....

1:33
- structure of.....

118
Hooper, Captain C. L., Navigation of
Disenchantment bay...

56, 100
Hosmer, E. S., Contribution to explo-
ration fund by,.....

75
- return of......

X3
-, volunteer assistant..

76
Hubbard, Gardiner G , Contribution to
exploration fund hy..

75
-, glacier named for.......

99
Hubbard glacier, brief description of.. 99

Page.
Malaspina glacier, character of........... 187
described and named...

71, 72
---, excursion on............... 120, 121, 162
-, from Blossom island ............ 118, 119
mention of......

56
Maldonado, reference to.....

62, 63
Marvine, A R., Glacier named for....... 112
Marvine glacier, Account of... 112, 122, 124
McCarteney, C. M., Contribution to ex-
ploration fund by..

75
Mirage in Yakutat bay.

87
Moraines

195
- medial, on the Marvine glacier..

1:23
- on the Malaspina glacier...

134
near Yakutat bay....

191
Mount Augusta, avalanches on the
sides of..

14.5
elevation of....

117
Mount Bering, Height and condition

of
Mount Cook, Appearance of .............
named....

72
rocks composing

92
Mount Fairweather, height of..
Mount Logan, named...

141
Mount Malaspina, Elevation of

117
named.

72
Mount Newton, named....

146
Mount St. Elias (uee St. Elias, Mount).
Mount Vancouver, named.

72
Muir glacier, Visit to......

78, 79
Mulgrave, Lord, Port Mulgrave named
for....

GO

92

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National Geographic Society, Instruc-
tions from...

194
Névé fields....

180, 181, 182
Newton glacier, Ascent of...

154)
Newton, Henry, Mountain named for.. 146
New York Times, Expedition of..... 172, 173
Nordhoff, Charles, Contribution to ex-
ploration fund by............

75
Norris glacier, Mention of.

78
Nunatak in the Lucia glacier............

106
Oil stores, Use of....

164
Orel, Mention of the..

70
Otkrytie, Mention of the.....

69
Outfit necessary for Alaskan expedi-

165

[blocks in formation]

tions ........

L'Astrolabe, Mention of.

58
La Boussole, Mention of.....

58
Lake Castani, Named.....

73
Lakelets on the glaciers.... 119, 120
Lakes, Abandoned heds of, near Blos-
som island

116
La Péronse, J. F. 8., Explorations 01..58,60
Leach, Boynton, Contribution to ex-
ploration fund by

75
Libbey, Professor William, explora-
tions by...

72, 73
Lindsley, W. ha., Member of expedi-
tion

76
Work of......... 122, 131, 134, 135, 139, 144

149, 150, 153, 157, 158, 164
Lituya bay, mention of....

55
Logan, Nir W.E., Mountain named for.. 141
Lucia glacier, brief account of

192
- crossing of..... 105, 106, 108, 109
Lynn canal, mention of.......

78

Panax horridum

95, 115
Partridge, William, Member of expe-
dition......

76
Work of........

158, 159, 162
Piedmont glaciers, characteristics of... 122

170, 185, 186
example of..

..... 120, 121
- type of klaciers, mention of....

57
Pimpluna rocks, mention of............ 70, 187
Pinnacle pass cliffs, account of...... 132, 137
,height of..

137
-, view from..

132
description of...

............... 130, 132
named

130
system, description of rocks of.. 167, 170
named ....

131
Pinta, mention of the...
Phipps, C. J., Port Mulgrave named
for.....

GO
Plants on Blossom island.........

114
Point Esperanza, Camp at........... 82, 84, 85
Glorious, named....

137
Riou, Mention of.....

69
Port Mulgrave..

56
named by Dixon..
Powell, J. W., Contribution to explora-
tion fund by....

75

79, 81

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GO

Malaspina, Alejandro, Explorations

of......

62, 66

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