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not do one day's honest work amongst them in a twelve-month. They adopt the however, that the employment of additional workingmen implies additional bur-
eight-hour cry as their own simply to win the support of the more gullible of the dens on the employers. It may be that all of our industries will not be able to
laboringmen to the furtherance of their own horrid and chaotic doctrines. The stand the pressure. The relations between the two sides of the controversy are of
way of the socialist and the workingman lie far apart. The former would destroy such a nature' that they can not be fairly adjusted by peremptory and arbitrary
those very conditions of a society perfectly organized, well knit, and harmonious

The interest of all require that the settlement be made by arbitration
in all its degrees, under which alone is the persect success of the laborer possible. rather than revolution.
S. B. McCracken, in Detroit Tribune, May 1.

Utica Press (Ind.).
I SHOULD regard with the greatest apprehension any step on the part of labor

We submit that before able-bodied men seek to reduce their hours for labor from
to force the eight-hour rule at the present time. It is an innovation too far-reach ten to eight that something should be accomplished in behalf of the women and
ing to be accomplished at once. The effort to bring it about at once would, I fear,

children who work in the factories eleven and a half hours a day. Their long
react upon labor itself. Enterprises are put on foot at this season looking to the

hours are more of a hardship to thein than the time put in by those who are now
active work of summer. Any active disturbance at this time would deser if not talking about a reduction. Organized labor can engage in no worthier movement
deseat many of them, wholly leaving a large contingent unemployed and dependent. than that looking toward lessening the hours for women and children in factories.
I do not believe that the experiment ought to be tried now further than can be done When that is accomplished it will be time enough to talk about making eight hours
by amicable agreement. By this method the eight-hour plan will prove its claim a day's work.
to adoption, and the change will come gradually as a needed reform.

Boston Journal (Rep.), May 1.
Chicago Times (Inil.), May 1.

In all the principal business centres of the country, wherever the movement for
It does not need superior wisdom to foresee that the chief sufferers from the

securing ten hours' pay for eight hours' work has been pressed, the effect has been
movement which has already produced such serious results will be the workingmen

an abrupt check to new construction. Capitalists would not invest money and conthemselves. Even in the not improbable event of its speedy collapse, a complete

tractors.could not mike contracts under such a menace. Nothing can repair the restoration of confidence will necessarily require considerable time, and in the in.

injury occasioned by this ill-advised and premature movement, but the question terim the demand for labor will be materially abridged. The workingien will

whether the prospect shall change for the better or the worse depends largely discover in due time, that they are striking themselves a good deal severer blow

upon the moderation and good sense shown by those who are engaged in these

trades.
than they are inflicting upon capital. The hardships resulting from their own solly
will be found even more intolerable than those they are wont to attribute to the

Chicago Herald (Ind.), April 29.
arch fiends (“ employers "') against whom they have declared war.

The leaders of the eight-hour movement have repeatedly advised their follow

ers not to insist too strenuously on the retention of wages at their old figure, but to
Washington Star (Ind.).

make first, of the reduction of the hours of work, leaving the adjustment of
In view of the absolute and irreparable injury to both contestants, why can not pay to another time. Conducted generally on such principles the agitation might
a compromise be effected ? It would cost each something to make concessions be successful. Carried on unreasoningly and recklessly it must fail. The move-
now, but the sacrifice at the beginning would be trifling as compared with the ex ment had an auspicious beginning and it would be a pity to see it wrecked now
pensiveness of a long-continued period of idleness, which must be brought to a by the blindness of the men who have most to hope for in its advocacy.
close eventually by the backdown of one party or the other. If the employer de-
mands ten hours and the employé is willing to give only eight why can not they

Syracuse Standard (Ind.).
split the difference and call nine hours a day's work? Or why can not they leave Two hours off the working day where a thousand men are employed is 83%
it to a board of arbitration to hear the arguments on both sides and decide what

days, and in a week the subtraction equals 500 days, which makes an appreciable
the terms of compromise shall be?

falling off from the productive force of a concern and from its earnings. Some

employers, who are able readily to adapt their business to the eight hour plan, are
Indianapolis Journal (Rep.), May 3.

cloing so, generally stipulating, however, for reduced wages. By virtue of this re-
The eight-hour demonstrations continue. Street parades, red flags, fiery duction, they will be able to make good the immediate decrease in the productive
harangues by scoundrels and demagogues, who are living off the savings of capacity of their works by engaging a larger number of laborers.
honest but deluded men, strikes and threatened violence mark the inauguration of

Columbus, Ohio, Journal (Rep.), May 1,
the movement. From out of the chaos we think it fair to predict that the move-
ment as a whole will fail. In individual cases the demand will be granted, but it

The theory of eight hours as a wage day is, and long has been, an attractive
is folly to presume that the whole labor situation of the country can be suddenly

one; but when the time is at hand for it to be reduced to practice, wage-workers and arbitrarily arrested and adjusted to a new basis. That is the work of time in many lines of industry begin to recoil. They see clearly that under the eightand patience, and of honest and intelligent men, not of an hour or day, or of hour rule one of three things must happen. Weekly wages must be reduced 20 idlers, brawlers and hot-heads.

per cent. in order to employ an additional number of workmen, the products of

manufacturing establishments must be reduced 20 per cent, or there must be a Taggert's Sunday Times (Rep.), Philadelphia.

general acivance in the prices of all the necessaries of life.
Here is a mem. for the striking Knights of Labor and the strikers for ten hours'

Galveston News (Ind).
pay for eight hours' work: There arrived at Castle Garden last month 22,919 im-
migrants, and that is but one of the places of entry for foreigners. Of course the The aspiration for a working day of eight hours in any hard mechanical em-
March arrivals were much like those of other montlis, nineteen in twenty being ployment is one that appeals strongly to the sympathies of reasonable men, but if
working people flying from starvation wages at home to the generous wages of this

it has to be gained by a strike it is much the same difficulty for the worker, in the
lavored country. So great is the difference between the wages paid abroad and

practical light of a contest, as a demand for higher wages, more especially when here that for a year or two, at least, these twenty thousand foreign competitors will

the demand is for the shortening of hours without reduction of pay. In fact, such be quite willing to work for very much less than those who are here are willing employers as use much machinery would in good times far rather pay somewhat to do.

higher wages than shorten the working hours.
Brooklyn Union (Ind.).

Chicago Journal (Rep.).
THERE is likelihood that both the successful and the unsuccessful efforts to

The promoters of the eight-hour movement should proceed very slowly and
shorten the hours of labor will make plainer than hitherto to a great many minds

carefully. In some trades its adoption might produce no serious disturbances. In the fact that wages are not fixed arbitrarily. In certain industries there is a more other branches of industry and production it would prove absolutely fatal, and or less arbitrary scale of wages, but a vague general notion exists that eight lours

thousands of thousands of men who had refused to work ten hours in a day would could be made a day's work simply by an agreement of employers and employed to

find themselves entirely without work. Experiments might be made here and make it so—a fallacy akin to the fiat money idea and apparently as ineradicable.

there, to see how it will work, but an attempt to regulate all employments accordYet, wherever and whenever men can lessen the number of hours' toil required to

ing to its terms would create general disaster.
sustain life, they make a gain of human opportunity.

Lancaster, Pa., Examiner (Rep.), April 30.
Pittsburgh Dispatch (Ind.), May 2.

“The hours of labor must be reduced throughout the nation, so that the toilers
As for the eight-hour experiment it is well to have all the light possible thrown may have more time in which to learn the science of self-government,” so speaks
upon the ground-work upon which the present movement has been based-while

Mr. Powderly. But he forgot to state what patent process he proposes adopting to in the meantime it must be temporarily left to settle itself by adjustment, if it be

get the workingmen to study self-government. If those who are well to do and possible to the economic conditions of the country. If it fit in, well and good; if

supposed to be intelligent, yea even our legislators, do not think much, why does not, the fact will soon be established. The practical knowledge of the most Mr. Powderly think the extra two hours the workman wants will be spent in study? thoughtful and best-posted workingmen in their own special lines as to what is

It is but a dream.
feasible should be of great use at this juncture in guiding their associates toward

Cleveland Plain Dealer (Dem.).
conservatism of action.
St. Louis Republican (Dem.).

The position of the Plain Dealer on this question of shorter hours of labor is

well known. It has insisted repeatedly that not only is it just to the workinginen NO ONE should give such support to the eight-hour movenient as will further

that more timne should be given them for rest and self-improvement, but that it is also disturb the business of the country. No one, either, should give it such opposition

for the direct interest of the employers of labor, as the work of a clear-headed, as will tend to have the same effect. Its advent is the result of premature deliv

intelligent man in any department of labor is of more value than that of a jaded ery, caused by the shock of the Southwestern strike, and it requires the most care

man who has not had sufficient leisure to recuperate his strength or improve his sul handling to prevent bad results.

inind.
Washington Critic (Ind.), May 3.

Philadelphia Press (Rep.).
THE strike is peaceable and orderly. It is in the interest of a worthy cause so The standard length of the working day will be regulated by the increase in
far as the interests of the unemployed are concerned. It is to be borne in mind, the productive capacity of the laborer and not by strikes or boycotts. It is a

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FINANCE AND COMMERCE.

TAXING COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS.

problem that will solve itself through easy processes which can not be hastened by tions, the country storekeeper would have to endure the loss of time and expense unreasoning force or organized resistance to economic principles.

of going to some business center himself, or he must send on his orders without Wisconsin State Journal (Rep.).

seeing a sample or personally having a word about the goods he requires. In the

meantime the drummer is paying his own expenses in the storekeeper's town, The proposed change must be experimented with before generally adopted. instead of the storekeeper paying his own expenses in the drummer's town.—MemThat shorter hours will eventually prevail is to be sincerely hoped, but it can not phis Appeal, April 29. be brought about as an industrial system by the resolutions of mass-meetings or the blustering threats of demagogues.

The House Committee on Commerce have favorably reported a bill to relieve

foreign drummers of State or local license, tax, or penalty. It is conceded by the Toledo Bee (Dem.).

committee that a State has the right to tax its own citizens at pleasure, but it takes A NEWSPAPER man would be among the happiest of men if his labors could be the broad ground that no State has the right to lay a duty upon importation from confined to eight hours, or ten hours, or even twelve hours a day. His work one State into another under the name of a license, tax, or penalty, although the always goes on—in fact, about all his waking hours are devoted to work.

very State does put the tax equally upon residents and non-residents. This meets Cincinnati Evening Post (Ind.).

the case fairly and squarely, and if Congress passes the bill reported by the Commit

tee on Commerce, the entire system of petty local taxes upon commercial travelers will THERE need be no fear, on the one hand, that the eight-hour movement will disappear. “ Such laws,” says the committee, “although not discriminating in favor. fail, nor, on the other, that it will disturb the framework of society. It will suc of residents and non-residents, are in conflict with the cor.stitutional power of Conceed, and it will peacefully and beneficently succeed.

gress to regulate commerce between the States.” Judicial decisions in support of The Craftsman, (Labor).

this position are cited, and the report states explicitly that the object of the bill is fe If we secure eight hours for a day's work we remove the greatest menace which

to prevent any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia from requiring a license now threatens the welfare of labor and the good order of society; we place the

from those who are exclusively agents in interstate commercial transactions. The grand army of idlers in a position to be useful producers.

report concludes as follows: "The contracts for sales made by commercial travel

ers are not consummated in the State when the order is solicited, but the final N. Y, World (Dem.).

assent thereto is given by the merchant or principal who receives and executes the The movement in behalf of shortening the hours of labor is not attended with

order of his correspondent. This trade is now carried on without objection by great successs, but everywhere the workingmen seem to be bearing themselves

postal communication and samples by mail, and it is not perceived why the same with discretion.

thing executed by a commercial traveler in person is in any way objectionable.”Buffalo Times (Ind.).

Atlanta Constitution, May 1. So far as Buffalo is concerned the eight-bour movement is a total failure. There The so-called, and much discussed now, James bill” pending before the will be no general attempt to enforce the eight-hour plan in this city.

House of Representatives is fundamentally right. It aims to protect commercial travelers from the license taxes in the several States and Territories and in the District of Columbia—that is, to give a man a right to buy and sell his goods where he can. It would seem a most natural permission to grant, especially as the ultimate right of giving or refusing orders lies with the local merchant; the drummer merely having the power to solicit patronage. There is no undue advantage given, for although the local dealers do have to pay a tax on their per

sonal property, so also do the merchants everywhere to their own States, and, Several of the States have quite recently passed special laws requiring com furthermore, the local dealers are not obliged to pay a direct tax upon their sales mercial travelers to obtain license somewhat as the merchant obtains license nor pay for the right to carry on their business. The bill merely allows commerfrom the county in which he does business, notwithstanding the commercial cial travelers the same privileges that commercial residents enjoy, and no more. traveler's capital is confined to his business competency and the trunk of samples To do less would be an unjust discrimination to a large and important trade.-Bos: carried, and the local merchant's capital is not only his skill, but also the invest ton Journal, April 29. ment in the stock upon which his trade is based. The committee recommend the bill proposed to authorize trade between the States and Territories, unrestricted by Cost OF RAISING COTTON.—A number of printed circulars was sent two State or Territorial statutes, and thus again is an excellent opportunity afforded weeks ago to our correspondents throughout the State, with a request that they for the resumption of the States' rights discussion. But the time has fully come would obtain from intelligent, practical farmers in each county caresul answers to when all parties must recognize the modification or rather the adaptation of the

old the inquiries contained in the circular. As we feared would be the case, satissactheories to the new conditions with which the Government is confronted. The tory answers could not be given in every instance. Many farmers, it was found, constitutional provision conferring upon Congress the power to regulate interstate keep no record whatever of their expenses, and systematic book-keeping is prac commerce should be strictly construed to be sure, but not so strictly as to cripple or ticed by very few. In other cases, again, even when the answers are made with obstruct trade between the States. If free trade in the United States is to be en care, the items are grouped or combined in such a way as to render it impossible couraged; if steam and electricity are to be tolerated as its agents ; if rivers are to distribute them under proper heads. For these reasons, the number of estito be permitted to run across State lines and bridges to span their waters from one mates available for use is not so large as was desired. The selections made were State to another, the commercial traveler cannot safely be denied like privileges or received from the counties of Aiken, Abbeville, Anderson, Berkeley, Darlington, be restricted in their exercise. He, too, must be included in the interstate "code" Edgefield, Hampton, Newberry, Oconee, "Sumter, and Williamsburg; thus repreof which Congress must necessarily continue the construction. The Democrat senting every part of the State, and are the more valuable for that reason. The no more than the Republican need become alarmed at the necessary extension of whole number of acres planted in cotton, upon which these estimates are based, is the powers of the General Government over that entire class of interests compre- 2,516; the farms range in extent from 13 acres to 600; the number of hands emhended in the proper regulation of the interstate commerce of the country. Neither ployed varies from 2 to 45, and the number of mules from 1 to 25. The totals are political party can safely tolerate the adoption of half way or weak measures by as follows: the General Government over the subjects of its control, one of which is the drum Number of acres planted in cotton.

2,516 mer. The States are next to helpless; their legislation necessarily fragmentarý Number of pounds of lint made.

565,690

1,675,917 which comprehend and envelop them. The General Government is alone qualified | Cost of bagging, ties, extra picking, ginning, baling, hauling, commisfor the work of subjecting and controlling these artificial forces which are brought sions for selling, &c.

$12,248 72 into requisition by interstate trade, of which the American drummer is an import Cost of fertilizers, including interest if bought on credit, hauling, disant part.–Kansas City Times, May 1.

tributing, &c.

$7,975 65

Cost of seed planted The subject of taxing commercial drummers which is now attracting very gen

$726 88

Number of hands employed eral attention from the recent action of the State of Mississippi imposing such a

Wages paid

$16,801 00 tax, a law that has been protested against by many towns in Mississippi refusing to Number of mules employed . add a corporate to the State tax. The commercial traveler goes wherever busi

135 ness offers, unmindful of State lines, and his business is therefore interstate in its

Cost of mules per annum, for feed, &c.

$10,915 00 Interest on land cultivated, or rent, if rented

$4;284 00 character, and therefore comes under that provision of the Constitution which con

Repairs, fencing, incidental expenses, &c.

$2,342 00 fers upon Congress the right to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among

Value of crops made, exclusive of cotton, by force employed in cultithe several States, and with the Indian tribes.” An investigation of the subject has been made by a House committee, and a bill introduced into Congress which provides

vating cotton. .

$15,930.00 that “ residents of each State and Territory may, within the other States and Ter An analysis of these figures yields the following results, which are tabulated fop ritories and within the District of Columbia, solicit from dealers or merchants ready reference and comparison: orders for goods and merchandise by sample, catalogue, card, price list, description, Number of acres .

2,516 of other representation, without payment of any license or mercantile tax.". If the Number of bales (500 pounds) bill be passed, Congress exercises its powers, and the drummer-tax sinks into the Average acres required to produce a bale

292 darkness that hides many such short-sighted obstructions to commerce. It is urged Average bales to acre, 45 per cent., or nearly

12 that the commercial traveler conducting business for a firm in another State is sell

Average bales

per
hand.

573 ing merchandise in opposition to resident dealers, though paying no local or State

Average bales

per
mule

817 tax. There is something equivocal in this charge, as the drummer usually sells Average acres per hand .

12.58 not against but to resident dealers. If he should become a peddler of wares under Average acres per mule .

18.63 pretence of being a traveling agent, the law would deal with the abuse of privi- | Average lint per acre (pounds)

225 lege. If agents cease to visit small towns with their samples and personal explana- Average seed per acre (pounds)

666

200

; 1,131

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The cost of production of lint cotton per acre, as derived from thèse estimates, is either drawing the design to be transmitted on ruled paper; divided into little as follows:

squares by vertical and horizontal lines, or laying a transparent paper, tracing Per acre.

cloth, or other transparent sheet, which must be so divided by lines into squares, Average cost of bagging, ties, extra picking, ginning, baling, hauling, com. over the drawing. The squares in each compartment are devoted, respectively, missions for selling, &c.

by pairs of letters, the alphabet running down the outer side for the horizontal rows Average cost of fertilizers, including interest, if bought on credit, hauling, of squares, and along the top for the squares in vertical series. A corresponding distributing, &c.

3 17 paper, which may be of a different scale if convenient, is kept at the receiving Average cost of seed

29 station. The operator at the transmitting station can thus indicate by alphabetical Average wages :

6 67 letters to the receiving station any point on the paper falling in the center of any Average cost of mule

4 33 of the squares; the person at the receiving station will apply his pencil to that Average interest on land cultivated, or rent, if rented

170 point, and will then be directed to the next point, drawing a line with the pencil, Average cost of repairs, sencing, incidental expenses, &c

93 and so on to form a complete outline drawing. This system may evidently be

made of considerable value in mil tary operations in transmitting plans and maps, Total cost per acre

$17 58 and inay also be found of value in times of peace, for various purposes, which will

suggest themselves. Our limited space prevents us from entering more into the Value of crops made, exclusive of cotton, by force employed in cultivating detail of this interesting application of the telegraph, and we may refer those who cotton, per acre

desire a more minute description to the April quarterly publication of the Journal Value of collon seed (15 bushcls at 25 cents) per acre

3 75 of the Royal United Service Institution.-Electric Wotid. Total ,

$10 08

VALUE OF SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION.- The Rev. Dr. Lansdell has published a book of travels in Central Asia.

“the first thing that struck” him was From these statements three conclusions may be drawn: (1.) If the whole cost

the enormous size of the apricot trees. A tree “about” four years old, measured of production of cotton and other crops is charged against colton alone, the cost of five feet three inches in circumference. If this had read “sour years," it would coiton delivered at the nearest market, including cost of selling, is 7 4-5 cents per

mean that the apricot in that part of the world can add to its diameter five inches pound. (2.) If the value of other crops and of the cotton seed is deducted from

a year.

When it is remembered that an inch added to the diameter of a deciduthe cost of producing cotton, the cost of the cotton alone is 3% cents per pound.

ous tree in a single season is regarded as an enormous growth, we may conclude (3.) If the cost of the cotton and other crops is charged tu cotton alone, at 7 4.5 that there is much of saving grace in the qualification “about four years." One cents per pound, or $17.58 per acre, cotton pays all the expenses of the farm and

would suppose there would be little room for doubt “about” the age of a fourleaves $10.08 per acre as profit.-Charleston, S. C., News and Courier, April 30.

year old tree.

It would not require the evidence of the oldest inhabitant to get at THE BUSINESS OUTLOOK.— Those who are in a position to know comp'ain that

the exact age. But the traveler has to nove on; and we are left to conclude that the attitude of labor in various parts of the country is already having a serious effect the trees were probably. “ aliout” five feet three inches as well as “about four upon business. Manufacturers are afraid to purchase raw material or to enter into

years old.” And yet it is unfortunate that what might he valuable material for contracts for goods, because they cannot tell whether they will be able to carry

scientific work should be given in this doubtsul way. The Independent, them out without loss. The clearing-house returns for the last five days in April THE LATEST DEFINITION OF ELECTRICITY.—The now universally accepted indicate a decided decline in exchanges, the clearings being $622,123,031 against definition of electricity is: Water being a parabolic fluid is readily converted into $697,739,833, which is largely attributed to the labor troubles. The crop reports

solid manganese nitrate, wlien its coelfcient can be received back in the reflected are of the most encoựraging character. Indeed, it may be said that the reports at

image of the spectrum. What follows? The paleozoic electrical hypothesis nalurthis time are universalty favorable. Winter wheat promises an unusually early ally seeks a vacuum, which, combining with alcoholic spinal meningitis, causes harvest, with a full yield everywhere except in Kansas and Michigan. The plant

geometrical presusion in the empyreum of the democratic eclyptic. Prima facie ing of the spring crops is far advanced under the most favorable conditions. The

and a priori ihe Hoboken theory must be applied parenthetically and diabolically, Bureau of Statistics reports that our exports during the month of March were $53-,

not forgetting to take into consideration the micrometric differentiation of the semi690,000 agàinst $51,398,000 in March, 1885, and that our imports were $60,037, incandescence of the resulting equation, together with its possible duration.—' 000 against $52,976,000 in 1885. These figures show that while our exports are

Electric Review. well up the volume of imports is large, but not so large as in 1884 or 1883. During the past week the shipment of gold from New York was $1,250,000.—Boston

AGING WINES BY ELECTRICITY.-Dr. E. J. Fraser, of San Francisco, has been Journal, May 3.

making exhibitions in that city of his patented process for aging wines by elec

tricity. The liquors put under treatment have been tested by local wine experts, who MONEY IN THE BANKS.—The recent increase in the surplus of the banks is not

thought that while the wine was made inuch smoother, the brandies and whiskies an accidental phenomenon in the money world. It is a well-known financial fact

received the most benefit. The process appears to consist chiefly in winding wire that capital speedily takes resuge in the bank vaults when frightened from employ around the casks and then passing a current through the coils. Dr. Fraser is now ment in business enterprises. An extensive strike re-acts in a " tie-up” of capital, constructing tanks of 100 gallons capacity for repeating the work with large quantities leads to strangulation in productive industry, and to widespread destitution in the

of wine.--Electric World. field of labor. While the banks draw upon the wage fund in the hands of employers, the necessity of sustaining the strikers draws upon it in the hands of the workingman. Such a situation soon leads to exhaustion.-- Philadelphia Press, April 30.

RAILROADS.
SAVINGS BANKS AT THE SOUTH.—There are in the Southern States 117 savings
banks with more than $10,000,000 of capital and nearly $4,000,000 surplus. On
January 1 the five savings banks of Charleston contained deposits amounting 10 AFTER THE BATTLE.—One important result of the transcontinental war is cer-
$3,176,000.—Charleston News and Courier.

tain, viz, that passenger rates will never return to the old figures. For years the
first class limited rate from the Missouri river to San Francisco was $100. The
rate recently adopted by all the lines from the Missouri river to San Francisco is

$50, or just one half of the ante-war figure. This is a very low cliarge for first-
SCIENTIFIC.

class transportation half way across the continent; but if, as seems probable, half
the old rate will more than double the number of passengers, and thus help to fill

up the only partly filled cars which formerly made the journey, it will prove more
PUZZLED ABOUT PEARS.–Pyrus, the pear, has puzzled the philologists for hun. profitable in the long run than the old rate, while the benent 1o California can
dreds of years in the allempt to account for its connection with the well known hardly be estimated.—Railway Age.
fruit or fruit tree. The Greeks called it Apios, though this seems to have been the

THE WEAKNESS OF THE CUllom Bill-Senator Cullom has pushed the conname of the fruit only. The Latins had it Pyrusmor, rather, in Virgil's ortho

sideration of his interstate commerce bill in Congress, and it is about to come up graphy, Pirus and some have thought that the latter has been derived from the

for action. While many of its provisions are excellent and can be heartily supformer. But, as pyra signifies a funeral pile, many insist that we have to look to some connection with fire in order to account for its name. No one has found any

ported, the clause prohibiting a greater rate for short hauls than for long hauls is

so opposed in the necessities of railway traffic, and would be so injurious to many such connection; and the botanists have had to be satisfied with the statement that Pyrus is a classical name.” But now comes forward Mr. Shirley Hibberd, a well

localities which by reason of special competitive facilities have advantages that known botanical historian, and points out that the leaves of the pear tree die away

cannot be measured by mileage, that it certainly will call out much opposition. in autumn with a brighi, fiery tint. He thinks it might have been called a fire

One great defect of the provision is that it practically ignores the competition of

water routes.- Railway Age. tree because, among other trees in the autumn, it would look like a bright suneral pyre. One would have to know whether there were not other bright, fiery, pyre ELECTRIC HEAD-LIGHTS.-According to a German railway organ, the locomo. looking trees in the Roman dominions, before deciding it probable that this one tive head-light problem has been solved by an Austrian telegraph engineer, Mr. alone had a special claim on the term. In this country the cherry, which was also Hermann Sedlacech, arc lamp being fitted up in such a manner by this inventor cultivated by ine Romans, often dies away with a much brighter adieu than the that the regulators and mechanism connected with the carbon effectively withstand pear tree. Philologists are, however, always glad of the suggestions.-- The Inde the shaking and rolling of the engine, while the apparatus has been greatly símpendent.

plified. A company is being formed for the purpose of working the invention.-

Electric Records TRANSMITTING PHOTOGRAPHS BY ELECTRICITY.—Lieutenant Glenn and Lieutenant Colonel Melville, of the English army, have independently hit upon an in The first through train over the Canadian Pacific railway between the Atlantic genious system by which the ordinary operation of telegraphing may be made to and Pacific oceans is announced in leave Montreal Monday, May 24, the Queen's serve the purpose of reproducing sketches and plans. The method consists of birthday.--Railway Aga

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MEDICAL.

round, and the common type of organization came to be the grouping of several
schools in the same building, with the senior teacher-senior in authority, at least
in charge of the whole. This head-master was, and is, usually a man, while the

subordinates are usually women. Under the new system the position of men. is AS THFRE seems to be some danger that a certain individual may succeed in his

now an aristocracy of rank and employment rather than of pay, though the advan. endeavor to procure legislation that will throw the ægis of the law over his manure

tage of pay comes in also. The grievance of women is not, in this case, that men heaps in the city of New York, it will ot be amiss to call attention to one of the

are paid more for doing the same work, but that higher and conseq special dangers arising from accumulations of manure, namely, the prevalence of

lucrative work is assigned to men. Why,” women may justly ask, “are not these diphtheria among persons living in their vicinity. In a recent issue of the British

higher positions, involving the headship of a building, assigned to women às well?" Medical Journal, Dr. W. E. Stevenson, of London, having had his attention di

Formerly the reason would have been given that these “grammar masters," as rected to the fact that a writer in Lyon Medical, .M. Ferraud, traces some relation

they were often called, were expected to do the whipping, in serious cases, for the between manure heaps and epidemics of diphtheria, recalls the circumstances that,

whole building; but now that corporal punishment is a rare thing, this would not when resident at the Children's Hospital, he was struck with the frequency with

hold. - Again, there is a theory that a man can better look after furnaces and all which children with diphtheria were brought in from the mews. In those cases the

the mechanical appliances of a school-house; but now that the employment of families occupied the rooms over the stables. So noticeable was the connection, he

janitors is so general, this reason also fails. In small school-houses a woman is says, that he mentioned the point in a paper on diphtheria, published in the Med

very commonly at the head, and there is no apparent reason why it should not be ical Times and Gazette in February, 1883. Not only did the children suffer from

the same with a large one, except from some lingering distrust as to her adminisdiphtheria, but there was reason to believe that the dogs and cats that frequented

trative or disciplinary power. This distrust seems to me, as a matter of fact, quite the mews also suffered in the same way, although this suspicion was not confirmed

unreasonable. Cases occasionally occur—I have known at least one—where by autopsies, as it was impossible to obtain the bodies of the animals that died with

women of superior ability are promoted over men of inferior ability, and are placed throat affections. Some districts of London were entirely free from diphtheria,

in charge of school buildings. In the case I have in mind the man's salary rewhile others afforded numerous examples of the disease, and Dr. Steavenson thinks

mained higher than the woman's, expressly on the ground that he was a man and it would be interesting to know whether the localities of immunity were deficient

had a family, thus making the case an exception to the general rule of administrain mews and manure heaps.

tion that higher authority should be associated with higher pay; but it was a case There is much that is uncertain in our knowledge of the channels by which in.

of a woman's exercising authority over a man. Such cases are rare, so far as. I fection is conveyed, but surely it may be said of the suggestion of a connection

know, in our public educational institutions. In the great Western State universibelu een localized outbreaks of diphtijeria and accumulations of manure that it ties, which are coeducational, a man is always the head, and the prosessors are rests on a basis quite substantial enough to justify the Legislature in refusing to

men, while the pupils are of both sexes. At Vassar there are professors of both endanger the public health by allowing an individual to submit the question to the

sexes, the pupils are women, the president is a man; while at Wellesley ali are test of perpetual experiment.---New York Medical Journal.

women, except the music-teacher and the head.cook. It is impossible for seminine MOSQUITOES AND RATTLESNAKE Poison.—The following story comes to us from authority to be more completely vindicated than in the presidency of that very sucFlorida. A man living in the neighborhood of Tampa was bitten on the leg by a cessful institution, and it seems one of the ironies of fate when one looks through rattlesnake. A doctor was at once sent sor and the leg was bandaged tightly the kitchen window and sees a black man in a white cap presiding over the fryingabove the wound, although it was expected that the man would die before medi pan. One of the large normal schools of Massachusetts is conducted with equal cal assistance could be procured. The leg having been bared for the application success by a woman. She has only girls as pupils, and I am not aware which sex of the bandage, was attacked by mosquitoes, and when the physician finally ar

cooks the dinner. When we enter the domain of private or endowed schools we rived, he found the man in good condition, but the ground around where he lay

find at once that the administrative ability of women is better recognized, strange was strewn with dead mosquitoes. Our informant, who overheard the foregoing to say, than in our public school system. The great conventual schools of the story told by an “old-fashioned doctor” on a railroad train, said that the narrator Roman Catholic Church are controlled by women, and so have been, from the days remarked “it was rather hard on the mosquitoes,” and then he added, in a reflec of Mrs. Willard and Mary Lyon, the largest Protestant schools for girls. All over tive sort of way, “I presume the man's life was worth saving.”—N. V. Medical the country there are large boarding-schools kept by women, and these women find Journal.

no difficulty in obtaining male teachers who will work under them gratefully so

long as their salaries are paid. Nor do those who are thus in authority experience THE NEWARK CHARITABLE EYE AND EAR INFIRMARY takes a most commendable position in the matter of excluding persons who are able to pay for treat

any more difficulty than men in keeping their finances in order or collecting their

bills. In other countries the same experience holds, and in regard to a variety of ment. In its Sixth Annual Report we find the following notice conspicuously

occupations. I am not much given, let us hope, to being overawed by earthly printed: “The Infirnary is for the treatment of the poor alone. Applicants

potentates; but I always found it difficult to hold my own against the cold authorpresenting a well-to do appearance are refused treatment, unless they satisfy the officers that they are unable to pay.

Persons who are able to pay for

ity of the housekeeper of any large English inn, with her black silk dress and her

keys, and how unconquerable is the stony smile of the Parisian shopwomán when the services they require are not unfrequently sent here by physicians and others;

she utterly declines to perceive that the gloves she has sent you home are of a this is an abuse of medical charity which we hope to correct by calling attention

quality quite inferior to those you bought and paid for! Women are quite as imto it. The Infirmary is a private corporation devoted to the public welfare, and perious as men when they “rise to station of command,” from Queen Victoria the medical officers of its staff do not receive any pay for their services.”—New York Medical Journal, May 1.

down to the brisk little waiting-maid at an English inn for commercial travelers,

who, when I asked her if the young fellows did not make a good deal of disturb. A Russian CURE FOR HYDROPHOBIA.— Following M. Pasteur's discoveries in ance, replied, “ We have to be very, very firm with them, sir," in a tone of decision France, a new remedy for hydrophobia is reported from Russia. It consists of the that would have quelled a crew of mutineers. In truth, I suspect that women, onion-shaped root of the water.plantain, which flowers in the summer. The when in authority, are quite as apt to err on the side of strength as in the direction roots should be collected in the month of August, dried and grated; the powder

of weakness, and that the fear lest they should not be equal to the emergency is as should then be spread on bread and butter, and so administered to the patient.

if Rip Van Winkle had complained of the too subservient quality of his dame and It is said that two or three doses are sufficient to cure hydrophobia in its acute her broomstick. The very novelty of the situation, however, makes it a little unstage, either in men or animals, and it is claimed that the remedy has never been certain on which side they shall incline; just as it was founıl, when our civil war known to fail. The subject is, at any rate, deserving of the attention of our

broke out, that regular army officers appointed to command volunteer regiments doctors.—Casseli's Family Magazine.

sometimes erred by exacting too much, sometimes by expecting too little. Women

in authority, I fancy, are occasionally led into being too severe by the fear of not A TRAINING-SCHOOL FOR ASYLUM ATTENDANTS has been established in connec

being strict enough. I was talking the other day with a young man bearing a tion with the State asylum at Buffalo, under the superintendence of Dr. J. B. An

military title, who complained that a lady under whose orders he was working drews, and last week the first class of pupils was graduated. Several meritorious ruled him and his mates with a rod of iron, and that her tyranny could scarcely be essiys were read by members of the class, and an interesting address was deliv borne. I wondered if, after laboring so many years to secure equal justice and opered by Dr. Stephen Smith, of New York, a State commissioner in lunacy. The

portunity for women, it would next be needful to organize a League for the Promanagers of the asylum deserved credit for having established so useful an auxiliary tection and Elevation of Men!—7. W. H., in Harper's Bazar. to the care of the insane, the human influence of which can not well be over-estimaled.---N. Y, Medical Journal.

CONFESSIONS OF CRIMINALS.—There is no point in which the legal theories of English-speaking nations differ more markedly from those of other peoples than in regard to the amount of reliance to be placed upon the confessions of persons ac

cused of crime. The European jurist can conceive no possible reason why an
MISCELLANEOUS.

innocent person should accuse himself of crime. To his mind, a confession is the
best and most convincing evidence of guilt; and, accordingly, all the machinery

of the criminal laws of the European continent is directed to the single end of seWOMEN IN AUTHORITY.-It is a curious fact that, while women have long curing such admissions. But for this belief in the reliability of such confessions owed to our public school system in America their best employment, they still are the physical torture of accused persons would have been abolished in France and unequally placed in those schools as compared with men. The disparity of

pay

is other countries almost as soon as humanity condemned the custom in England. really almost as marked as it was forty years ago, although it now rests on quite Even now in those countries suspected persons are subject to cruel direct examinadifferent grounds Then there were comparatively few graded schools, even in tions in the hope that a confession may be wrung from them-examinations that towns. The prevailing type was that known best as the district school,” which are almost revolting to people accustomed to the humanity of our law. English had a summer term and a winter term. The summer school was usually taught and American lawyers give many reasons for considering confessions very poor by a woman, bụt in the winter, when the school was larger and the farmers' boys evidence. Many men are naturally lying braggarts. Experience has proved that came in, it was thought needful to have a man as teacher, even at higher wages, there are persons who are altogether too prudent to break the law in any respect, If a woman taught a winter school, she rarely had a man's pay; but the gradual but who think it a fine thing to boast of imaginary victories over the guardians of Extension of the graded sygtem made schools and teachers permanent all the year society

, The Western fgwboy tells how many mep he has killed, but thase who

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know him are aware that, like the lord High Executioner in the Mikado, he Mr. T. Harrison Garrett having placed on exhibition at the Peabody Institute a
couldn't " kill anything.” There are people who are cranks in the matter of ac selection of three hundred prints from the Claghorn collection acquired by him
cusing themselves of crime. The criminal court records show many cases of last year. It is a curious and interesting thing to know that only one of the
hall-witted men and women who have confessed crimes that were never commit members of the Art Committee of the Union League Club upon which devolved
ted. Notoriety, even of an evil odor, is dear to the crank's heart. Criminals the management of the exhibition is an artist.---During the school year ending
under sentence of death often seem to labor under an hallucination that they have May 31, 1885, one hundred and twenty men and one hundred and four women
committed other crimes. Despairing of pardon, they take a melancholly pleasure attended the classes at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia.
in charging themselves with all sorts crimes. Piper not only murdered a little -Mr. Watts, R. A., has publicly announced that he will leave the result of his
girl in the belfry of a Boston church, but also, if his story may be believed, com Art life-work to the English nition on both sides of the Atlantic. Canada is to
mitted several otherwise undiscovered murders. In him despair seemed to de. receive three representative specimens. -The new portrait by Rembrant, which
velop a mania for self-accusation. But false confessions are more commonly the Belgian government purchased at Cologne for 100,000 francs, has been placed
made with some ulterior motive. In one notable case an innocent person made a in the Brussels Gallery.
false “confession in order to fix suspicion on himself alone, that his guilty brothers
might have time to escape—a stratagem that was completely successful, aster

Music. It is the general opinion that the first season of American opera has
which he proved an alibi in the most satisfactory manner.” In another more cele.

been an unqualihed success, a fact which leads the energetic managers to promise brated instance, two men, named Boven, were convicted in a Vermont court,

a continuance of the brilliant series of operas next season. Every attention has mainly upon their own confession, of the murder of a half-witted dependent

been paid to detail in the way of mounting and scenic effects. -The stock of brother-in-law. They even said that certain bones found were those of the sup

the Metropolitan Opera House Company in New York has been increased to $1,posed victim. But the brother-in-law was found alive and well in New Jersey,

290,000. -Italian opera has been a failure in Russia, and the artists are now and returned in time to prevent the execution. “He had fled for fear they would

carrying it on as a co operative concern. - Thirteen new operas were presented kill him. The bones were those of some anima). They (the Bovens) had been

in Germany during the past season. -At the Mapleson benefit in San Francisco, advised by some misjudging friends that, as they would certainly be convicted

Miss Minnie Hauk, who was the star of the occasion, was presented by admiring
uron the circumstances proved, their only chance for life was by commutation of

friends with a wreath of pure gold in imitation of laurels.
punishment, and that this depended upon their making a penitential.confession." DRAMA.- Freurd's Music and Drama thinks the benefit business is be-
These and many similar cases have satisfied English and American lawyers that ing overdone and that a halt should be called. The proposed visit of the
confessions alone are unreliable as evidences of guilt. When it is known that a Great Meiningen Company in this country during the coming fall promises to be
prisoner, especially one charged with a capital offense, intends to make a confes a notable event. This company is the pet of the Duke of Meiningen, who gives
sion, it is the practice in our courts to delay the trial in order to give him ample it the most minute attention, and although he is now sixty years of age he proposes to
time to decide whether or no he will pursue that course. Even then, with cross the Atlantic to see that its first appearance is a success.

Tickets for the per-
out proof that the crime has really been committed, our courts will not convict formances, which are limited to twenty-four, are now being sold in New York
him. The rule is that the Government must prove its case by satisfactory evidence, A grand farewell banquet is to be tendered to Henry E. Dixie, of Adonis fame,
and, while a solemn deliberate confession of a crime actually committed can not be prior to his departure for Europe. Mr. M. P. Handy, of the Philadelphia News,
ignored, yet the public seels better satisfied with the results of trials in which the

will preside. --The Actors' Fund burial plat, in Evergreen cemetery, New York,
accused persons are not self-condemned.-Boston Globe.

is to be dedicated June 6. There will be addresses by Geo. Wm. Curtis, Robt. WHAT THE BLIND CAN DO. A shining example of what the blind who have G. Ingersoll

, Chauncey Depew, and others. Rev. Henry Ward Beecher will courage and determination can do could be witnessed in the late lamented Henry preach the dedicatory sermon. -Sir Charles Young's play “ Jim, the Penman," Fawcett. He refused to allow his infirmity to interfere materially with his career was rejected by nearly every manager in London before the direciors of the Hay. and habits, though, of course, it modified and altered the channels. It is well market theatre took it up and consented to put it on at a single afternoon performknown that he was an admirable horseman and fisherman, and if he was unde

It has been run ever since, and is the theatrical sensation of the day in Eng.
terred by the drawbacks of his condition when they were suddenly thrust upon

land.
him in early manhood, surely children who have never known the blessing of
sight can be brought up to regard blindness as nothing which need prevent their
taking their place comparatively on a par with the rest of the citizens of the world.
Henry Fawcett is not alone. Other blind men have, to all intents and purposes,

LITERARY.
lived their lives as thoroughly as thousands with their eyes have done. We have
heard of sightless travelers and writers innumerable. There were Milton, Pres-
cott, the historian; Huber, the naturalist, and Braille himself, to quote only a few Notes.-Mr. Henry Lumb, the well-known philanthropist, of Rochester, N. Y.,
that occur to me. Dr. Armitage; again, has traveled far and wide, frequently vis offers seventeen hundred and fifty dollars to be awarded as prices on the following
iting most of the European centers, where he could acquire information and, so to subjects: 1. The Sanitary Conditions and Necessities of School-houses and School-
speak, see for himself how the blind are educated and cared for. Two years ago Jise. One prize, $500. 2. The Preventable Causes of Disease, Injury, and Death
he made a prolonged journey through the States of America with the same object, in American Manufactories and Workshops, and the Best Means and Appliances
though he did not fail to enjoy the pleasures of travel for its own sake. Only in for Preventing and Avoiding them. One prize, $500. . 3. Plans for Dwelling.
very rare instances in the future need there be any occasion for allowing a sight houses. (a.) A plan for a dwelling-house not to exceed in cost, exclusive of cel-
less person to become a burden on his family or the charity of the benevolent. lar, eight hundred dollars. Prizes: First, $200; second, $100; third, $50; fourth,
“The night cometh when no man can work.” Then, of course, the blind, if they $25. (5.) A plan for a dwelling-house not to exceed in cost, including the cellar,
have not acquired resources of their own, must be provided for. At the same sixteen hundred dollars. Prizes: First, $200; second, $100; third, $50; fourth,
time, it cannot be gainsaid that they do require immense assistance throughout $25. Accommodations to be provided for families consisting of five persons. . It is
their lives. It is on account of this assistance not having been hitherto always ren intended that the essays shall be essentially American in their character and appli-,
dered upon a wise and logical system that so many mistaken ideas have prevailed cation. They may be written by authors of any nationality, but all of them must be
as to what are the real capabilities of the blind. - The Fortnightly.

in the Englishi language. -Ruskin says that Gibbon's style is the worst English
THEY DON'T Grow HERE.-Repression in Europe produces anarchists and ever written by an educated Englishınan, and John Burroughs says of Ruskin:
communists. They increase and multiply under the heel of clespotism. Russia, Never a man of such genius with so little common sense.” -Mr. Spofford, the
the most tyrannous power in Europe, has more nihilists than any other country, librarian of Congress, has held his position for over twenty years, and has seen the
and Germany is next in order in tyranny and in socialists. The freedom which library grow from 90,coo to 500,000 volumes. A new building for the accommo.
all enjoy in America, while seemingly highly favorable to the propagation of the dation of the library is soon to be erected. Dr. Behrends, of Brooklyn, will
errors of these visionaries is really fatal to them. The dullest wit comprehends at shortly publish, through Baker & Taylor, a work entitled “Socialism and Christ-
once the fact that these ránters have no actual grievance, or they would not be ianity.” -Mr. Jas. R. Osgood has gone to England as the representative of Harper
permitted to exploit themselves. On the faces of their hearers there are smiles of & Bros., and to fill the place which the late Mr. Sampson Low occupied for nearly
incredulity, and the most fiery rhetoric is not sufficient to drive from the listener forty years. -The Illustrated Graphic News, of Cincinnati, has engaged Mr.
the general ludicrousness of the performance. Freedom of speech and free gov John R. Murick to travel among the Indian tribes and write descriptive sketches of
ernment do not rest on foundations that can be shaken by the verbal violence of them. -Miss Woolson has written a book called “George Eliot and Her
these unfortunates. The very sense of security which society manifests in ignoring

Heroines." -A young Italian teacher of New York has written a book on the them is at once the refutation and the destruction of their cause. Their tribe does Philosophy of Words, which Prof. Max Muller has recommended to the students not increase in this air. The few unhappy creatures who, taking resuge in America

of Oxford -“ Passion and Politics” is the name of the posthumous novel writ-
from the oppression which made them what they are, and which they were power ten by Col. Burnaby. It will be issued this month. -The manuscript of “ 'I he
less to throw oft, are the frightful examples of a tyranny which, thanks to the valor Watch on the Rhine” has been found in possession of the author's friends at
and devotion of the men of '76, disappeared from these States a century ago. Burgdorf.-—-Gen. Fremont has taken a home in this city, and he and his wife are
They are in ignorance of that fact, but the mass of the people who preceded them hard at work upon his memoirs. —A Russian literary man has reported through
here are not.-Chicago Herald.

the St. Petersburg Historical Review that he found Count Tolstoi in excellent health,
employing his leisure hours in the study of Greek and Hebrew, in taking bodily
exercise, and in writing a series of short popular tales.A bibliography of Maine
is being prepared by Mr. Joseph Williamson, of Belfast. -Ex-Judge Platt Potter,
of Schenectady, has given to the New York Historical Society six volumes of the
State Trials of England, issued in 1742, which originally belonged to Sir William

Johnson, Bart. -The Saturday Review says that Mr. Howells has written charm-
ART.-The grand total realized at the Morgan sale is $1,207,299.30. The ing and delightful stories and essays of many kinds, but it doubts whether anything
Magazine of Art is of opinion that many of the paintings, ceramics, books, &c., he has ever written is so replete with charms as Tuscan Cities. Schürers Jewish
sold for much less than their value. -The people of Baltimore have now an people, in the time of Christ, is said to be a very remarkable work. -- "Arthur
opportunity to study, side by side, the works of a considerable numbesof engravers, Richmond” is at it again in the North American. -Vol. xx of the ninth edition

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ART, MUSIC AND DRAMA.

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