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SCIENTIFIC.

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Electrical Review, April 10.
MR. ALEXANDER G. NYE, formerly of North Falmouth, but now residing in Wey.

mouth, has a little electrical instrument of his own make which works in the same
ELECTRICITY AND THE INVENTORS.

manner that the telegraph of to-day operates. He claims that he conceived the
idea which underlies the present vast system of telegraphy before Mr. Morse did.

When Mr. Nye heard the announcement read that the telegraph had worked suc-
Electrical World, April 1.

cessfully he instantly exclaimed that there was but one way in which it could work Dr. A. M. ROSEBRUGH, a physician of Toronto, who has given considerable at and that was by the magnet system which he had elaborated into the little home. tention to telephonic and telegraphic apparatus, claims that the air telegraph or new

made instrument. Mr. Morse obtained his patent, and so Mr. Nye did not push his railway telegraph system for communicating with trains while in motion is largely

invention into notice. a Canadian invention. The principle upon which the air telegraph is worked, he says, was invented eight years ago by gentlemen in Toronto and Hamilton, and

Electrician, April. particularly by George Black, of Hamilton. The remaining elements in the system The enemies of the Bell Telephone Company include in their army the classes of the air telegraph developed by Americans are the using of the metallic roof of a mentioned, and each of these is hopeful of attaining desired results by depriving railway car as one pole of an electric condenser, and the utilizing of revolving the company of the rights which have been given them by the Government in a wheels for completing an electric circuit.

regular and legal way. It has been the wish of these vandals to inveigle the GovElectrical World, April 10.

ernment into a controversy which as individuals will cost them nothing, yet is

maintained for their individual benefit. The weary, wounded, snake-like pace It seems that Edison's latest invention of telegraphing to and from a moving

with which the case must progress is to their liking, for in the interim there is train was anticipated by W. Ļ. Silvey, of Cincinnati, who secured a patent for the

much being done in a speculative way, and the patents are gradually wasting same thing on July 12, 1883. The description of the apparatus in the patent is

away, with no possibility of renewal under the law. identical with the Edison apparatus, with one exception only. Edison uses a tele. phone receiver and the prior inventor what is called a resonator. That is the only

N. Y. Evening Post, April 12. difference between them. At present Silvey is perfecting a new electric light ma The long delay which has attended the preparation of the bill of complaint of chine, and has paid no attention to his induction telegraph. He expresses himself the Government against Bell will surprise no one who has in mind the difficulties as highly pleased with Edison's success, and shows no jealousy whatever. He of the problem with which counsel have had to deal. It was quite evident that said that he had worked out his invention on a farın in Indiana, rigging up wires in the original bill prepared by the Pan-Electric Company was never intended to his father's orchard and telegraphing from one wire to another forty feet away, a come before the courts upon its merits, being gotten up merely to afford the Attorgreater distance than Edison has bridged over. Silvey thinks that his apparatus is ney-General an excuse for commencing suit. We have no desire 10 anticipate in superior to Edison's, and that his produces sounds that are audible in a room, while any way the final verdict of the court. When we consider how many informaliEdison uses a telephone receiver to hear distinctly. One year after his first patent ties

may invalidate a patent, how the extreme freedom with which our Governhe patented an improved receiver which still further increases its availability. ment issues patents is set off by laws giving every possible advantage to parties conThere is no possible room to doubt his having beaten Edison by two or more years, testing them, how numerous the competitors, and how great the reward of overElectrical Review, April 10.

throwing the Bell patent, we cannot but regard the unbroken series of decisions in

its favor as a marvel. It would be hazardous to claim that no loophole in the docJust now it is Ohio that is ahead in the priority quarrying, and two bright and

ument and no invalidating circumstances in its issue could be brought to light by shining lights have come to the surface quite recently. From Youngstown, Ohio,

the searching inquiry now to be instituted. The point we wish to bring to the atcomes the account of wr. Luciun Rose's invention, which is no infringement on tention of our readers is that the bill makes a number of statements which, if true, Bell's patent, and is capable of operating “ long distances successfully.” Lately a

show that the action taken by the Government is quite unjustifiable, and the expractical test was made of the invention. The instrument was placed in the fifth

pense caused by it a flagrant waste of the public money. story of a building, ano.ier in the basement, and connections were mad ewith tele. graph wires to Freeport, Ill. The circuit was 900 miles. The two wires of the

Science, April. circuit were 60 miles a parl. Pretty well done for a metallic circuit,” says an old SO MUCH dissatisfaction has been found with the management and working of telephone man, over the writer's shoulder.

Undo edly this will work telephones in this country that business men are often found who will dispute the a revolution in the telephone Lusiness.” And the next day comes another Tich usefulness of the instrument. It is indispensable, however, as many have had to borne claimant from New Lislun, Ohio. From Indianapolis we learn that: “ For admit who have objected to the methods of the companies or the efficiency of the the first time evidence is made public tending to show that S. D. Cushman, of New systems. A comparatively new company, with a number of real advantages to Lisbon, Ohio, invented and vsed a telephone at least ten years before Bell took out offer, is now prepared to receive applications and make contracts for the granting his patent.” He has for many months been collecting evidence to establish that of licenses for the use of its telephones by companies or individuals in any part of he had in practical operation telephones in 1863. Affidavits shown testify that Mr. the United States. This company, the Wallace Electric Telephone ManufacturCushman invented in 1851 a receiver similar to the one patented by Bell in 1875: | ing Company, will not be hampered with litigations, and is fortified with $1,000,000 He says he is able to establish priority of invention, and therefore to nullify the Bell capital. Telephone matters have about reached a stage where it is possible for a patent.

good deal of money to be made, even by small concerns covering limited districts. Electrical World, April 10.

The Wallace Company aims to make it possible for its patrons to furnish the best

telephone al the lowest cost. This is accomplished through the automatic charHARDLY a week now passes but some new claimant for the telephone comes acter of the system. No other is or can be operated by the primary circuit, doing forward and relates with painful accuracy of detail how he talked through his tele away with induction coils and permanent magnets. All the battery is located in phone in 18—; and each one vies with the other in making the date a few years the central office. The transmitter, receiver, switch-board, and general apparatus further back. But now, one of them comes forward, who having got his telephone, have been proved to be superior in efficiency by extensive use throughout Canada the nature of which is not clearly defined, to work as far back as 1831, has sent his before the system was brought into notice here. proofs to ex-Senator Thurman with the modest request that his case be cited first, as it would at once dispose of the whole matter. If Mr. Cushman is correctly re

TELEGRAPH POLES IN THE SOUDAN.--In a recent lecture Major General C. E. ported, he seems to be buoyed up with the hope that afler having allowed his in

Webber, who had charge of the telegraphs with the Soudan expedition, stated that vention, through which hundreds of people talked, to lie idle for 35 years, he may

in the desert at some places the sand drists over the poles and buries them. In procure a patent upon the defeat of Mr. Bell. As this might lead others into the

such a case it is the custom to plant another pole over the top of the buried one, cherishing of hopes which can never be realized, we may state that even if Mr. Cush.

and raise the wire on that. In some cases as many as sour poles have been raised man's claim should be substantiated and Bell's palent declared void, the former

above each other in this way. Wooden poles become in time so ravaged by the

white ant that the blow of a stick will knock them over. At Assouan General could not obtain a patent, as his would constitute an abandoned invention. As the law stands, an inventor may work at his invention as long as he pleases, but if after

Webber found some examples of this state of things in the old Khartoum line two years' public use of this invention he fails to apply for a patent, he forfeits all

which was used by General Gordon until it was interrupted by the rebels. A very rights to the same, and it becomes public property. If after two years' public use

remarkable span of telegraph wire was effected by General Webber at Assouan of the invention another should obtain a patent for it, the original inventor may have

across the Nile. Two bluffs, one on each side of the river, were chosen, and tall the same declared void, but he himself could not obtain one, as it would then come

masts erected on them, giving a height of 350 feet above an island in the middle

of the stream. under the head of an “abandoned invention.”

The telegraph wire was swung between these poles, and its lowest

bend supported on poles planted on the island. The total length of this span was Electrical Review, April 1.

no less than a mile, all but seven yards. General Webber related that some of the It is rumored that an original experimenter has been discovered in Posey or natives of these regions have so elementary a notion of the working of the teleBrown, or some other hoop pole county, who will shortly astonish the world with graph that they believed it was only necessary for them to capture a telegraphist, the statement that he, way back.“ befo' the wah,” had a telephone in the woods, cut the telegraph wire, and put one end of it to each side of his head, in order which he kept hidden because his neighbors thought him a wizard, and to show

that he might speak the message. which then was to endanger his life. Electrical Review, April 10.

The Democratic party came into power over a year ago on the platform of

unconditional opposition to Republican principles and measures, and yet it has not A HUNDRED THOUSAND or less adventurers, each with “the best-known system,”

made a serious effort to undo a single one of the leading features of the Republican “a great improvement on the Bell,” “ the telephone of the future," " the long distance-far-speaking-crooked line-round-a-haystack-systein," etc., etc.

plan of carrying on the Government.

They are all there, and each is filled with patriotism-running over with a desire to benefit his WHATEVER the status of the conflict may be at this time, the man who bases his fellow-man-all regular Abou Ben Hassans—who want to take the place of the calculations on the assumption that the Knights of Labor will some day get Mr. Central and other telephone folks and run in their stead.

Gould on the hip, is the individual who is going to win all the money that is up.

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MEDICAL.

to mid April; and the minimum from that time to August. There are also three corresponding periods of increase in height, but the maximum corresponds to the minimum period of increase bulk, and vice versa, showing that when the body

is making bulk it is relieved from making height. A child grows fastest in June Medical Record.

and July, and much more slowly in September and October. Increase of bulk and THE NATIONAL BOARD OF HEALTH.—Efforts are now being made in Washing height alternate with each other, the period of quiescence being the same for both ton to restore to the National Board of Health those powers of which it has been forms of growth. As regards the minor fluctuations or “waverings,” high temperstripped, and which, when it had them, made it a very efficient body. We all ature favors increase of bulk. When the thermometer rises for a few days the inknow that to accomplish much good from a sanitary point of view we must have crease of bulk goes on at a more rapid rate, and when it falls there is a decrease, concerted action; we must have organization, harmoniously working, all the way or, at all events, a lesser increase. A report of similar observations on trees shows from the national down to the county or township or village board of health. Du that there are like periods of growth in bulk and height, a tree extending its length ties that properly belong to the National Board of Health have been, for some oc in April and May, and increasing its bulk during June and July, while during the cult reason, relegated to ancther department of the Government, and it is the effort

remainder of the year it enjoys a period of comparative rest and inactivity. to restore this power to its proper place to which we refer. For this praiseworthy effort we bespeak the influence of our readers, and ask them to urge upon their Congressmen the importance and justice of the measure. Medical Record.

FINANCE AND COMMERCE.
CREATION OF A FUND FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL CURE
OF PHTHISIS.—Professor Verneuil, of Paris, has started a fund for the purpose of

THE ST. LAWRENCE CANAL.
enabling experimental studies in the treatment of tuberculosis to be carried on.
M. Verneuil seems to think that it may be possible to prevent the development of

New York Commercial Bulletin. phthisis after contamination by some inoculation method similar to that employed by THE Montreal Board of Trade has just declared that the commercial opinion of Pasteur against rabies. The project of securing a fund is enthusiastically supported the dominion is not only not hostile to, but warmly in favor of, the speedy deepen. by the Gazette Hebdomadaire and by Dr. Landouzy in the Revue de Medecine.

ing of the St. Lawrence canals to a uniform depth of twelve feet; and the recan Phthisis alone killed sixty-five thousand five hundred and sixty-three persons in Paris

be no question but that the declaration is well-founded. It is now more than ten during five years.

years since the policy of enlarging these waterways was undertaken by the govern. Sanitary News.

ment and ratified by Parliament, and in accordance with that policy large expendiINJURIOUSNESS OF NATURAL GAS AS A FUEL.—It is thought by some physicians

tures have been made upon the Welland canal, and that portion of the work of in Pennsylvania that the use of natural gas as fuel is responsible for many cases of improvement will shortly be completed. These expenditures thus far have exdiseases of the respiratory organs. The manner in which it is burned in grates knows, is to attract to the St. Lawrence the trade, or as much as possible of the

ceeded the large aggregate of $30,000,000; and the special object, as everybody necessitates almost entire closing of these important means of ventilation, and the burning gas also vitiates the air of the room with products of combustion.

trade of the great Northwest. This expectation has not been realized as fully as

Canadian statesnien and the political economists had anticipated; but what most Medical Record.

concerns us now is the fact that there is to be no relaxation of effort and no stintAN HONOR TO Doctor Sayre.—It has often been cited as an argument against ing of money in the hope of achieving more satisfactory results in the future. At the dignity of the Republic that, although we call ourselves Americans, we are in

present, there is a proposition to appropriate an additional twelve millions for the truth but a mongrel race, tracing our progenitors to the back stairs of every Euro. St. Lawrence canals; and this is likely to be carried, under the conviction that it pean nation. During the early stages of our development, and even at the present

is absolutely indispensable, if only to obtain some adequate return for previous day, there is something of truth in the accusation; and yet there are many and outlays. mighty indications of occult sub-currents in our unique society tending ever to a

It is a programme that our own merchants and legislators would do well not to higher and more homogeneous civilization. Naturally, in the process of welding

lose sight of. It is highly creditable to the public spirit of the Canadians that men to the heart of the Republic, forces have been liberated which, up to a com

they should thus be straining every nerve, in the face of many discouragements, paratively recent period, found expression in material creations of the most gigantic to multiply their transportation facilities, and in other respects to attract to their and unheard of dimensions. Pending these struggles science and letters were commercial highways as large a share as possible of transcontinental traffic; but it necessarily neglected. But there has come a change upon us. To day we have would be a beggarly compliment to American foresight and American enterprise to undoubtedly a literature which reflects to a certain extent the genius of the Ameri

sit down and sold our arms without an earnest, intelligent effort not only to keep can mind; and in science we have opened pathways leading to ends so practical

what trade we have, but to extend it and make it secure for the future. Éven now - as to cover a positive industrial revolution. It is but natural that this reflection of we cannot well escape that reproach. At every successive session of the legisour environment, this “spirit of the times,"' this Americanism should have found lature, it is true, a languid endeavor is made to enlarge the earning capacity of our expression in medicine. We are not surprised, therefore, to find that there has

State waterways, and to otherwise improve them, in face of the flippant assumption grown up on this side of the Atlantic a medical literature, the most striking char

that the canals have had their day and must yield now to the superior competition acteristic of which is its practicality. This characteristic of American medical

of land transportation; but only a feeble support is accorded to it, and the consewriters seems now to be universally recognized in Europe. A notable instance of quence is, session after session is permitted to pass away, leaving the situation this is seen in a recent German translation of Dr. Lewis A. Sayres's “ Lectures on

pretty much as it was before. Unfortunately, a latent expectation that somehow Orthopædic Surgery.” The translator, Dr. F. Dumont, of Berlin, draws, in the

or other the Federal Government would step in and do a work which must be preface to his translation, especial attention to the practical attributes of the Ameri done by ourselves has tended to confirm this do-nothing policy. But while we are can mind. He instances this quality as the reason why thay have succeeded so thus calling upon Hercules, we are in peril of paying the penalty which nature well in the domain of orthopädic surgery.

invariably imposes upon those who are too indolent or too unenterprising to help

themselves. Commerce is not a thing of sentiment or patriotism, whatever the oraHerbert Spencer, in Popular Science Monthly, April.

tors or the politicians may affirm to the contrary. It will flow to the channels where I FIND among physicians the belief that nervous disorders of a less severe kind there are the fewest obstructions and the lightest burthens, without respect to geoare inheritable. Men who have prostrated their nervous systems by prolonged graphical lines of demarcation. It is much easier to retain trade than to regain it overwork or in some other way, have children more or less prone to nervousness.

after its current has been once changed or diverted. And we may affect to conIt matters not what may be the form of inheritance-whether it be of a brain in some template with contemptuous indifference the ambition of the Canadians to approway imperfect, or of a deficient blood supply; it is in any case the inheritance of priate to themselves a carrying trade which we have educated ourselves into the functionally modified structures.

belief belongs to us by some unprescriptible or traditionary right, but the affectation Topular Science Monthly, April.

will not save us from the consequences of our own solly. ADVANTAGES OF Low CEILINGS.–Rooms with low ceilings, or with ceilings

In reference to monetary affairs, the Financial Chronicle says: even with the window-tops, are more readily and completely ventilated than those

“As bearing upon the general question of silver the vote this week in the House with high ceilings. The leakage of air which is always going on keeps all parts

of Representatives at Washington on the bill for free coinage is of some signifiof the air in motion in such rooms, whereas, if the ceiling is higher, only the

Of course there was not the slightest probability that any provision for lower part of the air is moved, and an inverted lake of foul and hot air is left

unlimited coinage could be enacted into law, for the President certainly would floating in the space above the window-tops. To have the currents of fresh air

have interposed his veto if such a measure had reached him, and the Senate too circulating only in the lower parts of the roðin, while the upper portion of the air might have been trusted to defeat it, but at the same time, in view of the impudent is left unaffected is really the worst way of ventilating, for the stagnant atmos

pretensions of the advocates of the bill and their preposterous claims, it is a relief pheric lake under the ceiling—although inotionless—keeps actively at work under

to know that their pet scheme has been overthrown by the decisive vote of 163 to the law of the diffusion of gases, fouling the fresh currents circulating beneath it.

126. To be sure, it is a sad commentary upon the intelligence of our chief legisWith low ceilings and high windows no such accumulation of air is possible, for

lative body that 126 members should have been found inane enough to support the whole height of the room is swept by the currents as the dust of the floor is

with their votes such an extreme and foolish proposition, but this reflection is temswept with a broom. Low ceilings have also the advantage of enabling the rooms

pered by the confident feeling that the public is ahead of their representatives in to be warmed with less expenditure of heat and less cost for fuel.

this matter, and much better informed as to the real needs of the situation. It is

also a matter of regret that an amendment providing for a suspension of the presFACTS ABOUT GROWTH.—The principal of the Danish Institute for the Deaf ent coinage was voted down, but that may be qualified by the same considerations. and Dumb has made a large number of measurements and weighings on the child

Meanwhile it is a source of satisfaction to know that the Treasury has reached a ren under his care, and gives it as his opinion that there are three periods of growth stage where it can protect its reserve and maintain gold payments, no matter what in children during the year, with about thirty minor fluctuations. He finds that the happens, and in the interval we may expect that public opinion, understanding maximums are from August to December; the period of equipoise from December the requirements of the case and growing more enlightened with the progress of

cance.

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time, will make its its influence felt in a very emphatic way, with the effect that at stead of loss of gold by states living under the bi-metallic regime, we may adduce the next election many of the representatives who have so woefully misrepresented the fact that, while mono

metallic Great Britain has coined in the decade but aboui their constituents in this matter may be left at home.”

seventy-seven millions of dollars of gold for thirty-seven millions of souls, little btCONCERNING the speculation in staples, Bradstreet' says:

metallic Belgium has coined seventy millions of dollars for less than six miliions of

souls. The Southern and Western papers are writing much of late about the supposed necessity of legislative remedies for speculation in staples. In the South a proposition

Financial and Mining Record. has been put forth for a syndicate of Southern planters of sufficient extent to secure a

THE changes in the Jersey Central direction is the first step on the part of the short crop and at the same time to sell the staple short. Thus it is at once proposed

bondholders of the Jersey Central company to manage the company. It is said the
to put down and to profit by future sales of commodities. Nothing is more idle than new board will favor entire independence of Reading, and will proceed to a thor-
to write or legislate against speculation. The English act forbidding speculation in ough reorganization. The new board is undoubtedly in sympathy with the Morgan-
bank shares, which at one time promised success, has now been declared a failure. Welsh syndicate. In the opinion of the lawyers, the opinion of Judge McKennan
The only ill effect charged against speculation relates to extreme fluctuations in annuls the Reading lease, in which case no other road can lease the Jersey Cen-
prices, but the charge is false. The records of prices prove that price Auctuations tral, as there is now a general law which prohibits such action.
were more violent before the advent of « future” sales. The “ long” and “short”
sales serve as regulators of prices when their effect is properly understood. The
thing needed is not prohibitory acts, but a more widespread and more trustworthy
intelligence.”

POWER OF PUBLIC OPINION.
SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY MANNING, in his recent cominunication to the
Speaker of the House of Representatives, said :

Springfield (Ohio), Globe-Republic. • The Revised Statutes and Statutes at large direct the issue and prescribe the

THERE is a power behind all thrones and above all thrones, and this power is more or less limited uses of several kind of currrency. To but one do they assign buplic opinion. It cannot exist, however, except in communities in which indithe office of a standard. They christened the unit of all these currencies and

vidual thought is free and intelligent, and in which there are facilities for the interof our money of account with the name~dollar. To but one dollar do they assign change of ideas. the function of a unit of value.” The law of February 12, 1873, sec. 14 (R. S., 3511), read as follows: “The

T. V. Powderly. good coins of the United States shall be a one-dollar piece, which, at the standard I AM willing, as the chief officer, to lay everything connected with our order bare weight of twenty-five and eight-tenths grains shall be the unit of value. *

* *."

to the world if you will, on the other hand, lay open to the public the means and Thus the good dollar, circulating amid all other dollars, then existing or there methods whereby you have piled up the wealth which you control, and allow the after to be issued, whatever their substance, description, or kind “shall be the unit tribunal of public opinion to pass in judgment on the two. of value.” The law is unrepealed and unmodified. No other statute of the

T. V. Powderly United States now in force refers to that office, used the phrase, or names the thing. The function of the gold dollar as the unit of value is therefore unquali The battle-field upon which it will be fought will be before the two courts of law fied and ungestionable. Its office as a unit of value was once shared with fisteen

and that which makes law-public opinion. times, afterward with sixteen times its weight of silver. Its employment in that

Baltimore Sun. behalf is now unshared and sole. Its value is the unit of value, its measure is made the only measure. To that measure every other dollar must conform, while

Public opinion is the strongest support any cause can have in this country, beother dollars exist and this law of Congress stands. The simplicity of the language

cause it is the power which, first or last, makes the law. makes definition itself difficult, but dispute impossible. It has made my duty clear.

- HELLO! Pan-Electric exchange." · Bankey's Magazine.

Hello ! " The Augusta Chronicle says that attention is being attracted to the magnitude of

us 1888." the sums which have been and are being loaned in that State upon farms. It Can't do it; the Republican electric-light wire has crossed our line and burned seems to suppose that the interest upon such loans, with the addition of those made

us out.” upon city property, is “ something like one million dollars per annum.” The rate of interest lawsul in that State is eight per cent. per annum, but the commissions,

Every section of the country has productive industries which require judicious attorneys' sees, etc., on sarın loans are said to average as much as sixteen per cent,,

protection to establish them and thereby cheapen the product to consumers, and a and as the loans are generally on five years, the acturl annual cost to the farmer

general protective policy is thus made justifiable to the extent that it may give the exceeds eleven per cent. annually, and the courts are inclined to hold that such

greatest good to the greatest number. commission, etc., do not make the loans usurious in a legal sense. The Chronicle The spectacle of Cincinnati crowing over her return to the pure atmosphere of apprehends that numerous foreclosures will be the result, and that farins sold in Republican reform is very interesting. It reminds one of a man going around that way will not command present valuations unless the foreclosing companies among his friends telling them he has just taken a Turkish bath and how all fired shall take measures to invite Northern people to come in as buyers and settlers. good he feels. The Chronicle appears to anticipate advantages to the State from such changes of ownership, which, however, would not seem to mitigate the missortunes to the

Roswell PETTIBONE Flower, of New York, who has just returned from present owners of being ousted from their homes. If it is worth while to mairi

Mexico, says there is a great field for young men in that country. Colonel Flower tain usury laws, they should be guarded against evasions; and loaning companies,

may yet conclude to move his boom down there and let it grow up with the cactus.
in States permitting such a rate of interest as eight per cent., can well afford to AFTER Mr. Morrison has got the farmers as much down on him by his present
pay out of it all commissions and attorneys' fees. The propensity, however, in tariff bill as the manufacturers already were on account of his previous efforts in
new and undeveloped regions to borrow money, even at ruinous rates, is too that line, there will hardly be anything left in public life for him to live for.
strong to be argued with.

A GERMAN life insurance company called Die Lebensversicherungsgesellschaft”
Financial and Mining Record.

complains of the irregularity of the mails. Yet one would thinkit got all its letters.
All that will serve to materially cheapen the reduction of gold and silver ores WHAT most threatens Democratic demoralization is the tendency with some of
into metal is of the first importance not only to the mining industries, and its de its members to embrace Repaublican measures and adopt Republican methods.
pendent industries, but also to the whole business of the country, inasmuch as it
must tend to increase the stock of the money metals or of the measures of all

HEREAFTER it will be harder for a needle to get lost in a haystack thansor a other industrial results. We shall therefore watch with interest the experiments

man to get a drink in Rhode Island. about being made by means of a dynamo to be set up on the Truckee river in “IF The Government would only boycott Geronimo, perhaps the old rascal Nevada to transmit thence the whole motive power of that considerable stream would consent to arbitrate things." furnished by a Laffeel turbine, with a full head of water with 100 feet fall to a receiving dynamo at Virginia City. Those engaged in this operation claim that in

It is all well enough to talk about home rule in Ireland, but how about home

rule in East St. Louis ?
this way a motive power can be furnished at Virginia City for a hundred-stamp
mill for $200. At present the daily cost of transporting Comstock ores from the Says the Governor of Missouri to the Governor of Kansas: “ It's a long time
mines to the mills on Carson river is $1,000, nearly all of which will be saved by between trains.”
having the mills directly at the mines.

The hand-shake of the candidate is like a midsummer day, long and very
Financial and Mining Record.

oppressive. THE aggregate gold coinage of all the states of the commercial world for the

The President would be stronger if he stood with the people, instead of ahead decade of 1875 to 1884, which amounted to somewhat more than one thousand six

of them. hundred millions of dollars; rising eighty-one per cent of that sum was coined by countries in which, all the time, silver has been, and still is, a full legal tender

ARBITRATION is often a good thing, and it is much better besore a strike than

aster it. concurrently with gold! That is to say, instead of losing gold by reason of using the two metals concurrently as full valid tender, it is demonstrated by the monetary Gould's millions will not avail him if Powderly's millions behave themselves. history of our epoch that those states of the commercial world which so used gold

THE tail of the British lion is now wagging the lion. and silver have attracted, we repeat, eighty-one per cent of all the gold that has been available for money purposes. In further illustration of this absorption in No alderman is a hero to his ally.

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Baltimore American (Rep.), April 13.
CAPITAL AND LABOR.

CivilizATHION must protect itself against riot, and in this country it surely will succeed in doing it. The Knights of Labor understand this very well. Their

own leaders tell them all this in the most earnest and powerful way. Mr. PowTHE RIOT.

derly and his able assistants preach it all the while. Yet, in times of excitement, St. Louis Globe-Democrat (Rep.), April 10.

good advice of this sort is distasteful to many. It is particularly distasteful to the

tramps and toughs who pretend to be Knights, but who greatly desire the The deplorable events in East St. Louis admit of but one kind of comment, and opportunities for plunder which a riot may offer. It is, therefore, the part of wisthat is against the unlawful embargo on traffic which brought them about. It is dom in all hours of excitement for the friends of the cause of labor to do all in difficult to fix the blame for the initial act which culminated su tragically. There their power to allay the spirit of violence, and not to add to it; to hearken always are different opinions, which we have endeavored to present impartially and fairly, to the voices of their own chiefs when they counsel patience courage and moderleaving the reader to draw his own conclusions and form his own judginent. The ation. The cause of labor may win its victory by appealing to the reason and wonder is, considering the condition of affairs which has existed in East St. Louis the justice of all the people in America, but it certainly cannot win it by viofor more than a week past, that a bloody culmination was not sooner reached. It lence or wanton destruction of property. has been evident for several days that the boundary line of a peaceful strike was being rapidly passed, and that a collision must occur sooner or later Many will

N. Y. Independent, April 15. say that Governor Oglesby ought to have recognized this fact, and taken the neces

It is Governor Oglesby, of Illinois, who was responsible for the peace of East sary precaution by an earlier call on the militia. But speculation of this kind is

St. Louis, and he failed of his duty where the southwestern Governors did not fail. fruitless in presence of the appalling facts which are now before us. What is

We will not say why he failed, whether because of moral weakness or political done must be left to judicial inquiry for the vindication of the innocent and the

fright, or—as business men there do not hesitate to say—because he was willing to punishment of the guilty. What remains to be done is clear; and that is to pre

have the difficulties continue and the trade across the river in St. Louis killed so as serve the peace and restore the supremacy of the law by the protection of the

to divert it to Chicago. This we know, that business is brisk in Chicago and is rights of all classes and conditions of men.

stopped in St. Louis; that the ruffians have been having their way in East St. Louisville Courier-Journal (Dem.), April 10.

Louis, have stopped traffic just where the Governor of Missouri cannot reach them,

and have ended their work with conflagration and death. It is fearful to have to meet force with force, arms with arms. It is deplorable that such an appeal has to be made, but men are killed by railroad accidents, and

Prof. Simon Newcomb, in Independent, April 8. accidents are due to ruined engines, to misplaced switches, to burned bridges. There is imminent peril which cannot be averted by tampering any longer with

THE Knights of Labor are a body of men having no real interest in common, that lawless element which has assumed to act for labor. It does not represent

except what every man has in his fellow-man. When we see them joined in a labor; it does not speak for the intelligent and industrious workingmen of America,

bond of union so strong that they are ready to submit to the most odious form of and the spirit which animates it must be put under control. In this suppression of

taxation, to iinperil their means of support and their character as law-abiding citiviolence, in this subjection of lawless men, no class has so deep an interest as the

zens, and to surrender their personal liberty to a central power more desputic than workingmen themselves. The interests of these labor unions is bound up in this

that of the czar, we cannot but inquire whether we have not here a sentiment of matter. By lawless acts, by injury to property, the work of years of patient thought

loyalty and fidelity which can be better directed. It will be better directed if and labor may be overturned. Labor organizations have done vast good; they

made to coincide with the interests of those concerned. Employers and laborers are obtaining a share of public confidence. To obtain it fully they have only to form a body of producers having a common interest in the effectiveness and prosdeserve it.

perity of their organization. Why is this interest so wantonly sacrificed by emKansas City Times, April 10.

ployes in obedience to a mere sentiment of fellowship? I reply because, as the

matter now stands, the community of interest between the parties is not accomThe frightful affair at East St. Louis was the result of the lawlessness of un panied by sympathy. As a general rule, the two parties look upon their relations worthy law officers. The responsibility cannot be laid at the door of the Knights from a purely business standpoint. A remedy will be found when the soulless of Labor. The only member of the order who figured prominently in the exciting corporation, through its excutive officers, shows a real interest in the general wel. :scene appealed earnestly for quiet and observance of order. The unfortunate men fare, social pleasure and good feeling of its employes. who were killed by the murderous volleys of deputy sheriffs were not strikers, and the only punishment inflicted upon strikers was that suffered by the poor fellow

Jay Gould. whose wife was shot down. This is the work of deputy sheriffs. Such work as The question of arbitration has two sides. When Mr. Powderly and I were East St. Louis saw yesterday cannot be called a repression of mob violence. It

talking these matters over, I asked him whether he would consent to a scheme of was the cowardly impulse of incompetent men assigned to a duty which they had arbitration which should include our grievances against the strikers as well as the not nerve or judgment enough to execute. There was no mob before the shooting, grievances of the strikers against us, and whether he would guarantee the payand that there was a mob afterward was the fault of the so-styled desenders of the ment of an award, if we should obtain one against the order. This proposition law. The action of the deputies was unjustifiable, stupid and wrong. What they did not meet with much favor in Mr. Powderly's eyes, and he said that the rules did was worse than anything committed by the strikers during all the weeks of the of the order provided no methods for the collection of money for such purposes, difficulty between railroad companies and employes. It is earnestly to be hoped that this deplorable affair may be followed by a settlement before another can happen. In the name of all that stands for order and good reputation in the

THE STRIKE. country, the assistance of arbitration should be invoked to make a repetition impossible. Such sickening scenes are too terrible to be endured by a civilized

The Nation, April 8. people.

The difficulties with which Mr. Powderly has had to contend are a very valuable Philadelphia Record, April 11.

contribution to the discussion of all the great schemes of state socialism, not exceptBack of the cowardly ferocity of the deputy sheriffs who used their guns at East

ing Mr. Henry George's land scheme. They all propose the starting of a business St. Louis, the dogged determination of the railroad companies to keep their trains

enterprise, such as the world never saw—that is, of a factory in which every man moving and the lawless efforts of strikers to intimidate workmen and damage prop

and woman in the nation would be an operative or dependent, and in which every erty lies the chief responsibility for accomplished murder and arson.

product of human industry would be turned out, but they never say where the the governor of Illinois. He knew from personal observation the state of feeling

managers of the concern are to be found. It would in magnitude bear about the at East St. Louis. He knew that business had been violently interrupted at the

same proportion to the greatest railroad corporation in the world that the German several railroad yards, and that vast dependent interests were put in jeopardy. He

or French army bears to a corporal's guard. Now, it is with the greatest diffishould have brought the power of the State to bear to preserve order, and to pro

culty and by the offer of enormous salaries, that the railroads find competent mantect the peaceful transaction of business after it became certain that the town au

agers.

Where are the managers of the Socialistic States to be found ? Who are thorities were unable to do it. The killing of officers, strikers and spectators at

they, and where are they bred ? What inducement is to be offered them for Fort Worth and East St. Louis is a blood-offering to be laid at the door of official

undertaking work that would land any mere man in the lunatic asylum in three timidity and incapacity.

months ? We have no doubt Mr. Powderly has begun to ponder these questions

himself. The trouble with the less thoughtsul and intelligent Socialist is that the N. Y. Tribune (Rep.), April 12.

State which is to take care of the workingman, and raise his wages, and shield CANNOT workingmen understand that they are taking bread from their own

him from competition, always appears in their fancy as an all-wise and all-powermouths, and money out of their own pockets, by such behavior as they have in

ful person, who knows everything and can accomplish everything, without board, dulged in recently? No prejudice should blind them to a fact so important to

lodging and washing, instead of being, as it really is, a group composed of Smith, their own interest . Business men all see it; and yet to them the disturbance

Brown, Jones, White, Black and Green, not one of whom probably could manage means only a little difference in profits. For even at St. Louis, where the disturb

a large store, and all of whom are as anxious as anybody to be protected from ance has been greatest, the volume of business last month was actually 4 per

competition and filled with good victuals at other people's expense. cent. greater than in the same month of 1885, and last week it was only 2.4 per

President Bond, Queen and Crescent Route, cent. less than in the corresponding week of last year. Thus more than ninetyseven per cent of the business of a great city went on, in spite of strikes and riots, I THINK this strike the greatest blunder ever made by any labor organization. burnings and bloodshed. But business men see that widespread uncertainty as to

I believe in labor organizations, but with each class or trade by itself

, but any labor means a prolonged depression of industry, the consequences of which will combination into one common organization must fail. This trouble will teach the inevitably be felt by all traders and capitalists, though they will fall more heavily public that Congress alone has the power to protect persons and property in tranupon workingmen than upon anybody else. Why should not workingmen see that sit, and that an order by a Federal judge is more powerful than that from any they are doing themselves harm

local authority.

It rests upon

means.

The troops

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Savannah News (Dem.), April 9.

Pittsburg Penny Press (Ind.), April 12, There is a very firm conviction in the public mind that employers have a right to THE Knights of Labor have undertaken the mission of emancipating the control their own affairs and to employ and discharge whom they please, and there is laborer. They declare that as all wealth is the product of labor, labor is entitled an equally strong conviction that workingmen have a right to quit work when they to a fair reward for its toil. Reasonable hours for work and reasonable hours for are not satisfied with their compensation, or hours of labor, or for any other reason. rest and recreation : (" There is a time for everything,” says Ecclesiastes) suffiThey also have a right to combine in order to enforce their demands by acting cient food and decent clothing. These for workingmen and workingwomen are together; but public opinion will not sustain any attempt of labor organizations to what is demanded, and to obtain which the Knights have commenced to revolugain their ends by force, or by destroying life and property.

tionize the world. And they propose to conduct their revolution by peaceful Age of Steel, April 10.

For this reason the troops cannot obstruct the movement.

may maintain the public peace, in which they will be aiding, not opposing the The effect of the strike on the promising state of affairs in the manufacturing peaceful labor emancipation; but, in any event, it will prove to be, not a riot, but departments cannot be easily estimated. Not only have thousands of workers in

a revolution; and, therefore, successful. local factories been thrown out of employment, but untold thousands, perhaps millions of dollars in sales of seasonable goods have been lost. Labor has lost heavily

Atlanta Constitution (Dem..); April 12. and so has capital. At Cheltenham every manufacturing industry was idle in the MR. POWDERLY months ago begged his followers to observe their oaths and early part of the week, and the wages of 600 or 800 employes had been stand by the principles of their order; adding that while he protested they were stopped. In other parts of the city and in every line of business hands have right, every hour brought news that they were wrong. The Knights appealed for been laid off in greater or less numbers Wages Jost under such circumstances public confidence by declaring that they organized to prevent strikes. And are forever lost; but sales of goods may be apparently and yet not really lost, save yet, four month after they became a controlling power in labor, more than 90,000 in respect of seasonable lines and under certain other rules of exceptions. Thus, men have been called out on strikes, often over the protest of older labor unions. while labor is the principal sufferer, capital also loses much by losing the oppor. Unless this policy is changed; unless violent methods are denounced and abantunity to make sales.

doned, the Knights of Labor will lose its power and fall short of its promise. D. H. Drake, Deputy Dist. G. M., K. of L.

There is one thing against which no organization can stand, and that is the settled

and deliberate public sentiment of American communities. I BELIEVE that the Western strike will serve as a pine knot thrown into a mass of embers that have been smoldering for the past ten years, and that little more

Journal of Commerce, New York, April 12. will be needed to kindle a fire whose power to damage is beyond the powers of It is labor against labor; one set of men are determined that nobody else shall man to soretell.

work until their own demands are satisfied. There have been many illustrations C. C. Waite, Ex- Prest. C. H. and D. R. R.

of this during the recent troubles at the West. An establishment employing 300 I CAN'T indorse the men in their present actions, but I think labor organizations

hands was out of materials which were in a depot waiting for a freight train to

bring them. The train was not allowed to run, and the men were threatened beneficial if properly conducted. I do not think the trouble will spread eastward.

with idleness. They waited on the strikers and asked that the cars loaded with Galveston News (Dem.), April 11.

the supplies they needed might be permitted to come to them, but the unionists THE Knights cannot revenge themselves upon the general public for their quar

were inexorable. If all the world was idle they did not care, so that they gained rel with Gould and Manager Hoxie. The public in general does not love Jay

their point. Gould, but the public is not going to have the railroad highway blocked by either

N. Y. Star, April 12. force or cunning if the public know how to prevent it, and if blood is shed upon a

The most formidable threat of armed resistance to the civil authorities in modfalse issue of obstruction raised against the public instead of against Jay Gould,

ern times was made in London in 1848 by the Chartists. The projected movethen that blood will be upon the obstructors and whoever goes out of his way to take their part.

ment went to pieces on the spreading of the report that the Duke of Wellington

had made thorough preparations for the suppression of a riot. If Governor Der Deutsche Correspondent (Baltimore), April 12.

Oglesby had sent a sufficient force to East St. Louis to put down any disorder that The declaration of war of the laboring men against Jay Gould awakens peculiar might arise, there would have been no shooting. If there had been enough reflections. Grotesque as this proclamation may at first sight appear, it produces, militiamen, they would have had too much confidence in their power to be driven upon closer consideration, a most startling effect. The established facts, however, into a hasty use of their arms, and the strikers would not have attacked them. throw into the face of the working man the bold query of Tweed; “What are you Indeed, the evidence is that, as it was, the strikers did not attack the thugs who going to do about it?” This war points, as its ultimate conclusion, to revolution. acted as deputies. With the fall of Jay Gould nothing is accomplished. The system itself must be set

Philadelphia Press (Rep.), April 13. aside which makes the Goulds possible; and this system, unfortunately, has ren

The House of Representatives addressed itself to the labor question again yesdered itself serviceable to the different forms of government in the world—the re

terday, and passed a resolution for the appointment of a select committee of seven publican even more than the monarchical—so that a struggle against it becomes a

members to investigate the cause and extent of the disturbed conditions now exstruggle against civil government and order. Monopolies have existed, it is true,

isting between the railroad corporations and their employes in the Southwest. for centuries, but such a monopoly as Jay Gould has created in the short space of

Doubtless the proposition will receive the usual portion of scoff and jeers which half a century has never yet come to light. Like a frightful apparition, it suddenly stands erect before the American people, and excites a foreboding of what may yet

every scheme which aims only at gathering information obtains srom the hands of

the shallow and unreflecting. Perhaps it will deserve it and prove as great a farce arrive in the future. The sympathy of the whole world is on the side of the labor

as the Blair Labor Investigating Committee of two years ago. But if it does what ers, but we fear the whole world is not strong enough to shake off and trample

it is appointed to do faithfully and intelligently, and attempts nothing more, it will monopoly under foot.

justify its appointment. The majority of the House are lawyers, and, whatever The Courrier des Etats-Unis, April 12.

may be their other faults, they know the value of evidence, and that accurate in-
Certain New York journals were exhibiting some days ago an exaggerated formation is as necessary for a legislative body as for a court of justice.
optimism with regard to the apparent solution of the strike of the railroads in the

ARBITRATION.
Southwest following upon the conferences of Mr. Powderly with Mr. Jay Gould.
They were instituting a comparison between the bloody riots in Belgium and the

A Carnegie, in The Forum, for April.
peaceable strikes in the United States, and were triumphing proudly in the pre I would lay it down as a maxim that there is no excuse for a s:rike or a lockout
tended superiority of American modes of procedure. Our colleagues saw every until arbitration of differences has been offered by one party and refused by the
thing in rainbow hues. But aster what has just occurred in East St. Louis they other. No doubt serious trouble attends even arbitration at present, from the
ought to lower their pretensions. It is, indeed, very difficult for them to preserve

difficulty of procuring suitable men 10 judge intelligently between the disputants. their illusions upon the doctrine of letting things have their course. Now that the

There is a natural disinclination among business men to expose their business crisis of a day, or rather of a night, is over, comments of every description are to men in whom they have not entire confidence. We lack so far in America a rained down upon us, and responsibilities discussed.

It seems, in point retired class of men of affairs. Our vile practice is to keep on accumulating more of fact, that the acts of violence and destruction which have taken place, implicate dollars until we die. If it were the custom here, as it is in England, for men to but a small fraction of the Knights of Labor—the unsubmissive or the undiscip. withdraw from active business aster acquiring a fortune, this class would furnish lined. The seditious groups comprise people of every class. Of the six individ.

the proper arbitrators. On the other hand, the ex-presidents of trades unions, such uals who were killed, but a single one belonged to the order of Knights. The

as Mr. Jarrett or Mr. Wille, aster they have retired from active control, would attitude of the general committee since the beginning of the strikes has been pacific. commend themselves to the manufaciurers and to the men as possessed of the The explicit and reiterated declarations of Mr. Powderly have enjoined calmness,

necessary technical knowledge, and educated to a point where commercial reahave protested against disorder, and menaced with exclusion every member guilty

sons would not be without their proper weight upon them. I consider that of all of violence. Mr. Irons himself, who appears to be a man of less firm equilibrium,

the agencies immediately available to prevent wasteful and embittering contests has made appeals 10 legality. It cannot be doubted that their authority has re between capital and labor, arbitration is the most powerful and most beneficial. strained the immense majority of the strikers. But let us suppose opposite reso. lutions, let us imagine a general uprising, which would hang by only a thread were

Philadelphia Times (Ind.), April 10. the chiefs 10 command it, and then what would have become of the eight agents THERE is now but one hope of safety to the Western Knights of Labor, and of East St. Louis who, after their unexpected discharge, profited by the recoil of probably to the whole national organization; that is, to stop the strike at once the crowd to betake themselves to their heels? What would have become of the unconditionally, dismiss lawless members, go back to work and then demand conhalf dozen other agents apportioned out to the different points ? And what would ference and arbitration. Such action would at once disarm Gould; it would take have become, we inquire, of the three hundred militia men brought together in from him his only defensive position in the contest; it would assure the great busihaste from all parts, without a common authority, and so entirely at sea, indeed, ness interests of the country of the safety of labor organizations, and it would recall as to find no one who could direct them to the points at which their services might the popular sympathy for organized industry that it has lost by causeless disturbance have been useful?

of business and by violence.

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