« PreviousContinue »
FINANCE AND COMMERCE.
12 per cent. in Limburg, to 30 per cent. in Holland proper. Of thirty-eight centres of over 10,000 inhabitants, one (Delftshaven) has doubled, seventeen have increased more than 25 per cent., and twelve others have increased from 10 to 25 per cent during the same period.--Science, April 23.
The SWINE-BREEDING INDUSTRY.—The great importance of the swine-breeding industry is evident, as we consider that there are about 47,000,000 hogs during the summer season in the United States. The number annually slaughtered is about 28,000,000, and the consumption is estimated at 70 pounds to each inhabitant, or 4,000,000,000 pounds. The annual exportation of 25 years, including hogs with pork product, has been 530,000,000 pounds. The average weight of swine dressed was 175 pounds. The value of hogs annually slaughtered in the United States is estimated by J. H. Dodge, Government Statistician, at $393,570,000.The Stockholder.
During the last year California produced in raisins over 9,000,000 pounds, or nearly three times as much as in 1884. She also sent to market last year 1,500,000 pounds of prunes, 1,823,000 pounds of apples, 1,900,000 pounds of peaches, 1,139,000 pounds of plums, 650,000 pounds of apricots, 2,250,000 pounds of honey, 1,250,000 pounds of walnuts, and 1,000,000 pounds of almonds.-Christian at Work, April 22.
EXEMPTING FACTORIES FROM TAXATION.—The Southern States which have, like Louisiana, shown their interest in the establishment of new manufacturing enterprises by exempting them from taxation for a number of years, have forced New England for its own protection and to keep its factories at home to adopt a similar provision. The plan of encouraging new enterprises has become epidemic in the East also during the last few years. At the recent charter elections in New Hampshire, held only a few weeks ago, fifteen towns voted in favor of the taxexemption of certain industries established within their limits. New Jersey has followed suit with a bill “to encourage the establishment and development of mechanical and manufacturing enterprises,” which contains substantially the same exemption provision as that in our own constitution. Grave doubts have been expressed as to the advantages of this provision, especially in a section like New England, already full of factories; but the result is said by the New Hampshire and Maine papers to be entirely satisfactory, many new, if small, industries being already established. In consequence, towns which seemed to decay have since been rejuvenated and become leading places for business and population because of the inducements held out by them in the way of tax-exemption, By adopting this system, which was first offered by the Southern States on a large scale, New England confesses that the step taken here was the right one. Louisiana has never, it is true, secured all the good results it was entitled to on account of the liberal exemption it offered for the investment of capital in manufactories. This exemption has never been properly advertised outside of the State, and in very few of the almanacs, geographies, or similar books is any reference made to it. We of Louisiana should secure the same benefits from it as the New England States are doing, and would if the liberality of the State in this matter was better known.New Orleans Times-Democrat.
NATIONAL DEBTS.—The immense debt shouldered upon the United States by the great civil war is being so rapidly reduced, in spite of necessary and unnecessary expenses, that, if unforeseen difficulties do not arise, the close of the century will find only a small proportion of it remaining. As for Canada, although she is a rather new and not very populous country, she is not behind in the matter of debt. Considering the number of inhabitants and the opportunities they have enjoyed, her present government has been active enough in piling up obligations, and were these lavish statesmen to continue in power a few years longer, they would finally leave us hopelessly mired in the swamp of national bankruptcy; but, as there is no prospect of the Dominion having to endure such a fate, we may confidently look forward to a time when our public affairs shall be administered according to the principles of true economy, and then, with our constantly developing resources, some of these liabilities may be disposed of. In great Britain the pay-as-you-go policy introduced some years since by Mr. Gladstone prevents Parliament from contracting debts for posterity to settle, but other European nations dispose of all the money obtainable without regard to the prospects of honest payment. Among the countries taking this course France is easily first. Disastrous wars and unwise civil expenditures have constantly increased the enormous debt left as a legacy of the struggle with Germany, until the amount now reaches one thousand millions sterling, with r no immediate prospect of material recluction. Here, however, as in nearly everything else they do, the strong and weak points of French people appear side by side. The government spends money as though it cost nothing whatever, and the consequent burden upon all classes is painfully heavy; but they manage the matters so that the creditors of the French nation are French citizens, and a large proportion of the funds paid out as taxes come back in the form of interest. — Nova Scotia Morning Chronicle, April 19.
GOLD GOING ABROAD.—Last week $2,220,838 gold went abroad, the French loan being the attraction. Government increased its net gold $629,822, silver $611,154, and legal tenders $2,512,571, in part because of the withdrawal of $1,000,000 bonds held sor bank circulation. The New York banks reported a loss of $1,788,100 in reserve, but still have a surplus of over $13,000,000, and money on collateral is abundani. A loss of reserve in the third week of April prompts unpleasant memories. In 1878, the reserve increased only two weeks after the turning point in April and then declined, and the stagnation in business and the failures of that year are not forgotten. In 1879 the rise in reserve after the turn in April continued five weeks, and ten weeks in 1880, and seven weeks in 1881, and four weeks in 1882, and thirteen weeks in 1883. But in 1884 there was a decline in reserve after April 1, and that year was disastrous. In 1885 the rise lasted eight weeks, but this year, after one week of increase, the reserve stood halting for a week and now has turned downward. Of course the causes are complicated. But one is obvious; the imports at New York for the past three weeks have been $25-, 356,226, an increase of 10.7 per cent. over the same week last year, while the exports for the three latest weeks have been only $15,887,741, a decrease of 13.4 per cent. compared with the same weeks last year. The exchanges outside of New York reflect only the hesitation of business which labor disturbances may naturally cause. Though Boston and Philadelphia exchanges continue much larger than a year ago, the increase at Chicago last week was only 1/2 per cent., at St. Louis only 3.8 per cent., at New Orleans there was a loss of 11 per cent., and at Baltimore a loss of 16.7 per cent. There are again some symptoms of anxiety less Con. gress should prostrate business by acting on the tariff, but the general belief is that nothing will be done.--New York Tribune.
CHEAP TRANSPORTATION.—The two things which, above all others, the public sentiment of this country has most imperatively demanded, in connection with railway operations, are first, cheap transportation; and second, an avoidance of unjust discrimination. The first is the most essential element of the success and existence of a very large proportion of all the industrial operations now pursued. Without it millions of the real laborers of the country would be in the condition of men stricken down with paralysis. It is the main spring of active exertion, and the creator of possibilities of satisfactory success in the existing fields of agriculture, mining, manufacturing and commercial effort. Myriads of American trade speeches have been made which merely gave utterance to the thought that the greatest of all American needs was cheap transportation. Thousands of millions of money have been spent by companies and governments chiefly for the purpose of cheapening the cost of transportation. The ends served are so numerous and important that it would be impossible to fully describe them, and it is scarcely an exaggeration to say that the beneficial influence derived from cheap railway transportation alone has been of more real consequence than all other influences combined in building up a very large proportion of all the existing American industries. No fact is more clearly established than that American railways do an immense amount of the cheapest land freight carriage ever performed in the world. This carriage is, indeed, much the greatest and much the cheapest industrial operation in this or any other country. It does just what the American people have most imperatively needed and demanded, and does it so thoroughly that no rational cause for complaint on this score has been left to captious fault-finders. There can be but one opinion in intelligent circles in regard to the response of American railway companies to the demand of the American people for cheap transportation. The companies have not only met every reasonable requirement, but they have sur. passed every rational anticipation.- Railway World.
INCREASED RAILROAD BUILDING.--If the country has too many railroads, the railroad managers have not found it out, for they are projecting more with unusual zeal. The Rock Island boasts that it is going to add 700 miles of road; the Burlington is engaged in paralleling essential parts of the St. Paul system; and it is reported that the Northwestern is about to launch a loan of $20,000,000 for extension building. Whether the Chicago strike was or was not settled without any concession to strikers, it was settled, and the Missouri roads are able to publish a very satisfactory report of their condition and prospects. Railroad managers may not realize it, but the fact that the moral influence of the Knights of Labor has been greatly crippled, and the confidence of the public and of the men themselves in the organization seriously shaken, while thousands of railroad workers are now out of employment, is one of importance in estimating the cost of operating railroads in the immediate future. In time the building of new roads will hurt other railways, just as the completion of the Lackawanna line now diverts trade from older Eastern trunk lines, but the immediate effect of railroad building is to give increased employment io a great many branches of industry. Cheap money thus creates business of a certain sort, though it may prove a very much disguised blessing in the end.-N. Y. Tribune.
PROTECTION TO RAILROADS.—Well may the railway companies ask for what they pay vast sums in taxes if protection against violence is not afforded them. The leaders of the great railway organizations begin to realize that they have invoked a power which they are not able to control. The little stream which began to trickle through the banks of the mill pond has grown into a rushing torrent which threatens to sweep away property, law and life along its rapidly widening course, and few in authority seem to have courage to stand against it. If the railway managers yield to the monstrous demands for the removal of honest and industrious employes, against whom no charge is made except that of not belonging to an organization which proposes to enforce its demands by 'strikes, then the torrent will sweep on and no railway, manufacturing, mercantile or other interest will be safe from the tyranny of organized, uneducated and unprincipled laborbecause the worst elements will thus be in the ascendency, and the fair-minded, law-abiding, intelligent men like Mr. Powderly, Mr. Arthur and others prominent in labor organizations, will be swept away like chaff on the flood. The mob will rule and society and government and religion will be carried onward to destruction.—Railway Age.
Prosperity HiNDERED BY Disputes.—If the opening of spring has not brought the
revival of business activity that was hoped for, the reason is certainly not in the actual condition of the country and its resources. It is impossible to overlook the manifold indications of a business vitality that is only held in suppression by the fear of some sort of artificial interference with the smooth and regular operation of the laws of trade. It is not the uncertainty of the market that makes manufacturers timorous; it is the uncertainty of the conditions under which they will be able to
supply it. It is not the fear of ordinary business risks that hampers commerce so will end. We rather look for some improvement in prices, if the 'labor troubles much as the fear of disturbing legislation. There is so much disposition to meddle le speedily and sa tisfactorily settled, but we have no definite indication that they will in other people's business that tho:e who prefer to attend to their own business are be so settled. On the whole, it is a good market to let alone; on any break, we afraid to make a venture. If by any possibility there could be brought about an would unhesitatingly advise purchasers, and as confidently advise sales on any rise, interval of silence in all this fruitless discussion, during which the ordinary pro as we look for a traders' market for some time to come, until the crop reports begin cesses of industry and commerce might have a chance to get started again in the to figure in the situation.”—The Stockholder, natural way, we should make a much more hopeful advance toward the solution of social problems than ever will be made by talk. The one way to prosperity that
PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH.—Throughout the State of Georgia property is rapidly can always be relied upon, by individuals or by communities, is to work for it. To increasing in value, business is good and the people appear 10 be doing well. You leave off working to engage in disputation never yet brought lasting success. Just
see signs of thrist and prosperity in every village. Between Macon and Atlanta it now we are having so much talk about capital and labor that there is no chance
is almost one continuous settlement of new houses. The State is growing very for either of them to fulfill its proper functions, and the stream of legitimate tradle
rapidly in its manufactures. There should be many more banks, so as to asford that ought to be flowing through the country now, diffusing prosperity and con
better facilities to the people who desire credit. Money now commands altogether tentment among all classes, is chokeil and obstructed by the useless driftwood of
too high a rate of interest, considering the kind of security that can be given. This foolish and idle disputation.— Philadelphia 7'imes.
makes a heavy tax upon every business.—Secretary Lamar. The BUSINESS OUTLOOK.-Labor troubles continue to absorb attention to such
L'NSETTLEI) CONDITION OF THE LABOR MARKET. The unsettled conclition of an extent that other considerations respecting business are quite forgotten. Al
the labor market still affects general business and all financial operations. ready the disturbances and the distrust arising therefrom liave seriously affected
sult is undoubtedly found in an increase of a conservative policy among business business enterprise. “There will be no business to speak os," said a member of a
men which is exemplified by the bank statement of last Saturday. Ilere we find well known firm engaged in the manufacture of stoves, etc., “and there will be
an increase of $3,500,000 over the previous week in the surplus reserve, putting nothing better until the outcome of the present labor disturlsance can be foreseen.”
the banks in a stronger position. There is no doubt that there is a disposition to
stand off and wait the outcome of the labor difficulties.-R. R. Rivici. “The demand for my goods has slackened,” said a box manufacturer, “ because my customers, who are manufacturers, do not know whether or not they will want them RELEASE OF DEBTORS.— We believe that public sentiment would savor the refor next season's trade.” “ I can make no contract with you,” said a builder to a gentle lease at once from all further legal liability of any debtor on the consent of a man who requested estimates for a quite extensive improvement, until this eight- majority of his creditors, and the placing of the entire estate then and there in the hour question is settled." These are samples of the remarks which one hears on hands of a committee appointed by the same power to be equally divided among every hand. They show that, while the distribution of merchandise for immediate those who substantiated their claims.-N. Y. Journal of Commerce. use has not been materially checked, the uncertainty in regard to the future prevents men from entering upon enterprises which can be affected by any decided change respecting the stability of labor and the cost of prodluction. How long will this condition of things last? is the question asked. Because there can be no
MISCELLANEOUS. answer is the cause of the distrust. In a word, the business and industrial outlook depends upon the outcome of the present labor agitation. If the troubles can be adjusted at an early day the country can most confidently expect a period of business prosperity.— Bosión llorning Journal, April 26.
JEWS in Paris.—There is no phenomenon more noticeable in the society of
London than the ascendancy of the Jews. It is equally noticeable in the society BUSINESS STAGNATION.--The stearly contraction of all forms of industry and of Paris, where the Jews are carrying all before them by their wealth and social business which has been going on throughout the civilized world for the last ten perseverance. l'irst and foremost are the Rothschild brothers, the Barons Alyears, and which still continues without a sign of genuine relaxation or revival, has phonse, Edmond, and Gustave, who represent the gigantic and cosmopolitan resulted necessarily in a great diminution in the number and variety of industrial Rothschild pocket in the Rue Laffitte, and buy the clearest pictures and objects of undertakings which offer employment to skilled and unskilled labor. There is no art to be found in the market. The Rothschilds forin a noble dynasty by themkind of enterprise or manufacture which is now going on with the same energy selves, rank with the old noblesse, and frequent the most aristocratic houses in the and life as in the booming days which preceded this general collapse. On every
Their social position is beyond dispute and above criticism. Besides the side there is reduction. The old works are everywhere brought down to a much
three brothers of the Rue Laffitte, who have their private mansions in the vicinity smaller scale of operations, and no new ones are started or projected. For this rea of the Champs-Elysees, Paris is honored with the presence of the Baronesses Salason there is now in this country a considerable body of men, useil to live by work, mon, James Edward, and Nathaniel de Rothschild, of the Baroness Marguerite, who have little work to do, or none at all; and we are apparently on the eve of who has abjured her religion and become a duchess, and of the Baron Allolphe, that condition, most unusual here, an active competition among workingmen for the last representative of the Naples house. The Baron Adolphe is the most Parthe chances of employment in these diminished and diminishing businesses. The isian of the whole Rothschild family. His blonde beard is conspicuous in all the screw of contraction is turning steadily, and the day is not far distant when it will meeting places of the Tout-Paris. The Baroness Adolphe, like her sister, the Barbring us down to a point where the struggle of many to get the work for which but oness Willy, is a great musician and a most witty and elegant laily. This lastfew are needed will tend almost irresistibly to reduce the rates of wages to much mentioned couple dispense grandiose hospitality in their fine house in the larc lower figures than we have ever known in the United States.—.V. Y. Sun. Monceau, preside over a select cosmopolitan salon, and entertain the Prince of
Wales when he comes to Paris. The next grade of Jews includes the Foulds and Tule business of the country is now under a strain which it cannot stand for a
Sterns, whose settlement in Paris dates back to Louis Philippe's time; the Cahen long time. The reports of foreign trade will show how wide and unfortunate has
d'Anvers family, whose fortunes helped those of Napoleon III at a critical mobeen the effect of the general tendency toward labor disturbances. Importations ment; the Kærnigewarters, the Bischoffsheims, the Goldschmidts. Then follows have increased immensely of late. Dealers who have been accustomed to lay in a mass of Israelites hailing from Frankfort, Munich, Constantinople, Odessa, and stocks of domestic manufacture dare not trust to that source of supply. They have
the Levant--financiers, stock operators, commission merchants, who have arrived sent their orders abroad for the sole reason that they may be certain of having for the most part since the Franco-German war, and whose names are Saly-Stern, them filled. Just so much of its customary employment is withdrawn from Ameri Kann, Leon Foull, Ilirsch, Camondo, Erlanger, Gunzbourg, Ephrussi. These can labor. Our exports must exhibit corresponeling effects. If our own merchants
new dynasties have established themselves in Paris in fine dwellings, and within cannot depend upon the market in which they have been accustomed to deal, but
the past six or seven years they have undertaken to win social prestige, and above go abroad to purchase, our foreign customers can still less afford to take similar
all to conquer the Faubourg Saint-Germain. Their tactics have been comparachances. Our manufacturers are prevented from making contracts when they do tively simple. The first step was for the men to get elected members of a swell” 101 know what wages may be demanded of them before the contract is filled, and
club; the Cercle des Champs-Elysees, for instance. This was not difficult. The have not even the certainty that they can fill them on any terms at all. The
aristocratic gamblers who frequent the clubs are always glad to get some new and brakes are applied to the wheels of our industries, and returning prosperity is rich ponte upon whom to prey. Club) life enabled the Israelite, whether he was brought to a full stop A table of the business done at St. Louis in the chief lines
count or baron or not, to form a circle of titled acquaintances, and amongst these of trade shows that the aggregate is only about half of the amount usual at this acquaintances it was possible to find some needy aristocrat, a prince even, who scason of the year.--St. Paul Pioneer-Press.
would undertake to patronize the parvenu for a handsome and welcome pecuniary PROGRESS IN THE SOUTH.—Industrial progress in the South continues suffi
consideration. The degenerate Faubourg counts several persons of both sexes ciently steady to give strength to the predictions of enthusiastic writers on the
who are ready to make capital out of their name and influence, and to draw up
invitation lists and indorse social missives for those who are obliging enough to future of the Southern States. The tendency of capital in that part of the coun
calm the impatience of milliners and tailors in a discreet manner. Then, again, try during the past three months may be seen in the quarterly review of our new
thanks to their wealth, the new Jewry acquired race-horses, shooting-grounds, and enterprises prepared by the Baltimore Manufailurers' Record. During the quarter there were organized : 4 iron surnaces, 3 cotton mills, 19 ice factories, 17
the right of hunting the stag and the wild boar in the forests of the state, and withi machine shops and foundries, 3 stove foundries, 4 agricultural implement factories,
such bait they tempted the Christians further into the trap, at the same time filling 18 flour mills, 24 tobacco factories, 7 furniture factories, 9 gas works, 12 electric
the newspapers with report of their cynegetic exploits, recorded at the rate of so
much a line. Meantime, the women proceeded by other strategems. The daughlight works, 7 carriage and wagon factories, 28 mining companies, and 110 lumber
ters of the house were sent to the classes of fashionable professors, and orilere i to mills , including sawmills, sash and door factories, stave and cooperage factories.
cultivate the acquaintance of their class-mates. The mothers, on their sile, enThe total amount of capital, including capital stock of incorporated companies, inyested in new manufacturing and mining enterprises at the South, and in the
cleavored to push their way into society by participating liberally in the innumer
able charitable works which are under the patronage of the duchesses and countenlargement of old plants and the rebuilding of mills clestroyed by fire during the esses of the noble Faubourg. The duchesses, after consulting a worklly priest, first three months of 1886, aggregated about $36,557,000, against about $21,000,
saw no reason to refuse the Jew'ess's gold; but still the cloors of the salons of the 000 for the corresponding period of 1885.—The Stockholder.
Faubourg remained closed to the new Jewry. Then, through the loophole of art, A PECULIAR SITUATION.—Messrs. Narr & Gerlach, of Philadelphia, say: “The one of these energetic Israelites penetrated the salon of an ex-imperial highness. whole situation is somewhat peculiar, and it is difficult to see how the dull spell | 11e made room for his uncles and aunts and cousins, who gradually introduce
their friends and their friends' friends, until at last the Wednesday receptions of in-lawhood? And again, is it not rather unreasonable in a young man to object to
SENSITIVENESS.—The sensitive plant, that shrinks from the touch, is rightly re
garded as occupying a high place in the vegetable world. When its delicate IN DEFENSE OF MOTHERS-IN-LAW. The sympathy of the world with those leaves are seen drooping from contact with the finger, we might fancy it gifted with who happen to have the infiction of a mother-in-law does not diminish as the a sort of consciousness, by which it cannot only feel and perhaps suffer, but also world grows older. Only recently this sympathy was manifested by the acquittal visibly attempt to withdraw from suffering. It is an interesting object to notice, of a prisoner in a Paris poisoning case, owing to the counsel for the defence repre whatever may be our speculations in regard to it, and we naturally have strong senting him as a victim of his mother-in-law's malignity. From time immemorial the interest in a plant so curiously endowed. Some men and women in our most civmother-in-law, a term which is somehow always construed to denote the wife's ilized communities seem to be very much akin to this little shrub. Their one disnother, has been a subject of caricature and vituperation all the world over. A tinguishing characteristic is sensitiveness. They are easily hurt, easily irritated, son-in-law once satirically remarked that one of the reasons why Adam and Eve easily offended. They translate every touch, however innocent or even friendly, were so supremely happy in their terrestrial paradise was that no mother-in-law into an intent to trouble or annoy them. They are constantly fancying slights, existed in their day; and ethnologists and antiquarians both sustain the argument suspecting insults, im igining ridicule, dreading censure. Of course, they have that directly the mother in-law came into existence a train of miseries originated, their fair share of real grievances to deplore, and when to these are added the which, however severe, have happily not yet driven the sterner sex to a universal countless imaginary ones which a morbid fancy suggests, we cannot wonder that vow of celibacy. To support the idea that mothers-in-law have never been favor they are in continual distress, and, if we cannot accord them our respect, we should ably regarded, ethnologists tell us that a singular custom, which enacts that a man not refuse them our sympathy. It seems somewhat strange, however, that any one shall never look upon the face of his mother in-law after he is once married, prevails should plume himself upon so unfortunate a disposition; yet such is often the fact. amongst numerous savage peoples apparently widely sundered by geographical dis People who thus suffer attribute it to no morbid or suspicious temperament, but to tribution and clifferences of race. The custom obtains among the Caffres of South an acute sensitiveness, of which they are rather proud than otherwise. They conAfrica, among several of the Australian tribes, and among many Polynesians, a fact ceive themselves to be of finer grain than their more cheerful and trusting neighwhich some people assume to point to a common origin of these races, but which others bors. They are quicker to notice, keener to feel, and therefore exposed to sufferlook upon as testimony of the existence of a natural law, as a piece of wisdom ings that a coarser or duller nature will never be troubled with. On this account indigenous to each of these countries, and the direct growth of individual experi- they claim more consideration. They think people should be specially careful not
The custom being sound in such widely-separated continents as Africa and tu wound or vex them, because they are so sensitive. What would be only ordi. Australia, is considered as proving that it must have been suggested by some com nary behavior to most persons they esteem cruelty to them, because of their delimon necessity of human nature, and reasons are not wanting to show why savages cate organization. What is still more remarkable about this class of persons is that discovered it was better for a man not to look upon his mother-in-law. Primarily, their sensitiveness exhausts itself upon themselves. We might suppose that, with say the supporters of this theory, because his mother-in-law was a picture in antici feelings so acute, they would be extremely careful of the seelings of others; yet pation of what his wise was likely to be. Before marriage, a man's mind such is not usually the case. Indeed, some of those who claim the most on this may not be open to the cold processes of comparison, but afterwards he begins score give the least. With all their keen susceptibility to suffering they do not to consider what sort of a bargain he has made, and if his mother-in-law has not hesitate to inflict it heedlessly upon those around them. Their imagination, active improved with age, the ghastly possibility of his wife becoming like her rises enough in their own behalf, fails utterly in behalf of others. Keen and acute on before liim. Hence these savage tribes prescribed the rule that never after mar one side, they are dull and apathetic on the other. Alive to the least slight or neriage should a man see his mother-in-law, and this in time became a social law or glect shown to them, suffering from the smallest unkindness, wounded by a forget
It has been more than once flippantly uggested that this lesson of a ven ful a thoughtless action, they can yet speak hard and cruel words, show open erable experience might be accepted and the custom adopted here, whilst others, scorn, or scatter scathing rebuke without apparently any appreciation of the pain equally regardless of social and other consequences, have advocated the institution they bestow. Is sensitiveness, then, so fatal a gift that we should prefer to be dull of a kind of suttee arrangement, which should bind the British matron by social of comprehension ? No faculty is ever better for being dull, but when it is only propriety to close her mortal career upon her daughter's marriage. Apart from the sharpened by selfishness its mission remains unpersormed. It is then only a means suggestion only being available in cases where one daughter alone blessed a mar of personal pain, whereas its true purpose is a wide and general diffusion of happiriage, there is the more important consideration that to eliminate mothers-in-law
This purpose, however, cannot be fulfilled unless we interpret truly its mes. altogether from society, even if it were possible, would be most disastrous in its sages. A healthy sensitiveness accepts the pain which it must bear as a wholesome effects. Is her presence really always so disagreeable, so banesul to enjoyment? medicine, not dwelling upon its bitter taste, not upbraiding those who hand it, not Is her advice never needed? The world has always sided against her; it does regarding it as a permanent evil, but simply using it for self-improvement. At the not stop to consider the double characteristics of legal maternity which are involved same time it gladly welcomes all the pleasant tidings which are thus brought to when both sons and daughters marry; it still persists in viewing her only in her knowledge. It is as keen to feel the good as the evil, and finds it in much larger character of wise's mother, and repeats and revivifies from time to time all the proportion. It is a poor, one-sided sensitiveness that feels only the cold winds of malicious denunciations or willy epigrams that have become associated with her neglect or criticism or displeasure, and is dead to the sunny influences of kindness,
Thackeray even, who, with his large knowledge of the world and of the esteem, sympathy, and love. If the same sensibility that now quivers under the human heart, might have been expected 10 be more lenient to the unfortunate race one be but quickened to receive the other, life will have far happier days in store of mothers in-law, goes out of his way to draw the horrible Mrs. Mackenzie, pity than it has yet disclosed. Above all, acute sensibilities are intended as a direct ing his sweet, silly little Rosie and the much-injured wives of her acquaintances, means of inspiring generous impulses and cultivating a benevolent character. without reflecting that they might in their turn become mothers-in-law. Does not They are no longer a torment but a blessing to him who is always sensitive for this fact suggest food for reflection to the young husbands of to-day, who a quarter others as well as himself. The pleasure and pain he feels, and the sources to of a century hence may find their loving wives unavoidably drifting into mother which he traces each, are his continyal guides to show him how to diffuse the one
and to mitigate the other in his intercourse with mankind. Nothing is more self debts, and so give them a chance to make the glorious careers to which they were ish than a narrow, one-sided, self-pitying sensitiveness; nothing more ennobling than entitled. “Gentlefolk” suggested that the truest benevolence would be to buy for a sensitive spirit keenly alive to all good influences, and delighting to use them for them annuities that would enable them to live as such exceptional people ought to the welfare and happiness of mankind.— Public Ledger, April 24.
live; and the number of those who had equal claim on the money was so great
that if it had been divided up among them they could have got only a few collars Curious PostaL GLEANINGS.—Many curiously addressed letters in poetry and prose have passed through the post. Several of the rhyming directions are re
apiece, in which case, of course, they all would have cursed the philanthropic milmarkable for the poetical skill displayed by the writers. The best example we
lionaire as an old curmudgeon. Less selfish advisers suggested the foundation of have noted is the following, addressed by Bernard Barton, “the Quaker Poet,” to
soup kitchens, the establishment of a “Christian morning newspaper,” the endlowSir Walter Scott during one of his visits 10 London :
ment of the Salvation Army, the support of Canadian missions, the provision of a
fund for the discovery of a cure for cancer, and many other notions, each of which “Sir Walter Scott, in London or elsewhere;
would have taken the whole sum. In fine, the need of money was shown to be He needs not ask, whose wide-extended fame
so general that $500,000 seemed to be an utterly insignificant sum to give away. Is spread about our earth, like light and air,
The Pall Mall Gazette's correspondents alone disposed of five hundred millions at A local habitation for his name.”
least, and yet they asked for only a small part of what is wanted by individuals Charles Dibden, the popular naval song writer, in 1802 sent a letter to Mr. Hay, and societies. Thereupon the editor sought the advice of two rich men and one the comedian, bearing an address as follows:
philosopher who would like to be rich—the Duke of Westminster, Sir Joseph W. Postman, take this sheet away,
Pease, and Mr. Walter Besant. The Duke had “ no hesitation ” in suggesting that And carry it to Mr. Hay;
the $500,000 be left to the London hospitals or to the Metropolitan and National And whether you ride mare or colt on,
Institution for Nursing the Sick Poor in their Own Homes. Sir Joseph had Stop at the Theatre, Bolton ;
only one piece of advice” for the millionaire, and it was that he should be his If in what country you inquire,
own executor and give away the money cluring his lise. Mr. Walter Besant was Merely mention Lancashire.”
like most people who are not millionaires in being quick to say what he would do
if he were one. He would establish a Palace of Delight in which everybody We have seen it stated that in consequence of a wager, a letter some years since was posted in the provinces, and was cluly delivered in London. It bore four lines
should do as he pleased and be happy all the day long. But after the money was from Pope :
spent he would be sorry that he had not given it to found a “great trade union of
needlewomen” and “to educate the upper classes.” so that they shoull come to “Where London's column pointing to the skies,
understand that “cheap things mean starvation wages," and therefore enter into a Like a tall bully, lifts its head and lies,
compact to buy nothing in the way of needlework that was not stamped with the There dwells a citizen of sober fame,
mark of the union, and this stamp should only be put on work that had been propA plain, good man, and Balaam is his name.”
erly paid for. Then he thought that a better use for the money might be the The letter was delivered without delay to a Mr. Balaam, a fishmonger near the Mon endowment of a society of authors, a sort of trade union for their protection against ament. Our next reaches us from America:
publishers, and finally it occurred to him that, after all, $500,000 would come very “When you this letter C
handy in his own pocket, and that a man of his tastes could spend it to great You'd better letter B,
advantage and much better than the run of people. So we see that the perplexed For it is going over
millionaire really gets no help in deciding what he shall do with his $500,000. He Unto Tom MacGee,
finds that the sum, great though it may be as an individual fortune, becomes palIn the town of Dover,
try in comparison with what is needed or desired by his fellow-men. It is only as State of Tennessee.”
a drop in the bucket, and if he gives it away to alleviate human misery, its effect From poetry let us turn to prose. Mr. J. Wilson Hyde, in his entertaining volume,
will be hardly appreciable. That is, society must work out its own improvement, “The Royal Mail,” states that “An American gentleman having arrived in Eng
and individual liberality in the way of money will give it little help to that end.
The true public benefactors are those who teach inen what they need to know in land, and not knowing where a sister was residing at the time, addressed a letter to her previous residence thus :
order to bring about their advancement.-N. Y. Sun, April 22. • Mrs.
HISTORY OF THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR.–About eight months after the close of Upper Norwood,
the war the garment cutters of Philadelphia organized as the Garment Cutter or Elsewhere.'
Society of Philadelphia. The intention was to pay to sick members a weekly
allowance and to bury the dead. In fact, it was a benevolent organization. They The letter having been delivered to the lady, the writer intimated to the Postoffice
continued to hold meetings for four years. At the end of that time, one night in that he had received a reply in ordinary course, and explaining that the letter had
October, 1869, they were discussing some measure, when a member said : • We been delivered to her on the top of a stage coach in Wales. În admiration of the
have been coming here now four or five years ; we have our constitution, our means taken to follow his sister, the writer ventured to add, “that no other coun
laws, our officers, and so far as that is concerned, that is all right. If I am taken try can show the parallel, or would take the trouble at any cost.'” Here is a
sick I will receive a weekly allowance, and if I die I will lie cared for by our vague direction :
brothers. But the conditions surrounding me in the workshop have not grown “ Mr.
Travelling Band, one of the Four playing in the better, but worse. It seems to me that an organization that will go into the workstreet, Persha [Pershore), Worcestershire. Please find him if
shop.and endeavor to effect a reform there is what is needed, in addition to the possible.”
association we now have.” That line of argument was taken up and continued some Another envelope bore the following:
weeks. Finally a motion was made that that society be disbanded, and it was dis“This is for the young girl that wears spectacles, who minds two
banded. The founder of the Knights of Labor was a member of it. Ile was Uriah S. babies, 30 Sheriff street, off Prince Edwin street, Liverpool.”
Stephens. As the men were leaving the room that night he asked those present to A Derbyshire dressmaker was addressed thus :
remain and hear what he had to say. He said that is they would form such an
association as had been suggested, one that would endeavor to effect a reform in “This is for her that makes dresses for laclies, that lives at t'other side the management of workshops, mines and foundries, they would endeavor to perof the road to James Brocklip,
fect it. Six of the men remained, talked the matter over with him and agreed to Edenover,
meet again. These seven men and two others met to perfect the organization on Chesterfield.”
Thanksgiving evening in 1869, and the nine men crafted the first crudle form of a. Mr. Hyde says two letters directed as follows, were duly delivered:
constitution and a manual for the government of the association of the Knights of
Labor. No man was to know anything about it. It was to be secret in all its “ To my sister Jean, Up the Canongate,
workings. The man who joined it was not permitted 10 mention the name of the Down a Close,
association outside of the meeting room, nor was it spoken inside. When written
about it was to be referred to by stars. The idea was to bring into the association Edinburgh. She has a wooden leg.”
every department of productive industry. The intention was that no statutes of
the organization towards the bettering or change of the conditions surroun ling The other was addressed :
employer and employe would be made until everything connected with the condi. “My dear Ant Sue as lives in the Cottage by the Wood near the tion of things had been discussed and thoroughly understood. The reason for New Forest.”
that was that a strike of miners affected not only the miners themselves, but affected In the latter case, says Mr. Hyde, the letter had to feel its way about for a day or the machinists, the engineers, the merchants, the clerks, and everybody connected two, but “ Ant Sue" was found living in a cottage near Lyndhurst.-William
with industry in that region. In 1874 I was asked one evening if I would not Andrews, F. R. H. S., in " Home Chimes.”
become a member of a club) or association, the name of which was not mentioned.
I went, and was initiated into the order of the Knights of Labor. Up to that time I How To Give Away $500,000.—The Pall Mall Gazette lately started a dis knew nothing of it; but when I saw in that meeting room a locomotive engineer, a cussion as to what a philanthropic millionaire should do with his money, by pub- stationary engineer, a miner, a laborer, a truckman, members of my own craft and lishing a letter from a correspondent who assumed to be the possessor of $500,000, others, I made up my mind that that was an association which, of all others, was which he wished to leave for the best advantage of his fellow-men, from whom he calculated to do good to the laboring man. This man Stephens, who formed the professed to desire advice in regard to its clisposition. Of course the advice was first local assembly, was afterwards elected master workman, and at Reading forthcoming in great variety. One man suggested that the most praiseworthy use elected to the position of first grand master workman of the Knights of Labor. which could be made of a part of the money would be to give it to him. He The organization continued under him for one year and nine months, when his wanted only $25,000, a sum the millionaire would not miss," and which to him health failed, and when the convention met at Chicago he sent a letter of declina" would mean the birth of a new life,” after an experience of hard luck. Others tion, declining to be again elected, and suggesting two names from whom his sucadvised the millionaire to hesitate no longer, but to proceed at once to pay their cessor should be chosen. I was elected, and from that time to the present I have
been the chief officer of the Knights of Labor. The organization was intended country. There is not a year when hams and bacon do not bring higher prices in to take in not only the man who worked at the bench or in the mine, but every some great pork-producing counties of the West than they do in New York. There man who toiled, by hand or brain, in any honest occupation. We left out one or are Southern counties where the watermelon grows so easily that the small boy two honest occupations—lawyers and bankers—because we felt they were fully scorns to steal it, yet in some towns in these counties a watermelon costs twice as capable of taking care of themselves.—7. V. Powderly, G. M. W., before the much as in any Northern city. There are cattle-ranches in the West where milk, Strikers' Investigating Committee.
when there is any, brings 50 cents a quart, and great grain farms on the prairies whose
owners never in their lives tasted an ear of sweet corn. MORAL INFLUENCES OF ARCHITECTURE. Our architects are scarcely conscious,
And, coming back to I fancy, of the happiness or unhappiness, progress or retrogress, pleasure or pain,
shad, there are times when these fish are running up our own river by tens of
thousands that a breakfast of shad costs more than one of beefsteak, although the for which they are accountable. They do not realize what a moral as well as
shad comes right to town and needs only to be taken from a net, while the beef æsthetic influence they have over the people, and how responsible they are for the
has to be fed at least three years and then brought half-way across the continent moral tone of society. The planners of our houses have as great an influ
by rail. No, there's nothing singular about it, except in the fact that where food ence in forming our character as the preachers in our churches a more lasting influence; for while the latter must reach and move us by too-swiftly
products most abound human nature seems most incompetent to make full use of forgotten words, the former find expression for their teachings in enduring struc
its opportunities. America is, above all others, a land of plenty, but no one would
imagine it after looking at a price-list of family supplies.--N. Y. Herald. tures of wood and stone. What some of these lessons are will be pointed out in the sequel. How quickly and accu
ccurately we judge, by driving through the streets The Right KJND OF BANK.-Down with the little toy savings bank! I beof a town, what is the grade of its citizenship. When we see row after row of lieve it teaches children to be selfish. I hate to see a child, a sweet, innocent houses built after much the same plan, with no expression of individual style, taste, child, with dimpled hands and a laughing face, clutch the penny or the nickel you or preference, we expect to find the inhabitants as strangely alike, of the same low give it close in its little fingers, and run first to drop it into the greedy, miserly standard of intelligence, destitute of independent opinions, public spirit, and per • savings bank,” and then come back to thank you. We teach the child to be sonal ambition. On the other hand, the citizens of a town whose houses express selfish when we give it a penny to drop in the missionary box and fifty cents to character, variety, and good taste are likely to possess the same qualities. Where buy a toy for itself; to dole out a penny a week for charity and keep the savings houses lose all individuality the people who live in them are likely to suffer the bank rattling full. But haven't I a savings bank in my home? Indeed, I have; same loss, and vice versa. But beside the general effect which good or bad archi and I'd like to see you or any other man, except one of my dear friends, the Van. tecture has upon a people, there are special traits of character which are developed derbilts, pour money into the top of that savings bank as fast as the prince can and fostered by special merits or defects in our public and private buildings. One draw it out at the bottom. That's the way to run a bank. Make her useful; milk humble but very important lesson which domestic architecture should ensorce by her. “Mr. Speaker,” said the California legislator, “may I ask how much money giving no room for its opposite is cleanliness. All gloomy corners, dark cupboards, there is in the State treasury?” The Speaker estimated about $40,000. “Then," and damp closets, in which to store away rubbish and invite clust, mold, and decay, said the member, “ I move to rake her.” What good does the money do locked should be banished from the earth. Another lesson is cheerfulness. If blue sky, up? If you don't spend it, some alderman will get hold of it.--Burdette. bright sun, and green fields make the heart of man rejoice, wly should not pleas
ORES AND COAL IN THE ORIENT.--Upper Burmah receives, or used to receive, ant, comfortable, tasteful homes? If dull days, dreary landscapes, barren deserts
most of its copper from China and Yunnan. Copper ores are found in Momn and make people feel gloomy and sad, why should not sour tempers and morose dispo
the Shan States, and are, to some extent, smelted. The export trade of copper sitions be sostered by badly-lighted, awkwardly-planred, poorly-decorated rooms ? For the sour walls of a room are the only landscape which many people see from
from Rangoon consists merely of worn-out copper vessels originally brought from
China. Most of the gold used in Burmah is imported from China. The local one day's end 10 another. Such lessons as these may seem slight and trivial, but
production is derived from washings in the Upper Irrawaddy, the Hukung, the human happiness or misery is often caused by the continued presence of little pleas
Kyendwen, and their respective tributaries. The amount obtained appears to be ures or annoyances. Of the lessons of fitness, proportion, or good taste, of which
not very considerable. Platinum occurs with the gold in several of these localievery well-built house is an embodiment, I need not speak, for they have less
ties, and is said to be well known to the Burmese, who call it by a name signifyto do with the moral than the aesthetic influence of architecture. There is yet one
ing white gold. Coal is known to exist, and is even worked to some extent at lesson taught by good architecture whose importance makes it deserve far more attention than it has yet received. True architecture is a living sermon, and its
Thungadaw, on the Irrawaddy, seventy miles above Mandalay; at Shuaygu, below
Bhamo; at Membalung, in the Shan States, east of Mandalay; in the Yaw distext, which il writes on every building it constructs, is “Avoid sham; be what
trict, southwest of Mandalay, &c. It is sound also' at Pagan and Shimpagah.appear to be.” Not all have learned rightly to read this text, but all may and will
Building learn it as architectural principles come to be better understood by the public And surely no nobler lesson could be before our people than this which is symbolized by EDUCATION OF THE INDIANS. I believe that every Indian child not belonging all our buildings worthy of the name. A parent should be as careful that his to the civilized nations should be educated and taught agriculture or some trade or house does not tcach his children deceit as that his words do not. Many of our useful occupation at the public charge. This policy, pursued for ten or fifteen boys and girls, I sear, learn to like sham, to do and wear for effect, to be what they years, will relieve us of the Indian question. We shall have no Indian wars with do not appear to be, from the deceitful construction, false windows, sham doors, tribes whose children are in our schools. Full citizenship should be granted, and painted marble, and paper carving of their father's house. In our more elaborate as fast as possible, without too greal violence to the habits and prejudices of the public buildings—the school, church, library, court-house if the building is Indians, lands in severalty.–Senator Hoar, of Massachusetts. architecturally adapted to its intended use, it will awaken ambition, reverence, love of knowledge, respect " for the powers that be,” as the case may be. A gaol or prison, whose forbidding aspect, barred windows, and massive walls bespeak its intended use, will have a more wholesome influence on a community of young ras
LITERARY cals than a dozen sermons preached from the text “thou shalt not steal.”SE. S. Babbitt in Building.
BINDING OF HUMAN SKIN.—Following the example of Mr. Joseph Zaehnsdort, IMMIGRATION IN LOUISIANA.—The interest in the subject of immigration who lately bound two Elzevir editions in human skin, another London binder has recently, and currently taken by the press and people of this locality, is attracting executed an order to incase a copy of Hans Holbein's “ Dance of Death" in the very wide attention. Until the colony in Calcasieu parish was successfully started same ghastly integument, certainly a very appropriate covering for this work. by our Bureau of Immigration but little of a tangible nature was known in other These are not the only instances, however, in which the casing of the “human States concerning the opportunities for and advantages of settlement in our Com form divine” has been utilized. In the library at Mexborough House, near Methmonwealth. The mere fact that a number of Western farmers have been pleas-ley, Yorkshire, there were formerly two books, Sir John Cheek's “ Hurt of Sedi. antly and prosperously located in the heart of Louisiana is one of the strongest tion” and Braithwait's “Arcadian Princess,” both bound in the prepared skin of immigration cards that we could possibly have. Hundreds of Western and North Mary Bateman," the Yorkshire witch,” who was executed early in the beginning western people have learned of it, to their great surprise, during the two exposi of this century for murder; but these were among those which disappeared during tions, and the same of the new Northern invasion lias spread pretty much every the cataloguing of the library for sale, when cne of the former Earls of Mexborwhere. It has set the prairie farmers of the grasshopper belt and of the belt above ough was in difficulties. Yet another instance. When the writer was last in that, where grasshoppers freeze to death in the early summer, to thinking about Paris he was shown a small book by a dealer, who solemnly avowed it was bound this fertile country and genial climate down towards the Eads ship railway. What in a portion of the skin of the notorious Louvet de Couvray, and which he valued the average Western agriculturist doesn't know about that interoceanic project is at 1,000 francs, and for authentication of which he produced a long pedigree. something that lias not yet appeared in the papers. The joys of life in a region Christian at Work. where almost anything will grow, and where a man can work out of doors in his shirt sleeves twelve months in the year, strongly appeal to the blizzard-torn deni
NOTES — Science charges Dr. Ball, the Royal Astronomer of England, with plazen of the treeless plains north of us, and it only requires a little promotion 10
garizing much of the works of Prof. Newcombe and Young in his Story of the
Heavens.bring them down to us about as fast as homes and farms can be supplied. Louis
-The New York publishers are leading in the carly-closing moveiana has made a most satisfactory start in the line of securing an immigration of
-A new novel by Hugh Conway, entitled " • Living or Dead,” is farmers. It now remains to do some more work for the purpose of inducing
announced. Is he living or dead? They are having an exhibition of Bronté another worthy class of people to come in and become identified with us. Or
relics over in England. - Appleton & Co. will send out a new edition of the
Memoirs of General Sherman next week. Madame Henri Greville and her course we rcfer lo capitalists.- New Orleans Times-Democrat.
husband have returned to France. -Sampson Low, the great English pubSHAD AND OTHER THINGS.–Our wide-awake contemporary, the Macon Tele lisher, is dead. Morse's “ Thomas Jeffers” is to be the initial volume of the graph says that Macon men in Florida laugh to see the natives opening canned American Slatesmen series to be published by Douglas, of Edinburgh.---Leotamatoes in sight of tomato plants loaded with ripe fruit
. Then the said Macon pold Schenck, one of the founders of Puck and editor of the German edition of men go to their own homes and buy Florida shad, at Washington market prices, it, died on the 13th inst., at the early age of 43. -The New York Hospital although their own river is full of them; and the Telegraph asks : “ Is it not a Library contains 28,000 medical volumes, and the New York Academy of Medilittle singular?” Bless you, no! The same sort of thing is going on all over the cine has in its library 30,000 volumes and on file 200 medical journals. The