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have been released by the action of another part of the apparatus, which is under INFLUENCE OF OIL ON WAVES.-—Another instance of the effects of oil on waves
the control of the President. The voting is recorded by means of three sets of is supplied on apparently excellent evidence. The North German Lloyd's Werra
cylinders, upon which are inscribed in relief the names of the members in alpha was recently disabled in mid-Atlantic, and was taken in tow by the Venetian. One
betical order, and also the series of figures from 1 up to the total number of mem morning a strong gale sprang up, and heavy seas broke over the bows of the
bers. These cylinders rotate under inking pads, and after the voting, an impres former vessel, when the commander of the Venetian ordered an oil-bag to be hung
sion being taken on a band of paper against the name of each member present, is over each side of his ship and dragged some distance astern. The effect was
found a number in one or other of the three columns “ Yes,” “ No,” or “ Absten marked, as the sea became comparatively smooth, and not a drop of water broke on
tion.” These numbers appear perpendicularly in numerical order. Hence the board the Werra.
total number in each division is read at the foot of the three columns. The appa-
ratus is necessarily somewhat complicated, but it is said to work with great facility.

NOTES.--The project of a south polar expedition is being seriously ventilated in
It will be remembered that fou some time a similar voting apparatus was exhibited

the scientific circles of Australia, the Government having expressed its intention in one of the Congressional Committee rooms at Washington, but was finally taken

of assisting the enterprise. The Australian whalemen are also becoming interaway by the inventor, who despaired of its adoption.—The Electrical World.

ested in the project, inquiries having already reached London whether whaling

vessels for an anti-Arctic voyage would be subsidized by the Government. It FUTURE INVENTIONS.—1. What is the prospect of new inventions which will is now claimed that one of the results of the recent earthquake is the diminution have a power of disturbance similar to that already shown by steam and electricity? of the flow of natural gas from certain wells, and a considerable feeling of anxiety This is, of course, very hard to say, but we are not altogether without light. No is consequently pervading the circles interested. There are now 8,000 miles great alteration in methods of business is possible except through improvement in of overhead wires in London. The local authorities have control over the wires the means of transportation, and through the removal of artificial obstructions to only where there is an interference with the roadway. Gaslight will soon be transportation, such as tariffs and other interferences of the Government with the entirely banished from the Imperial opera houses of both Berlin and Vienna, natural course of trade. When the circulatory system of the body politic is com “ The safety and comfort of the public,” says an exchange, “demand that the inplete, the evolution of the body is complete. And, if the discovery of some Keely troduction of electric lights in every theater throughout the world be made obliga. motor or of some practicable method of navigating the air is made, we shall prob. tory by law." It is said that the great glazier of Alaska is moving at the rate ably enter on another period of transition as violent as the last. But there is very of a quarter of a mile per annum toward the sea. The front presents a wall of ice little expectation of anything of the kind. Unless a “negative gravity,” like that some five hundred feet in thickness; its breadth varies from three to ten miles, in Mr. Stockton's clever story, is discovered, it is not easy to see how even the nav and it is about 150 miles long. Almost every quarter of an hour hundreds of tons igation of the air would effect much change in our system of transportation, for of ice in large blocks fall into the sea, which they agitate in the most violent manair ships could hardly carry coal or heavy merchandise. The probability seems to ner, the waves being such as to toss about the largest vessels that approach the be, therefore, that we have approximated our limit. Subsequent improvements will glacier as if they were small boats. The applications of electricity become be matters of detail, such as the extension of existing lines or the persecting of more varied every day. Telebarometers, telethermometers, telemanometers, and econominal railroad operation. A system under which a piano can be shipped a telehydrobarometers have recently been invented, which, respectively, record at thousand miles for less than the price charged by the drayman who takes it to the distant points air-pressure, heat, steam-pressure, and water-stages

. A California final destination, is hardly susceptible of revolutionary improvements. Producers electrician has also invented a process whereby gold, silver, and copper can be at any one locality are already practical competitors with the rest in their line of instantly smelted by a lightning stroke. Ninety-six pounds of iron ore were business. No system of transportation, however perfect, can accomplish very recently found attached to the end of a lightning rod removed from the ground. much more. .-Popular Science Monthly (October).

The soil was ferrugineous, and it is supposed that electricity attracted the ore to

the rod. PROFESSOR PROCTOR ON EARTHQUAKES.—“Of course, the great question

A new motor for running light machinery has been discovered in which must be in all men's minds in connection with this great earthquake is this:

Germany. Petroleum in its fluid state is used; and the cost is put at about three llow far can we hereafter trust to that immunity from destructive earthquakes

cents per horse-power an hour, and half a cent per hour for lubricating, which in the Eastern States of America had seemed so complete ? All the opin.

Among early attempts at invention by Prof. Morse, who invented the telegraph, ions expressed by geologists respecting the cause of this last great disturbance are

stimulated by a desire to secure a living, was a new pump, fuade by him and his unimportant compared with the question whether Charleston is likely to be again

younger brother, Sidney, editor and proprietor of the New York Observer, to visited by an earthquake of the same destructive sort. Now, if it shall appear on

which the latter gave the name of Morse's Patent Metallic Double-headed Ocean inquiry that the forces which have partially destroyed Charleston, and seriously

Drinker and Deluge Spouter Valve Pump Box. Recent experiments have shaken the Southern States, have in reality been forces which found relief in the

demonstrated that the greatest height ever reached by sea waves is from 38 40 44 great disturbance, and are not likely soon (by which I mean within perhaps hun

feet. The average storm at sea will raise the waves to a height of 30 feet. dreds of years) to need relief of the sort again, then it will matter little whether the carthquake was brought about by a great land-slide beneath the sea, as some have suggested, or by imprisoned and superheated steam, as others have surmised, or (as is perhaps more probable than either view') by the accumulated effect of strains and tensions resulting from the steady process of contraction which the earth's crust is all the time undergoing. We may, even in this case, recognize in the long immunity which the United States have enjoyed from destructive earth SHALL SUNDAY BE PRESERVED.—The preservation of Sunday is necessary to quakes, the evidence of future safety, seeing that one great disturbance seems to a sufficient measure of industrial independence among all classes. Our time is so have sufficecl to work off the accumulated subterranean tensions of many centuries; much personal property. To sell all one's time is to throw one's soul into the bar. and as a long time of comparative quiescence may be expected to follow the gain. We must limit, however, our so-called natural rights by our social obliga. present earthquake as we know preceded it.”— Professor Richard Proctor, in tions. The rights of every man have a vital center and a flexible circumference, a The North American Review (October).

living, personal center to be defended to the last. THE EUCALYPTUS TREE AND MALARIA.—Some years ago claims were made

Our position, in a few words, is this : The working classes can not sell their

Sabbaths without selling that which is vitally essential to their physical and moral that thc Eucalyptus globulus would banish malaria from the land is only planted in abundance in malarious regions. Extensive plantations were accordingly made,

well-being. Society can not compel or allow men to sell the time of the Sabbath – but so far as known the result was a total failure. Dr. Brandes, of Hanover, now

day, and hope to preserve for all classes that measure of industrial independence,

moral as well as physical, which is necessary in order that men may be fit for citi advocates, with a similar object in view, the growth of the Anacharis alsinastrum,

zenship in a free state.

He a water-plant which is excecdingly common in some sections of the country.

Let the Sundays of laboring men be legally sold to Sac

tories and railroads, or let the Sundays of business nien generally be surrendered, bases his proposition upon the fact that in the district where he lives fevers of a

whether individuals will or not, to the general lust for gain, and the whole malarial type were very prevalent until this water-plant was introduced, and that they diminished from year to year until four years ago when they entirely disap

economy of modern lise would soon settle into a hopeless, grinding, and most peared and have not since returned. As the Anacharis is easily obtained and grows

wasteful industrial slavery. Men must preserve for themselves, for their own spontaneously, requiring no attention, the experiment can be easily tried in marshy

uses, physical, mental, and moral, and for their home life, this much at least of

time, if they are to remain freemen, if they are to be anything better than calcu. districts where malaria prevails.-Science.

lating machines in the office or hands in the shop. THE WEALTH OF NATURAL GAS.—Those interested in the wonderful applica

Our Sunday laws should be maintained so far as they afford legal security for tion of natural gas in the region around Pittsburgh, claim that the supply is inex. that measure of time for the home life, and for industrial freedom, which we have haustible and that wells which began spouting gas twenty-five years ago show no

hitherto granted to all classes upon the Sabbath. The Sunday laws, so far from abatement. The area extends over some portions of Western Pennsylvania, of

being oppressive, are, as interpreted by our courts

, securities for personal liberty. West Virginia, and of Ohio and Kentucky. It is said there are hundreds of thou

They say to every mechanic: you can not be compelled in a free state to work sands of acres of excellent “gas territory” in Western Pennsylvania still unlouched. The theory is that the gas is forming in the earth constantly. The daily consump

every day, like a slave, at any forge; upon Sunday the sovereign state maintains

your right to your home and freedom. They say to every storekeeper: you shall tion of the wells at Pittsburgh is 357,000,000 feet, supplying the factories and 10,

be protected in your laudable custom of closing your shutters one day in seven, 000 houses and taking the place of 4,000,000 tons of coal a year.

and you shall not be thrown out of business by any ruinous competition on the SPIRIT EXTRACTED FROM SWEET POTATOES.—Satisfactory results having been Sabbath day. They say to every tired bookkeeper and clerk: this day go free; obtained from trials made in the Azores, on the failure of the orange crop, to uti money can not buy your service for at least this one day of the seven. They say lize sweet potatoes for the production of flour and spirit, a French chemist, con

to every factory operative and girl in the shop: this day the great wheels mast nected with the French Antilles, M. Ralu, has lately taken out patents for improve stop, and the air and sunshine belong to the people. They say to a thousand ments in these two new industries. The latter seems likely to obtain large pro homes, to wives and children: to-day be glad, for labor is released from the taskportions. The sweet potato os Martinique yields fifteen litres of alcohol at 100 maker's hand, and the husband and the father shall be yours to-day to enjoy with degrees per 100 kilos weight of roots, and it is probable that the produce of other you the fruit of his labor.

The state stands upon the Sabbath day, in the majesty islands and of the southern continent of America will yield about the same quan of law, before the door of the humblest cottage, and says to the wife and mother, tity. Ordinary potatoes only yield about three to four litres,

to the children clinging to her skirts, and to the very infant at her breast; this day





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is yours, and upon your

bread shall not be taken from you; by the same sover 000,000, among whom 662 missionaries and 1,095 native helpers are preaching the eignty with which I have bidden labor go free to-day, I will also protect it from gospel. The London Mansion House Fund for the assistance of Russian Jews falling among thieves; the wages of the week shall not, with my consent, be

amounts to £110,000, of which £90,000 were expended in transporting 8,569 fugisquandered; upon this Sabbath day I will protect the home by all the power of

tives to America, 1,000 to London, and purchasing new homes in Russia for the law from drunkenness, poverty, and despair.

4,000. Rev. E. P. Hammond, the evangelist, has been holding daily religious The same reasons which have been indicated for the preservation of Sunday meetings in Kristiana, Bergen, Trondhjem, Kristiansund, in Norway, and in Stockafford a clue, also, to the answer which should be given with regard to public holm, in Sweeden, where the Queen, in her palace, at Rosedale, expressed the amusements on the Sabbath. The state should be doubly vigilant in protecting deepest interest in the work. Multitudes were converted, and a general quicken. the home life of the people upon the days of popular liberty. Laws which license

ing has come to Christians. Out of the freshman class of 160 girls at Wellesley saloons on week days may even rise to the height of prohibition on Sunday; and

College, more than 100 are church members. The applications in all exceeded 900, that, not only to protect the homes of the people from special perils incidental to

but only 545 can be accommodated. Boston University is putting over the stopping of work on Sunday, but also for the benefit of that large and over

$100,000 into a new hall for its school of theology, greatly increasing its accomworked class of men, the bar-tenders and saloon keepers, who serve human appe modations for students. A meeting was recently held at the Downs Chapel, tites seven days in the week and far into the nights, and who certainly need some Clapton, to commend to God seven missionaries who were to sail on the next day Sabbath rest from their unpleasant business. It is not for the public good to tol for the Congo under the auspices of the English Baptist Missionary Society. erate the business enslavement of any class of men even in their own supposed in The sad intelligence comes from London by cable that the young King of Uganda terests. Moreover, while no moral interest is subserved by denying all access to has put to death all the converts of the Protestant and Catholic missions, and that fresh air on the Sabbath to the families of many who are hived during the week the missionaries are in great peril. · The death is reported of another of the in the city and its factories, the country may justly demand the protection of its members of the Universities Mission to Central Africa, the Rev. C. S. Pollard, at Sabbath quiet from the vices of the town; nor should the fact be ignored that the Mozambique. This new loss follows within seven months on the deaths of Mr. multiplication of excursions and opening of places of amusement on the Sabbath

Winckley, the Revs. C. S. B. Riddell, J. S. C. Wood, and the illness of the Rev. may occasion more work than it grants respite, and that the indirect consequences W. P. Johnson. The Chinese government has very promptly paid $10,000 of many seemingly beneficent enlargements of Sunday liberty may tend toward

to the Canada Presbyterian Mission in Formosa for property destroyed in the the utter loss of even the economic and social blessings of the day.-Newman Franco-Chinese war. The mission now has 38 stations with 1,273 converts, all the Smyth, in the Forum.

result of fourteen years' labor. There were about 3,000 baptisms of adults in THE DECLINE OF FRANCE.—Mgr. Meignan, the archbishop of Tours, has re.

connection with the missions of the Church Missionary Society last year, of which cently made a remarkable exposition of the consequences by which France is

1,680 were in India. An immense image or idol has been discovered in to day overwhelmed as the result of the growing advance of impiety, the blind

Mexico, which is made of blue granite and weighing fully a hundred tons. It enmity to everything Christian displayed by the men to whom the councils of the was originally 36 feet high, about 18 feet across the shoulders, and 18 feet nation are entrusted, and the daring encroachments of the sect of Freemasonry. thick. It is in the mountains, and lies sprawling on its back, with its great stone The venerable prelate emphasizes the fact that the prestige of France is a thing of feet, each 6 feet square, turned up to the sun; its head a little downhill, and the past, and that she no longer preserves those relations with the other European pointing a little west of north. Rev. John L. Withrow notified Park Street powers which in former times marked her history. The French government in

Church, last Sunday morning, that at last, after ten weeks' consideration of the the political and social enterprise which it enters on to-day finds itself pledged to a

call from the Third Presbyterian Church of Chicago, he had fully decided to resingle-handed conflict, the crisis being further aggravated by the fact that the aid and

main in Boston. The daily papers have reported that the discussions conco-operation which it might look for is too readily transferred to the side hostile to nected with the American Board the last year have had the sad result of diminthe arms of France. Tonquin, Cochin-China, and Madagascar are the signal wit.

ishing the contributions of the churches. That is not the case. The regular nesses to this unpromising state of affairs. France, says Mgr. Meignan, beholds

donations have advanced by about $16,000. Truth is the most royal thing herself to-day hemmed in by enemies and is become the terror of Europe by the

in the world. It is the only thing that can rule in the end. The man who is war upon religion, the social disorders which spread ruin and dismay over the quick to get truth is king among his fellows. Jesus was king because he was country. The archbishop then institutes a comparison between the condition of anointed, ordained, born to see and teach the truth. Truth goes with religion. France and those other countries which, though to-day similarly pervaded by unbe

When Professor Henry had made all his preparations for a very important experilief, yet retain the safeguard of a government from which the spirit of Christianity

ment in telegraphing, he turned to his assistant, and said: “ Now, be silent. I am has not utterly departed. Germany, for instance, exceeds France in being a focus of going to ask God a question." Pilate thought a kingdom without fighting skepticism; yet the influence of the German constitution, with its laws framed in

soldiers did not amount to much. Christ thought a kingdom of fighting soldiers a religious spirit and with regard to the obligations of religion, the place which

did not amount to much. Pilate and all his kingdom have vanished. Christ's the Christian principle holds in the system of education, the discipline of the army,

kingdom will endure forever. Pilate the governor would have been forgotten but the representation of authority, all exert a powerful and salutary effect on the re

for Jesus the prisoner. The Rev. Peter Leys, an aged clergyman of Edinligious and moral life of the nation. On the other hand, the ruling party which burgh, in enfeebled health, has been sent to prison for refusing to surrender two essays to guide the destinies of France encourages by all the means at its disposal

children of his son, who came to him when their father was in poverty. The the rising lawless spirit that aims to annihilate the idea of God and moral responsi

court had ordered their surrender, but the clergyman refused because their father's bility from the minds of men. It waits on the footsteps of atheism, covers it with

religion was different from his. “ It is my duty,” he said, “ to obey God rather honor and applause, and appears to recognize in it the savior and not the destroy

than man.” The Rev. Dr. Lorimer, the well-known Baptist clergyman, tells ing tyrant of the nation. It thus becomes the prey of every species of revolt and

this story on himself: “When in London, a few weeks ago, I visited a market, disorder, and finding no hand strong enough to check the torrent of misfortunes,

and asked the name of a peculiarly ugly fish that lay on the counter. "We call the condition of France is one which creates to Europe a serious foreboding of

them Baptists, replied the dealer. Baptists!' I rejoined; "why Baptists ?' danger and threatens to engulf the country itself in ruin complete and overwhelm

• Because,' he answered, they go to the bad so soon after they come out of the ing.Catholic Review.

It is is estimated

that there are in New York over 300 local char

itable institutions, not including those under municipal care. The erection of Notes.—The sum of $10,592,331 was contributed in 1885 by the Presbyterians for church and missionary work. The Methodists have 19.700 churches in the

these charities has been the work of the society ladies of New York, and for their L'nited States, and the sum of $19,041,387 was given the last year for the support

maintenance there is annually expended the sum of not less than $4,000,000. of the various branches of their Christian work. There are 2,100 children in 36 Sabbath-schools in Utah. Maharanee Surnomoyce, a generous Hindoo lady in Calcutta, has given $75,000 to found a hall of residence for native women students of medicine. The government has contributed ground for the building.

The Jewish population of Jerusalem is constantly increasing and now num. bers 18,000. This is the largest number that has lived in the sacred city at one time since the destruction by Titus in 70 A. D. The Rev. W. Swanson, of the THE POWER OF THE PROVINCIAL Press.—In discussing the article which apEnglish Presbyterian Mission in China, in a recent speech in London, said twenty peared in the Nineteenth Century for September on the “ Relations between the five years ago, when he went to China, there were only five small churches at the metropolitan and provincial press in England,” the Chicago Inter.Ocean says: treaty ports. Now, in going from Canton to Shanghai and traveling twenty or “In our own country the case is somewhat different. We have no overshadowtwenty-five miles a day, he could sleep every night, with one or two exceptions, in ing metropolis. The Washington journals have no national influence. The papers a village having a Christian church. The railway branch of the Young Men's of New York, of Philadelphia, of Boston circulate but little beyond their own Christian Association has 66 departments in operation, not including 14 places at vicinage, and whenever they chance to go elsewhere their opinions go for just which work is done for railway men. Fifty-eight of these local organizations report what they happen to be worth. The Chicago papers, for instance, are not a bit 9,506 embers, all having reading rooms with an average daily attendance of more likely to take their cues from what is said in the papers of New York than several thousand persons, and most of them have libraries. Social and religious those papers are to take theirs from leaders in Chicago and other Western journals. meetings are held once a week or oftener. Out of the 792,444 words com Under the working of the vast and very completely-organized system of the Asso. posing the revised Bible, 721,672 are the same as found in the received edition, ciated Press dispatches a hundred daily papers all the way across the continent issued in 1611. Only nine per cent.—70,772—have been changed; 65.508 have offer to their readers every morning very much the same morning news report. been excluded. Reports show that the results of the missionary work of the And not the news only, but the most significant opinions are everywhere imme. United Presbyterian Church in Egypt were all more than one hundred per cent. diately reported. The American metropolitan dailies, as those of New York and greater in 1885 than they were in 1875. Stations are the more numerous in the Chicago, have certain very eminent advantages, both as to amount of news and vicinities of the locations of native pastors. The fifteen million of foreigners power of influence. But, in the aggregate, the influence of the papers published in the United States in 1880 furnished nineteen per cent. of the convicts in the in the various smaller cities and larger towns is of immense value, and, we are penitentiaries and forty-three per cent. of the inmates of our work houses, reforma free to say, is continually increasing. At the same time, this must be said, that tories and alms houses. Central Africa, which was opened up by the martyr whoever essays to be a leader of thought and action in almost any part of the Livingstone, has a population of 80,000,000, while the entire continent has 200, country needs to keep himself thoroughly posted and familiar with the leading



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organs of news and thought in the more metropolitan centers of national and
social life.”

comparison as newspapers, in the exact sense of the word, between American and PRESERVING LIFE BY SALT.-One of the most entertaining if not the most in-
Parisian journals. Whoever counts upon a Parisian daily for information as to structive stories of Hawthorne is of a young man who, in obedience to a marvel..
what is going on outside of the metropolis will be sadly disappointed, and when ous prediction, set out to find the three most coveted objects of life, but who re.
events of any importance occur the reader of an American or English turned after years of wandering to discover them in the home that he had deserted
sheet will be more edified by the telegraphic columns inviting perusal in Lon so long before. Since the death of the first human being, people have been seek-
don or New York than by the longest local article printed on the spot. · There is ing for something that would prolong lise. Ponce de Leon went to Florida in
a host of newspapers in Paris, all the same, and many of them, if they contain little quest of the fountain of perpetual youth. Sir John Mandeville sought a similar
or no news, are entitled to the praise of being well written. Paris has between fifty spring on the coast of Malabar. The old alchemists, wishing to protract their lives
and sixty daily journals, against fifteen or sixteen printed in London and the same so they could perfect a method of changing lead into gold, endeavored to make an
number in New York. Five or six of them make money, a few pay their way, elixir of life. The general opinion appears to have been that the substance thatis
and the majority live on precariously, flaring up occasionally through the chance capable of insuring longevity was to be obtained in some very distant part of the
discovery of a "backer,” who requires an organ for political purposes, or a com world or compounded of very rare ingredients. But Dr. Barggraeve, professor of
pany that wants to float an enterprise of some sort or other. The Figaro is still the practice of medicine in the University of Ghent, like the hero of Hawthorne's
the paper that all Paris reads with most regularity, but is far inferior to the Figaro | story, has, aster wandering about the world only to be disappointed, discovered the
of old, and no longer occupies the place it once held in public opinion. In point means of preserving health and protracting life at home; in fact, in the home of
of circulation the Petit-Journal outstrips all its pretentious contemporaries. Its

every one.

The substance warranted to cure all manner of diseases, to preserve daily circulation, I'am told, now reaches 850,000 copies.- Paris Correspondence health, and insure a very green old age is nothing more nor less than common in New York Times.

salt. His experience as a practitioner has convinced him that it is a panacea forall human ills. He ascertained many years ago that this simple substance would cure

several diseases, and lately he has become convinced that it will cure all that are EDUCATION.

known to the modern doctor. Dr. Barggraeve has arrived at the conclusion that there is no reason for being sick. He says that from half to two thirds of an

ounce of sodium chloride, taken in ordinary food or drink, every day, will not only THE SCIENTIFIC TREATMENT OF EDUCATION.—The great increase which has insure health, but long life. He is confident that cholera can be kept at bay by taken place in late years in the number of books devoted to educational subjects the use of salt, and that it will ward off malaria and cure consumption. He has can not have escaped the attention of the reading public. But those to whom never found a person who reached an advanced age and who was free from dissuch books are only known as so many titles, would be even more surprised were ease who did not habitually eat large quantities of salt. In countries where the they to make a careful examination of their contents. A change of matter has ac people have salt fish as the most common article of diet very many old persons are companied a change of method. Even the old terminologies are to a great extent to be found. This learned professor of the healing art shows that the convicts in outgrown, while rigorous scientific method has almost wholly superseded the un Ilolland, who at one time in the history of the country were obliged to subsupported propositions, with their deduced consequences, that were once so com sist on unsalted bread, generally died in the course of a few months, after having

In short, a new science has not only been developed, but it has sprung into suffered protracted agony. He also shows that the want of salt has caused several general recognition. It is to be deplored that no more euphonious and manageable terrible epidemics in Saxony. Epidemics, he says, are not common in Russia, for name could be found for it than pedagogics; but that word is the legitimate repre the reason that the peasants eat salt in large quantities when one threatens them. sentative of the pardaytyra of Plato and the pädogogik and pédagogic of the Dr. Barggraeve's theory in relation to the cause, cure, and prevention of disease Germans and the French. We must trust to time to wear away its barbarous and the means of insuring long life may be the correct one, but observations made sound, and in the mean time rejoice that the control of the new science is a positive by other persons in various parts of the world do not seem to warrant his concluand valuable addition to the circle of knowledge.—The New Princeton Review. sions in regard to the efficacy of salt. The natives of this country did not use salt

, NOTES.— James Recalton, the school teacher of Maplewood, N. J., has just

or at least they did not take the trouble to make and preserve it

. Still many of returned from a trip through Russia on a tricycle. He left New York June 12

them reached an advanced age, and it was the general opinion that they were and arrived at Archangel early in July, and at St. Petersburg August 11. His

healthy. The negroes in Africa, the Hindoos in India, and the Maoris in Austratrip cost him only $200. The Pope is actively pursuing his project to found

lia eat no salt meat or fish, and rarely ever use salt as a condiment. North of the Arctic circle salt is not considered a necessity. *

* Centuries in an important university at the Lateran Palace for advanced scientific and literary studies on the part of the clergy. It will be called the University Leonine, and its

stead of decades would be wanted for improving the human race in the same director will be the Jesuit Cardinal Mazzella. The sum of $12,000 is quietly

manner that English cattle have been improved. If the members of the British distributed every year at Yale College, $6,500 at Boston University. Students

association desire to see the human race improved by the means it recommends, it needing aid are required to interview the college president before a certain day in

seems strange that they do not set about it. In the opinion of many, that body the college year, and fully satisfy him on all conditions laid down. They are then

embraces the largest number of highly intellectual, refined and highly educated quietly enrolled for beneficiary aid and proceed with their studies without publicity

men ever united in one organization. Its membership reaches several thousands and loss of self-respect. The colleges and seminaries for young women show

There are enough of them to establish, if not to perpetuate, a new and highly im. that the movement for the higher education does not go backward. Wellesley has

proved race of human beings that would be the crowning glory of all lands and 160 members in the freshman class. The application this year exceeded 900, but

ages.—Chicago Times. 545 is the limit of the college's present accommodations. Mt. Holyoke Seminary is FOR AND AGAINST ALCOHOL.-The total abstinence section of the British Medifuls, and Smith College opens with a freshman class of one hundred, and the largest cal Association never fails to testify at the annual meeting. About 160 members of number of students in its history. All higher education is essentially self the Association were present at the breakfast at Brighton recently given by the education. Teachers do not make the scholar. The impulse comes chiefly from National Temperance League. We need not say that the speakers at this meeting within, and the student becomes the scholar, when he ceases to confine himself to were not of the opinion of a recent writer in the Revue Scientifique-M. Fournier prescribed tasks or previous limits, and spontaneously reaches out beyond.— Pres. de Flaix. M. de Flaix maintains that the outcry against alcohol is utterly unBartlett (Dartmouth Col.) in the Forum. The teacher should not be a bigot merited, and that all vital statistics are more favorable in nations in proportion to in any sense of the word; she should not forget, if she would have her lessons the use of alcohol. In France, he says, the birth rate is lower and the death rate prove of lasting benefit, that one chapter of pure philosophy is worth more than a higher, where the consumption of alcohol is smaller.

In England, again, more hundred volumes of dogmatism.--Supt. J. S. Shoup, Woodbury Co., Ia. alcohol is consumed than in France, and yet in France the birth rate, the death The scholars reap a rich benefit from the teacher's recreation. Its reflex influence rate, and the statistics of crime and suicide are less favorable than in England. upon the school is direct and positive. The teacher should return with a clear head, Comparing other nations

, he reaches the same conclusions, and maintains that alcom wholesome influence upon the dispositions of children, their aptitude for study, and very different were the teachings of the medical abstainers at Brighton, viz: Dr. their ability to make good progress while in attendance at the schools.--Thé Can Norman Kerr, Dr. Nathan S. Davis, Professor Geike, of Toronto Medical College. ada Educational Monthly. The late Mrs. Ganıble, of London, has left Gir Dr. Simon Fitch, of Nova Scotia, Dr. Bernard O'Connor, and Dr. Ridge, Secretary ton College, Cambridge, England, a legacy of $95,000. The munificent benefac to the Medical Temperance Association. Dr. O'Connor said that during his four tor of English girls has distant relatives in Philadelphia.

It is quite likely

teen years of practice he had never prescribed alcohol for any patient. Speaking that the property of the Chicago University, whose trustees have given up the in as a physician to a consumption hospital, he maintained that phthisical patients did stitution, unable to clear off a debt of $300,000 hanging over it, will pass into the much better without alcohol—the night perspirations and the cough were less, and

" hands of Archbishop Feehan, who will convert the place into a Catholic theologi the morning exhaustion was less. But the principal speaker, of course, was Dr. cal seminary. The authorities of Nancy, France, have voted to add 300,000 Nathan S. Davis—the

president-elect of the approaching international congress. Dr. francs to the 500,000 francs already appropriated by the general government, to Davis' disparagement and denunciation of alcohol were absolute and unconditional. be devoted to the construction of chemical and anatomical institutes in that city. Ii does not nourish, it does not sustain heat, it does not assist convalescence

, it does Professor W. R. Harper's recent appointment to the chair of Semitic lan not improve the pulse in sever, and it is of no virtue in nursing. It is purely evil guages at Yale College excites interest. For several years his energy and activity in its effects

. So far from strengthening the heart's action, it depresses it together have been as conspicuous as his scholarship. In his correspondence school for the lyzes it. In saying so, he relied not only on his own observations, but on those of study of Hebrew he has nearly eight hundred students. The American Hebrew Anstie and Parkes. Me maintains that alcohol is simply anæsthetic; that it does Institute comprises some forty Hebrew professors in the various theological semi not

remove cvils, but makes one insensible to them ; and that it arrests and retards naries of the country. President Holden, of the University of California, has all healthy action of the tissues, and tends to the retention and accumulation of devoted his summer leisure to the Lick Observatory, and he is sanguine that cvery. efsete materials, thing will be ready for the great telescope by the beginning of the

new year, The two sides we decidedly lean to that of Dr. Davis. We entirely agree with him and

There is, perhaps, a little extremeness on either side, but of the telescope itself, if everything goes well, will be finished next June.

other speakers in thinking that the medical prescription of alcohol should be undera

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taken only on the strictest grounds. M. De Flaix must remember that France now Although 40,000 males and only 35,000 females came from Ireland in 1882, in the
is not far, if at all, behind England in the consumption of alcohol, and that, besides, last three years the female immigration has exceeded the male each year by 1,000—
she indulges in absinthe, and he will have to explain the fact that in the temperance 24,000 males and 25,000 females having come in 1886. From no other country
section of life insurance offices in England the value of life is apparently much do we receive more women than men—a fact which speaks louder in praise of
greater than in the ordinary section—so much so that in some offices the té etotal high wages in the kitchen than in any other field of labor.—Brooklyn Union.
lives are taken for less premiums or receive larger bonuses. When we read the
indictment of Dr. Davis against alcohol, we are tempted to ask if it is the whole

SALES OF PUBLIC LANDS.—Commissioner Sparks, of the General Land Office, truth—if alcohol has no redeeming quality ? Admitting that it does infinite harm,

has prepared a statement showing the disposal of public lands for the fiscal year does it do no good ?—does it prevent no evil? Can the able physicians who recog

ending June 30, 1886, from which it appears that the total number of entries were

The amount of money received nize its virtues be all mistaken? The question is one for scientific and thoughtful 227-474, embracing an area of 20,991,967 acres. men to discuss gravely, and medicine will not be without much authority, and,

for this land was $7,412,767. The cash sales aggregated 3,773,498 acres, · let us repeat, responsibility in its settlement.— The Scientific American.

and the amount received therefor was $5,757,891. Original homestead entries
were made to the number of 61,638, covering an area of 9,145,135 acres.

FEES OF NOTED ENGLISH PHYSICIANS.—The Boston Traveler thus quotes lists of selections made by railroad companies under the different grants aggre-
from a London letter : “ Do London doctors earn more than Queen's counsel ?' gate 2,311,547 acres. The number of timber-culture entries made was 34,996,
As a rule they do not, but the incomes of the three leading physicians and those of comprising 5,389,309 acres. The above totals do not include the disposal of
the three leading lawyers are about equal—that is to say, at the rate of $60,000 a Indian lands, amounting to 15,562 entries, comprising an area of 1,132,59 acres,
year each. The largest sum ever earned in one year by a doctor was $100,000, on account of which $1,607,729 were received.Bradstreets.
made by Sir Astley Cooper. The three men at the head of the medical profession
in England, at the present day, are Sir William Jenner, the court physician, Sir

Our SCHOOL POPULATION.—According to the report of the Commissioner of EduWilliam Gull, and Sir Andrew Clark. Just lately the last named has obtained

cation for 1882-3, the school population of the States and Territories amounts to 16,considerable notoriety. He was induced to visit a very wealthy lady at Nice, and

504,692; the number of pupils enrolled; 10,364,473; and the average daily attendhe received the unprecedented fee of $25,000. One-fifth of this amount he re

ance, 6,344,663; and for 1883-84, 16,794,402 school population, 10,738,192 pupils tained as a remuneration for his services, and the remainder he divided between

enrolled, and 6,693,928 daily attendance—or an increase in school population of two charitable institutions connected with his profession.”

289,710; of enrolled pupils, 373,719; and of daily attendance, 349,265. Com

missioner Eaton's report is dated June 30, 1884, and if we suppose a similar inNOTES.- Dr. Edward O. Shakespeare, who in October, 1885, went abroad as a crease has taken place during the period between that date and August, 1886, United States Commissioner to investigate the cholera, arrived at his home in there is now a school population of 17,373,822; of enrolled pupils, 11,485,630 ; Philadelphia on Monday last. In his investigations of the disease he visited the and of average attendance, 7,392,558.-School Journal. places in France, Spain and Italy in which the disease had been epidemic, and

NOTES.-Statistics show that the death rate in the United States is 18 to each also went to Calcutta, in which place, however, there were no cases of cholera at the time of his visit. He is reported as having said that the people of India live

1,000; in England, 20.5; in France, 23.6; in the German Empire, 26.1; in Bel

It is estimated that 2,500,000 in much greater squalor and filth than the peasantry of those portions of Europe gium, 22.4; in Austria, 29.6, and in Italy, 30.5.that suffered so severely during the epidemic of 1885. The J. Marion Sims

persons are arrested every year in the United States, of whom 40 per cent. are old memorial fund now amounts to $7,759.91. The committee who have the fund in

offenders. The first commitments to the common jail reach about 100,000 each

year. charge are about to take steps to erect a suitable bronze monument to the memory

A million of men are occupied in the administration of our penal system, of the distinguished American surgeon. The English commission for the

and the expense of prisons, their equipment, and management reaches the sum of investigation of hydrophobia is thoroughly organized and equipped for that purpose,

$400,000,000 annually. but has as yet been unable to take any original steps in that direction, by reason of its total lack of material, no dog having become rabid since its organization.


I 2

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CATERING TO AMERICANS IN ENGLAND.—John Bull understands pretty well how

to get his fingers into Uncle Sam's pockets, and it is curious to note the catchFOREIGN MILITARY STATISTICS.-In view of the events which just now are dis penny ways in which he does so. The great railroads of England publish parts of turbing Europe and which threaten the approaching outbreak of a war the most their guides especially for the Americans, and in the cabin and smoking-room of bloody of the century, it is not inopportune to pass in review the military forces every ocean steamer you will find a bushel or so of their guides, each of which of which the principal nations of Europe dispose. An idea will thus be attained will teach you how to get rid of your dollars to the best advantage. You will see of the immense slaughter which would deluge Europe with blood when all these that the roads have trains labeled the American expresses and some go even so far powers, as seems probable, would be drawn in' as participants in this titanic con as to label their engines after our Presidents. One engine is put down as named test. The following presents the mirror :

after “ President Washington,” another “President Lincoln," and a third “ Presi

dent Garfield.” The hotels in Liverpool advertise that they pay “special attenArmy. Ironclads. Marine.

tion to the wants of American ladies,” and the railroads running from Liverpool to Russia.



28,358 London will make up special trains to take fifty Americans there immediately on Germany



26,000 the arrival of the steamer, if they will pay first-class fares. Pullman cars are Austria


9,764 attached to these trains, and I see that one line mentions as one of its advantages Turkey

565,000 15

30,000 that it passes through the town where George Washington's ancestors lived. Great Britain


74 58,000 Frank G. Carpenter, in Foreign Letter. France



50,000 Italy

THE WORLD'S RAILROADS.—There are about three hundred thousand miles of

railroad in the world, of which fully one-half are in America.

Australia is now

may be noted that Italy possesses the six most powerful ironclads in the world. building at the greatest rate per cent of any of the grand divisions of the world, -- Translated for PUBLIC OPINION from La Voce del Popolo. .

partly because the mileage of that country is very small in proportion to its extent. FACTS ABOUT PENSIONS.—Commissioner of Pensions Black's report for the year

Sixty per cent of the railroads of the world are in the English-speaking countries.

Australia has only 364 persons per mile of railroad, the United States about 500 and ending June 30, 1886, shows that there were then 365,783 pensioners on the rolls.

Canada the same. In Great Britain and Ireland there are' 1,870 people per mile The increase of the number for six years is shown by the following table :

of road, and in Germany, France and Belgium still more. Austria heads the list In 1881 there were


with 2,786 per mile. The British railroads are very costly, the average exceeding In 1882 there were

285,695 $200,000 per mile. The average in the United States is less than one-third as In 1883 there were

303,658 much, the difference being due not altogether to cheaper construction, but largely In 1884 there were .

• 322,756 to the great cost of way in the more thickly populated country—about $133 per In 1885 there were .

· 345,125 head. °Russia has spent only $14 per head, and most of the European nations less In 1886 there were


than $50. There was, therefore, an increase of a little less than 20,000 in each of the years

Notes.-Russia believes in the special education of railway employes for their 1882, 1883, and 1884, over the preceding year; a little more than 20:cconin 1885, profession, as is shown by the fact that there are thirty-three railway schools now and about that number in 1886—this in spite of the numbers who die and marry and become of age. In 1885, 15,253 names were dropped; in 1886, 22,098. In

in operation under the direction of the government minister of transportation. 1885, 35,768 were added; in 1886, 40,857. Thus far the number added con

The course embraces mathematics, accounts, surveying, telegraphy, mechanics,

engineering, railway construction and operation, etc., and, strange to say, even retinues to be nearly 20,000 more every year than the number dropped.

ligion, an accomplishment which is not in this country considered so necessary for SEX ANI) NATIONALITY OF IMMIGRANTS.—

-The tables that show the sex and railway men as it ought to be. The locomotive works of Herr Borsig, of Bernationality of the immigrants to the United States during the year ended June 30, lin, are said to be the oldest on the continent. They have been established forty1886, reveals, of course, a continucd falling off in the volume of immigration, eight years, and are about to be closed in consequence of the prevailing low prices which has been steady since the “high-tide” year of 1882, and the proportion of entailing constant losses. Tarsus, the birthplace of the apostle Paul, has been male and female immigrants from all European countries has remained nearly the connected by railway to Mersina, now the principal seaport on the Southern coast

In 1882, for instance, 400,000 males came from Europe and 246,000 of Asia Minor—a distance of seventeen miles. The line will be pushed forward - females; and in 1886, 196,000 males, a little less than hall, and 131,000 females, to Adana, twenty-five miles further. Adana is a large and flourishing city on the somewhat inore than half as many as came in 1882. But when the tables for Ire right bank of 'the Sarus, where the river is spanned by the bridge—still land are examined, nothing like the same proportion between the sexes is seen. intact—built by Justiņian. An English railway porter whose wages were but


nineteen shillingsm-less than $5.00-per week, died recently, leaving $20,000 as

a long time.

Confidence has been restored among investors, and new enterprises the result of accumulated “ tips. This is doing well for England, but if the same are being promoted in Wall street. The banking institutions are encouraged, and man had been a Pullman porter in the United States he might have holders of railway securities are delighted by the increased earnings of the lines died a millionaire. Mr. F. W. Webb, of Crewe, England, has made a curious from freight, which clearly shows that goods are being transported everywhere in calculation in the London Engineer, as follows: The London and Northwestern large quantities.

New York World.
Railway requires 20,000 tons of steel rails annually for repairs. For every mile

The business of the country is generally moving forward steadily in the line of
run the actual loss is about one-third of a pound of steel, so that on this road 1,680
pounds of steel disappear from the rails every hour. · The following is the

improvement, yet there have been checks in some respects, and some indications

that undue haste would be met with a reverse. The dry goods trade has been number of men on the rolls of the Pennsylvania Steel Company: For the month of May, 2,905; June, 2,805; July, 2,931; August, 3,219. The pay-roll for the

less active, but raw material, wool and cotton, have been stronger and more active. month of August foots up $120,600.50. The movement of the winter wheat

Cotton has been in active export demand, and fine fleeces in wool are higher both crop of 1886 is unexampled in the history of the trade. The use of harvesters,

here and abroad. With increasing imports, and prices of raw material and the with twine-binder attachments, and steam threshers have wonderfully assisted early

markets for the manufactured goods showing more or less hesitation, it would appear deliveries. Specimens of steel rails from the South Carolina Railroad, twisted

more satisfactory if improvement were better distributed for the benefit of those into a reversed curve by earthquake power, have been forwarded by Prof. Earle

who employ American labor. Some textile manufacturers, however, are doing Sloane to the Smithsonian Institution. An exchange says:

Since the great

well.— Pittsburgh Commercial-Gazette. success of the cantilever bridge at Niagara Falls, a number of other bridges have It is now generally accepted that there has been a notable improvement in the been built on this principle. Indeed, by far the greater number of long-span business of the country during the past few weeks, and that the prospects for a bridges lately proposed are to be cantilevers, as this system offers great advantages steady increase in trade are now better than they liave been for a pumber of in erection. But they are subject to greater deflections than those built on other months. The actual change that has been effected is not very great in any one of systems, and the arch might, in many cases, be preferable, as it gives almost the the commercial markets, perhaps; but there has unquestionably been a marked altersame facilities in erection and is less deflected under the action of a moving load. ation in the tone and feeling. Where there were doubt, depression, overcautious.

There are $3,500,000,000 invested in the railroads in Great Britain, and ness and alarm, there are now noted hopefulness, cheerfulness, and buoyancy. It they carry a number of passengers every year equal to ten times the entire popu has come gradually, but reports from different parts of the country indicate that it lation of the United States. They have only one-sixth as many miles of track has come at last, and, let us hope, to stay for a long while.--Baltimore American. as the United States, and carry nearly twice as many passengers. Their capitalization is about one-half of that of our railroads, and they employ about one

GENERALLY speaking trade remains good in all parts of the country, but the activity third the men at about half the wages. The Midland Railway, of England,

has fallen off in some sections, as is natural after the first demands of the autumn makes over 10 per cent yearly on a capital of about $300,000,000, and it adver

trade had been supplied. Merchants express great confidence in the future, and tises the fact in its guides.

in all parts of the country there promises to be profitable business throughout the autumn.— Philadelphia Press.


THE FINANCES OF Russia.—Instead of improving the financial condition of Russia is going from bad to worse. According to the official statement, the receipts of the Treasury during the first five months of the current year amounted to

£25,891,000, or about £2,049,000 less than in the corresponding period of 1885. THE BUSINESS OUTLOOK. While, on the other hand, the expenditure, which amounted to £30,753,000,


an increase of £1,967,000. It will not do, of course, to compare the income of The chronic croakers who have steadily refused to see that which was patent to the five months with the expenditure, because the receipts and the disbursements the eyes of everybody else must begin to wonder what has happened. Their warn fluctuate from month to month, and no trustworthy balance can be struck until the ings that the signs of a coming business revival in this country were misleading end of the year. It is sufficiently evident, however, that in this as in the imme have been ignored by the public, who persist in believing that we are going to diately previous years, while the revenue is shrinking the expenditure is increasing have a prosperous winter in all departments of trade and industry. The fact is and the country is becoming more unable than ever to pay its way, except by that, when the conditions are ripe, it is as impossible to check an advance as to means of continuous borrowing.--Economist. avert a backset. The world is bound to consume an average of so much iron and steel, coal and grain, cotton and wool, every year. Overproduction causes an oc

THE NEW SILVER CERTIFICATES.-It is expected that the one dollar silver casional glut, and a glut in the leading staples means temporary stagnation in all;

tificates will be put in circulation next week. The first lot, consisting of 5,000 but the general balance is maintained, for the continued consumption eventually

sheets and amounting to $20,000, was received at the Treasury Department last makes away with the accumulated products, and then the wheels of prodluction

week. The facilities will soon be increased to permit of an issue of $80,000 per must begin to revolve again. We have reached that stage in this country now,

day, as orders for the notes from all parts of the country have been very large

. and the mines, the fields, and the mills have got to turn out all they can for a

They will be distributed, however, pro rata to the sub-treasuries, and will be while, in order to keep up with the demand. That there will be a reaction now

shipped so as to allow a simultaneous distribution from the various centers

. The and then is beyond doubt, but they can not, in the nature of things, last very long.

two-dollar certificates will appear about a fortnight later than the onesThe Stock

- Washington Star.
THOSE who make inquiries respecting business in this city will receive almost

THE PROFITS OF MINING.–There are in this country two mines which have universal answer that it is satisfactory, that trade in most every department is good, paid more than $25,000,000 in dividends. These are the Consolidated Virginia, though just now the movement in dry goods is not so brisk as earlier in the sea

of Nevada, the dividends of which have amounted to $43,930,000, and the Calu son, which was not expected. Reports from every section of New England indi.

met and Hecla, of Michigan, which has paid $27,850,000. The next profitable cate a very general degree of activity in business and industry. All of the indus

mine is the Exchange M. and M., of Nevada, which, although capitalized at an tries of this section appear to be giving full employment to labor and paying higher Ophir, of Nevada, and the Ontario, of Utah, have paid in dividends, respectively,

even million, has paid its stockholders over ten millions profil. Two others--the wages than a year ago. The shock occasioned by the discovery of the Gould and Bartholomew defalcations has had the effect to make many lenders more careful

$7,475,000 and $7,500,000. about the paper they take; nevertheless, the stringency which existed a few weeks

Notes.—The subscription opened at the American Legation for the Charleston since has quite passed away. But the most favorable feature of the business

sufferers was not a success, only one contribution being made, and that by an situation is that people generally are cheerful and confident, and freely express the English gentleman who gave $25. There has been an expression of much surprise opinion that business is “ picking up.” Such a feeling leads those who have here that the Americans in Europe should have been so indifferent to the appeal money to purchase freely for consumption, which of itself makes business active. for aid in question. -Advices from Port Natal, South Africa, say that the gold fields Boston Journal.

show every evidence of enormous wealth, but are only accessible to those possessTHE increased activity in general business is gratifying, and the belief is that it ing capital, intelligence, energy, and enterprise, and it is useless for poor men to has come to stay. 'There were unmistakable signs of improvement last summer,

endeavor to obtain a foothold there. Reports from Tasmania say that the new and these were naturally followed by a return of business confidence. The iron Mount Lyell mine yields 48 ounces of gold to the ton. and steel trades are in better condition than for many months previous, and orders

$300,000,000 sit around a little mahogany table in an upper

room in the Westem for steam engines, boilers, and general machinery are far ahead of what they were. Union building and eat a plain, but a substantial lunch. The expression, “ trade is quiet, but we are doing very well,” has become an old quarries give employment to more than 3,000 men, who were paid $1,200,000 last story. It is, perhaps, natural for each man to suppose that he is doing better than

year, when over 1,500,000 cubic feet of marble

was produced. More than $6,000 his neighbors or rivals in business, but in looking over the whole industrial field it

000 is invested.

The new British Ministry has announced its intention to will be seen that the improvement is pretty widely distributed. The earnings of appoint a royal commission to inquire into the condition of the currency, with es railroads form a good index to the volume of trade. They are much better than a

pecial reference to the fall in silver and the « appreciation” of gold, and the effect year ago, and seem to go on increasing every week. Crops are good in spite of

upon the finances of India.

The United States is the only Government that droughts, reports of which have been greatly exaggerated. The outlook for fall

has been coining silver for the past ten years. We have done this

at a ratio which and winter business is decidedly good.-American Machinist.

gives to the coin nearly 38 per cent more than its present intrinsic value. Hawaiian legislature has

just decided to borrow $2,000,000 at 6 per cent interest THE long period of depression in business seems now to be giving way to one for a term of from tive to twenty years.

The International Investment Agency of prosperity. Merchants and general tradesmen agree that the prospects of the fall trade are very bright. There is no boom, but a steady, bealthy growth. Every The promoters propose, among other things

, to purchase the Prince's Theater,

is the name of a new company just organized here, with a capital of $2,500,000 one sees indications of better times. It is the universal opinion in commercial and where Boucicault has been playing, and Prince's Hotel, and to convert them into financial circles that not only is the present condition of business better than it has residential chambers. been for a number of years past, but that the future is of greater promise than for rooms for the convenience of travelers from America and the colonies. It is expected

There is to be a large dining-room, and also large public

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Every day at 1 o'clock

Rutland's marble


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