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can build faster and better boats for the wind and weather of our coast than the and several of the big sloops will take part, may settle the question. Lieut. Henn English culter is. That settles the cutter question for us, but for no one else. seems to have declined the challenge of Gen. Paine to race from Marblehead to New York Times, September 12.

Cape Cod, and still dangles the Bermuda challenge before the face and eyes of The fact as it is exhibited by these races appears to be that the Galatea is not a

American skippers. It is whispered that the Priscilla will accommodate him

when the proper time comes.
fast boat. Her speed when she came out was a matter of conjecture and infer-
ence rather than of performance and record. Her plate-locker was entirely or

New York World, September 12.
almost entirely bare of prizes after one season's racing and part of another. It was The fact is we have simply demonstrated again the great superiority of the
assumed, however, that if she had not been faster than the Genesta she would not have Yankee sloop over the English cutter. When our friends across the water make
been brought after the trophy which the Genesta had failed to win. This assump up their minds to take off their foolish restrictions and build their yachts according
tion is baseless. We know about how much better the Mayflower is than the to the most approved plans we may have something like equal racing. All the
Puritan, and although the Mayflower would undoubtedly have beaten the Genesta same, we are rejoiced to keep the America cup. As to the Galatea, it must be
in each of the three races sailed, as undoubtedly she would not have s made a said that she is a stanch craft. She might have been better handled, and she
show of her," as the saying is, by beating her half an hour in seven hours, or half might have had better luck. It is to be regretted that none of our yachtsmen haye
an hour more in a beat of twenty miles to windward. Her owner is an adven time to give her a rub to Bermuda and back, and that the talk about a race in
turous and sportsmanlike gentleman, and if he had a fast yacht he would give our Massachussetts Bay in a stiff gale is only badinage. The Galatea ought to have a
yachtsmen a great deal of trouble and amusement. But it is now clear that his en chance to show what she can do in a slashing sea with a blizzard on her quarter.
terprise outran his discretion when he permitted himself to bring the handsome But whatever may be determined on, may good luck attend her.
and safe and comfortable craft of which he is the fortunate possessor to these
waters to contend for the trophy of the yachting supremacy of the world. It

Boston Herald, September 13. really is not safe, as the visit of the Genesta last year demonstrated, to send even It is to be hoped that next year Gen. Paine or Mr. Forbes will have the courage the second fastest yacht in England after the America's cup. Whether the fastest

and enterprise needed to take either the Mayflower or Puritan to England for the yacht in England is fast enough has yet to be seen.

purpose of sailing one or another of these vessels in competition with English Boston Post, September 13.

yachts in the regular series of summer races. Victories won under such conditions

would be historical, and might have an important effect upon English naval conWitii the victory of the Mayflower on Saturday, the sixth series of races for the struction. The one objection to such an undertaking is that by the ordinary Enrecovery of the cup won by the yacht America in 1851 is happily concluded. It glish system of measurement, while a vessel like the Mayflower would be debited is now probable that the coveted trophy will be allowed to remain here without a with her greater breadth of beam, she would get relatively no credit for her refurther immediate effort to regain it. The superiority of the American centerboard duced depth, and, hence, in a race, would be handicapped by being compelled to model for speed in all waters in which a yacht can be used has had a sufficient de give time allowances to what were really larger vessels. Yet, even under these monstration in the contests of the Puritan and Genesta, the Mayflower and the conditions, we think our American yachts would win. Galatea ; and until the art of boat building in England has developed something different from the present style of cutter, it will be useless to send over here for the

Baltimore Sun, September 13. cup. When a cutter is produced that is better than the Galatea by half an hour on The defeat of the Galatea Saturday by the Mayflower was not a surprise to any. a course of forty miles, that will be the boat to undertake the expedition. Taken

body, in view of the result of the race sailed on Tuesday and the shortcomings together, the races of last year and of this have shown, as clearly as anything can

exhibited in the abortive start of Thursday. The American sloop has demonbe shown, that in all weather and on all points of sailing the American sloop is

strated its superiority to the British cutter on any point of sailing. On Tuesday faster than the English cutter. We bave an idea, too, that it would be as safe a the Mayflower won in a ten-mile run in smooth water dead before the wind. On style of boat in a tempest; but it is not in tempests that races are sailed or that Thursday she proved her superiority in a beat dead to windward. On Saturday pleasure yachts are used. As well might we test the speed of our fast trotters by she won in what was supposed to be the Galatea's “own weather," the sea being driving them to plough in heavy soil. So long as the centerboard model possesses

rough and the wind from the Britisher's point of the compass. The Irex remains sufficient stability for all the purposes for which it is used, and at the same time

to be beaten, and is our English cousins will kindly send her over she may be
guarantees the greatest speed, it fills every condition of the championship of the added to the list along with the Genesta and Galatea.

New York Daily News, September 12.
The Morning Journal, New York, September 12.
INTERNATIONAL matches are not entirely modern institutions, for between men

THE worst part of this otherwise pleasant business of the yacht racing for the of the same race and the same language, though divided by political frontiers, they

America's cup is that Lieutenant Henn, the genial and, let us say, chivalrous flourished vigorously in ancient times, and some of the best products of human

owner of the Galatea, is reported to be somewhat ill. Under the circumstances it

would almost have been a relief to the American public to have had him score a genius are due to them. They established a rivalry in great endeavors then as

victory in yesterday's race. But the Mayflower is so modeled and builded as to They do now, but nowadays they take a practical turn such as they had not then.

make it necessary and inevitable that, under all possible conditions of the wind and Greece had its own practical view of things, however. They thought a poem a

weather, she must glide away from all competitors in the form of English cutters, practical thing then and a statue also, because the beautiful was useful in their eyes.

It is an established

fact that for racing purposes the American type of center board An international rivalry that leads to the building of beautiful yachts is, however,

and “skimming-pan" is the best.
not so far away from their standard, while development of marine architecture
has a more substantial side to it. In this light we may regard the conflict for the
cup as far more valuable than the cup itself, and while we do not want to lose the

Now that the America's cup is safe it may be as well for our yacht owners to cup we can see that it is almost a thing to be desired that it should go to England

remember that there are too cups in England, the Brenton's Reef and the Cape again. Because it can only go to England if the yacht builders there can build a

May, either of them of five times the intrinsic value of the cup which the Galatea boat lo beat the Mayflower, and the advantage to us, as to all maritime nations, of

came to seek. Some of these gentlemen are reported to talk in a very free and such an achievement would be so substantial as to be worth more than all the cups

bold manner as to the ability of their yachts and of American sloops generally, in Christendom. It would be the initiation of a great advance in ship-building art.

Which of them will undertake to cross the ocean next year and bring back these

valuable trophies ---Brooklyn Daily Eagle, September 13.
New York Star, September 12.
The victory of the Mayflower in the decisive race of yesterday puts beyond con-

The international rivalry which has terminated so creditably for this country

ought to incite us to other efforts for national credit. We should resolve to beat troversy the superiority of the American model in regattas. It is no longer a question of Galatca weather” or “Mayflower weather,” since it has been shown

England in national probity, public spirit and popular intelligence as fairly as we

have in fast pleasure boats. litt that the use of the centerboard enables the American sloop to readily adapt her

gh Dispatch, September 12. self to altering conditions of wind or tide. A yacht of the Mayflower model can swim as buoyantly as a duck on smooth waters, propelled by light winds, while a cutter, with her heavy, permanent keel, has to wait for breeze enough to propel an old-fashioned full-rigged ship before she can hope to win a race. The American boat is so made as to adapt itself to all racing conditions, but the English has to find conditions to suit it; and, as winds vary during even a single race, it is not often Goon) REPUTATIONS.—The criminal news of the day, that portion of it that that the conditions the English boat requires obtain long enough to insure victory. finds its way into the most scrupulously respectable journals, suggests a query as to In a word, the cutter is a boat for heavy weather, and the centerboard yacht is a the intrinsic value of a good reputation. Cynics and misanthropes are quick to boat for all weathers, ready to meet them with her change of draft and drag as remark that the most startling defalcations and embezzlements are generally corathey may come.

What the result might be in a trans-marine race is a different mitted by men in whom their neighbors have reposed unlimited confidence, men matter, but for all in-shore and near-shore rivalries the question is settled that the far above suspicion,

“the last persons in the world likely to do such things." American centerboard craft beats the English deep-keeled cutter.

Scoffers at religion and all professions of “ superior goodness” do not fail to ob Springhell Republican, September 12.

serve all the reports of misdoings of clergymen, superintendents of Sunday

schools, and others prominent in the church. "Then goes up a chorus of denun THIE America's cup is again safe. The indication of a cutter wind and sea, so ciation so sweeping as to include the innocent with the guilty, so illogical that it good yesterday morning, failed before the race was half over, and at no time was condemns whole classes for the sins of their outcasts.

Good reputations, we are there a ghost of a chance for a race close enough to be exciting. The sailors went told, not only are no guaranty of good character, but are positively dangerous, be out to sea running before a northwest wind and beat back. The Mayflower rounded ing masks behind which bad men may prey upon the community. It is safer, the stake-boat with a lead of about a mile, and increased this two and a half miles This shows that the Galatea is strongest on the wind, and of

they say, to deal cautiously with one whose reputation is a little overcast than to

put implicit trust in him whose name for honesty and virtue is unquestioned. Such course this strength would be developed in a heavy breeze. It will be a source of

comment upon the published exposures of hypocrites

, and the record of shattered disappointment all round if the cutter returns to England without battling with a

reputations, is shortsighted and vicious in the extreme. gale in company with the Mayflower. The Newport races, in which the Galatea

value of a man's character, fixed by the estimate of those who know him; iti


in beating back.

Reputation is the market

The pro

the only standard by which candidates for places of trust are measured and judged. Allowing, then, for a certain degree of failure of judgment on the one hand and of hypocrisy on the other, it is evident that some bad men, under the guise of good reputations, will obtain places of important trust. But when they abandon their masks and appear in their true character as thieves and scoundrels, it is nothing to say of them they have been “highly respectable, stood well in the community, been above suspicion," etc. That is a matter of course, for otherwise they could not have secured the trust they so basely betrayed. A known debauchee was never invited to preach in any pulpit in all Christendom, nor was a notorious thief or forger ever allowed access to the vaults and books of any wellregulated banking establishment. Men who fall from high places must have had good reputations, else they would not have been selected to fill such places. As to the assumption that a good reputation is, on the whole, an undesirable acquisition and no safeguard against deception and betrayal, its absurdity can not be too often declared. It is but one churchman in ten thousand who proves to be a wolf in sheep's clothing; and the proportion of dishonest custodians of other people's money is no greater. The reports of breaches of trust and falls from grace seem to be frequent, but considering all things we are surprised—the cynics and misanthropes and scoffers are surprised--when they occur, and that proves them to be really rare and unexpected. Nine men out of ten who have borne fair names among those who know them best are to be trusted; the course of the tenth runs counter to our experience with men, and he shocks us by his fall. But while the nine stand firm in their integrity, there is abundant basis for our faith in the value of good reputations. Indeed, there is no other key to character, no surer foundation for business and social confidence. Young men whose future is to be made or marred by what is said about them, can not afford to make a mistake on this vital point. A fair name is still worth winning and keeping as “the immediate jewel of their souls.” This is the only moral to be logically drawn from the daily record of dishonor and crime among those who, strangely enough, have not deserved the good names they have borne.- Providence Journal.

MUMMY OF RAMESES II.-—The mummy (No. 5233) first taken out from its glass case is Rameses II, Sesostris, as testified by the official entries bearing date the sixth and sixteenth years of the reign of the High Priest Her-hor Se-Amen, and the High Priest Pinotem I, written in black ink upon the lid of the wooden mummy case, and the further entry of the sixteenth year of the High Priest Pinotem I, written upon the outer winding sheet of the mummy, over the region of the breast. The presence of this last inscription having been verified by his highness, the Khedive, and by the illustrious personages there assembled, the first wrapping was removed, and there were successively discovered a band of stuff (sic) twenty centimeters in width rolled around the body, then a second winding sheet sewn up and kept in place by narrow bands placed at some distance apart, then two thicknesses of small bandages, and then a piece of fine linen reaching from the head to the feet. A figure representing the Goddess Nut, one metre in length, is drawn upon this piece of linen, in red and white, as prescribed by the ritual. file of the goddess is unmistakably designed after the pure and delicate profile of Seti I, as he is known to us in the bas-relief sculptures of Thebes and Abydos. Under this amulet there was found another bandage, then a layer of pieces of linen folded in squares, and spotted with the bituminous matter used by the embalmers. This last covering removed, Rameses II appeared. The head is long, and small in proportion to the body. The top of the skull is quite bare. On the temples there are a few spare hairs; but at the poll the hair is quite thick, forming smooth, straight locks about five centimeters in length. White at the time of death, they have been dyed a light yellow by the spices used in embalmment. The forehead is low and narrow, the brow-ridge prominent. The eyebrows are thick and white. The eyes are small and close together. The nose is long, thin, hooked like the noses of the Bourbons, and slightly crushed at the tip by the pressure of the bandages. The temples are sunken; the cheek-bones very prominent; the ears round, standing far out from the head, and pierced like those of a woman for the wearing of ear-rings. The jawbone is massive and strong; the chin, very prominent; the mouth small, but thick-lipped, and full of some kind of black paste. This paste being partly cut away with the scissors disclosed some much-worn and very brittle teeth, which, moreover, are white and well preserved. The moustache and beard are thin. They seem to have been kept shaven during life, but were probably allowed to grow during the king's last illness, or they may have grown after death. The hairs are white, like those of the head and eyebrows, but are harsh and bristly, and from two to three millimetres in length. The skin is of earthy brown splotched with black. Finally, it may be said that the face of the mummy gives a fair idea of the face of the living king. The expression is unintellectual, perhaps slightly animal; but, even under the somewhat grotesque disguise of mummifica. tion, there is plainly to be seen an air of sovereign majesty, of resolve, and of pride. The rest of the body is as well preserved as the head; but, in consequence of the reduction of the tissues, its external aspect is less life-like. The neck is no thicker than the vertebral column. The chest is broad; the shoulders are square; the arms are crossed upon the breast; the hands are small, and dyed with henna; and the wound in the left side, through which the embalmers extracted the viscera, is large and open. The legs and thighs are fleshless. The feet are long, slender, and somewhat flat-soled, and dycd, like the hands, with henna. The corpse is that of an old man, but of a vigorous and robust old man. We know, indeed, that Rameses II reigned for sixty-seven years, and that he must have been nearly one hundred years old when he died.- Professor Maspero, in the London Times.

BARON PAUL SHILLING.—The centennial of the birth of Baron Paul Shilling was celebrated at St. Petersburg on the 2d of May. Baron Shilling is claimed by his countrymen to have been the inventor of the electro-magnetic telegraph, but until recently his name has been alınost unknown to the general public.

He was a descendant of an ancient and noble family, holding many estates near Kaustadt. His father having emigrated to Russia and entered the military service, the Baron Paul was born in Revel in the year 1786. By special order of the Emperor Paul I, he received, at the age of nine, an ensign commission in a regiment of riflemen

of which his father was the commander. After the death of the father the youthful officer entered the First Military Academy, and in 1802 graduated as lieutenant in the royal suite. The following year he was transferred to the ministry of foreign affairs, but during the Napoleonic wars he returned to his regiment, took part in many battles, and was present at the entrance of the Russian army into Paris. After this he again entered the ministry of foreign affairs and was commissioned to visit Mongolia and the Chinese borders. He studied the Chinese language with care and collected a great number of Mongolian, Thibetan and Chinese manuscripts which now form a special collection in the Scientific Museum of Russia. In 1832 Baron Shilling invented an important improvement on the telegraphic apparatus of Ampere. In 1836 he received a written invitation to construct a tele. graph line in England. He refused, however, as he wished to introduce the invention first in his own country. Spending all his means for the purchase of books and scientific apparatus, Baron Shilling died on the 6th of August, 1837, a poor man, and was buried at the expense of his relatives. In an out-of-the-way corner of the Protestant section of the Smolensk Cemetery at St. Petersburg there stands a modest monument bearing this inscription : “ Here is buried the State Counselor Paul Ivowitch Shilling." Such was the fate of the Russian scientist who did so much for the development of the electro-magnetic telegraph. His invention was appropriated by others and he himself died in poverty. At the present time ten submarine cables cross the Atlantic, and 2,031,054 miles of telegraph wires are used to transmit the world's news. In Russia alone, according to the latest statistics, 66,100 miles of line and 155,295 miles of wire are used, 11,000 persons are employed in operating the lines, and the government gains from this source a yearly revenue of $4,000,000.-Scientific American Supplement.

POSTAL SERVICE OF THE FUTURE.—" In 1986 such a thing as a postman or a carrier walking ten or fifteen hours a day delivering mail matter will never be heard of, for the simple reason there will be none in existence then,” remarked a scientific man the other day. « How will the mail be delivered ?” “Everything will be reduced to a fine system, and a letter will be delivered in three seconds after its arrival in the post-office. Each house in a big city will be connected with the general post-office or branch station, as the case may be, with a pneumatic tube large enough to carry a good-sized package. At present such a system of delivery can not be put into practice because it would be too expensive. A century hence civilization will rise to such a high and prosperous point that a system of quick de. livery by means of pneumatic tubes will certainly be in vogue. It could be done now, only it would bankrupt a city. The tube from Twenty-third street to the Western Union building shows how nicely it works. A letter or telegraphic message takes just two seconds to go the two and a half miles. quickest means of transit are sure to be adopted in the long run.

It is the evolution of progress, and nothing can stop it short of the universe. Not only will private houses have these tubes, but all of our large cities will be pneumatically connected. Chicago will be perhaps ten seconds by letter from New York, and San Francisco a minute

It will change a great many things, and do away with the steam cars as a mail carrier. The system is yet in its infancy. New York will by that time have a new system of sewers, much better than Paris now, and the tubes can be run along in them instead of having to dig up the earth, as is the case with gas and steam pipes at present. The postage on letters will not be one-twentieth what it is, and the expense to the Government will be less. Of course the delivery will have to be regulated to so many during the day. Say five or ten in the morning and that number in the afternoon and evening. And yet human nature is so constructed that even with such improved facilities I believe many kickers could be found who would protest against the limited number of deliveries of mail and the slow time made. All these things will come to pass, and it takes no prophet to plainly see the handwriting on the wall. The overworked characters will have a long rest.”—New York Mail and Express.

A BELL WITH A PATHETIC HISTORY.—The city of Breslau lately celebrated the 500th anniversary of an occurrence which was 'memorable in the history of the town, and is known wherever German poetry finds a home. The bell which hangs in the southern tower of St. Mary Magdalen's church, and is named “St. Mary's bell,” but is usually known as “the poor sinner's bell,” rang out morning and evening on the 17th of July to remind all who heard it that it was cast on that day 500 years ago. Next day, Sunday, the preacher reminded his congregation of the pathetic story which has made it singular among bells—how, when all was ready for the casting, the bell founder withdrew for a few moments, leaving a boy in charge of the furnace, warning him not to meddle with the catch that secured the seething metal in the caldron. But the boy disregarded the caution, and then, terrified on seeing the molten metal beginning to flow into the mold, called to the bell founder for help. Rushing in and seeing what he had intended to be his masterpiece ruined, as he thought, angered to madness, he slew the boy on the spot. When the metal had cooled and the mold was opened, the bell was found to be an exquisite work, perfect in finish, and of marvelous sweetness of tone. Coming to his senses, lie recognized his bloody work, and straightway gave himself up to the magistrates. « Blood for blood” was the law; he was condenined to die, and he went to his doom while his beautiful bell pealed an invitation to all

pray for “the poor sinner," whence its name. W. Muller has enshrined the sad story in a ballad of touching simplicity :

“War einst ein Glockengleszer,
Zu Breslau in der Stadt.”

-Scientific American. A NATIONAL Waltz.--The public will learn with great pleasure of the philanthropic efforts of the American Society of Professors of Dancing to remedy some of the evils which have gathered about terpsichorean pleasures. These efforts are directed toward the formation of a national waltz step which will enable a Boston girl, for instance, to tread the mazes with a Western man as partner without stubbing her cultured toes over his less intellectual feet.

“'Tis a consummation devoutly to be wished,” though it would take away the favorite excuse

or so.

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of poor dancers when apologizing for their clumsiness : “ You will pardon me, Miss X; but, you know, I am used to the Chicago step and don't find the New York style easy to catch,” etc., etc.

But if we had a waltz step which was universal from Maine to Texas and from sea to sca, the Union of the States would be just so much the more firmly established.

Another change which the A, S. P. D. will inaugurate this year will consist in slower time for round-dance music. This innovation is made in the interests of dudes, so-called. It has been observed for some time past that these more or less essential factors of society were gradually growing tired. The slow waltz during the coming winter will be used at balls and germans in order that the cludes need not go home fatigued and failed. They have, as a rule, boycotted the summerresort liops this season, and their action was taken on the ground that the gentler sex insisted upon dancing too rapidly. The A. S. P. D. lias come to the rescue in time, and the cry now goes up, “On with the dance,” let joy forever last, wlien ducies and maidens meet, and do not dance too fast.-New York World.

REMARKABLE COLLECTION OF HOMING PIGEONS.--An enormous flight of pigeons, consisting of some seven hundred or eight hundred birds, took place at Dover, England, on the morning of August 30, for a race from that place to Brussels. The hirds were brought over on Saturday night in baskets, which formed part of the deck cargo of the Ostend mail packet. The pigeons belong to different Belgian societies, and were hown in connection with the society Sans Peur, of 'Laeken, near Brussels. The start was a very interesting sight. The channel being fairly clear, the baskets were placed in tiers on the guay, the flaps on a given signal were let down, and simultaneously the birds rose like a cloud, and, after circling in the air for a moment, headed southward and made off in the direction of Calais, all being well away within the space of two minutes. A similar race is being arranged from London to Brussels. Some five hundred birds, trained to act as messengers in case of war, and belonging to different societies in and around Paris, were also recently flown from Dover to Paris. As our readers probably know, the training and sying of homing pigeons has become the national sport in Belgium. Almost every family has a pigeon chamber in the upper part of the huusc. Baseball in the United States is nothing as compared with the homing pigeon sport in Belgiun.--Scientific American.

A PUZZLING SUM.—The following sum was set the pupils of the Liegnitzer Mädchenschule, who, after a three-days' trial, gave it up, not being quick enough in-c: the trap laid for them. The sum is this: From $80,788,889 take the

629 as many times as possible. I'rom this wording, the pupils took it for granter illai it was simply a subtraction sum, and so determined to work it out as an ordmary subtraction sum. Having tried only three days at it, no answer was so 'hcoming, much to their bewilderment. It was explained to them afterward tai if they had gone on subtracting until a proper answer was got, it would have taken them one year and four months to do it in, allowing that one can subtract the number three times in every minute, and working 12 hours a day. The proper vay of loing the sum was, of course, simply dividing 880,788,889 by 629, which equals 1,4"), 3200 189-629.— The Cultivator and Country Gentleman.

A NOVEL USE OF CATTLE.—A new use for cattle has been apparently found in I'ris.1:1, where a band of “smugglers ” employed a cow in their attempts to avoid the tax on luce. A strong ten-months'-old cow was wrapped round with a quantity of lace valued at $1,000. Over this was fitted a false skin so ingeniously constructe:) as to dely detection. They passed the cow quite easily at the customs office, the inen there admiring her size and beauty, some of the excise officers even offering her bread. The owners of the cow were kept in suspense, while the cow quietly strolled on, quite unconscious of the numerous whacks and pokes slie received from the smugglers, who wanted to hasten her gait. However, all things have an end, and the cow was at le di got out of the dangerous vicinity of the excisemen, much to the relief of he: owners.--Ibid.

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for being cropped; a sprig put into the ground grows well and rapidly. Holly, ivy, laurel and box are Christmas festival plants. Lilies, passion flowers, pansies and violets are for Easter. Wheat, barley, grapes, etc., for harvest festivals.

Emblems--fruit and grain. -An apple is the emblem of the fall; held in the hand of Jesus Christ it signifies redemption. A cluster of grapes is the emblem of “ Christ's blood shed for us." It is also the emblem of abundance and prosperity. The vine is a symbol of Christ. It is also an emblem of abundance... Wheat is an emblem of Christ as the “ Bread of Life.” Also of abundance and rejoicing. The olive is the emblem of peace and concord. The palm is the symbol of mar. tyrdom. The pomegranate is the emblem of the future life and of immortality,

Emblematic Colors.-Colors are emblematic; and in the middle ages were always used by the illuminators and church artists with regard to their significance. Red, blue and yellow, or gold, the primary colors: red, signifying divine love; blue, truth and constancy; gold, divine glory; when united, are supposed to be good emblems of the Holy Trinity. White, signifying light, parity, perfect righteousness, is to be used by the Church from Christmas eve to the octave of the Epiphany, symbolising the purity of the Infant Savior; but it is not to be used on St. Stephen's day, Holy Innocents, or Conversion of St. Paul

. White, in an illuminated text, may be represented by silver. It is also the color for Maundy Thurs day, Trinity Sunday, Baptism, Confirmation and Marriage. Violet is the ecclesiastical color for mourning: it signifies passion, suffering and humility; therefore martyrs are sometimes clothed in it. It belongs to advent, Holy Innocents (unless that feast falls on Sunday), Septuagesima to Easter Eve, Rogation days, and Ember wecks. Red, the symbol of divine love and illumination (as flame) belongs to Pentecost; and as the emblem of blood shed for the Feast of the Martyrs on Whitsuntide. Blue signifies truth and constancy; when sprinkled with gold stars it signifies Heaven, It is not an ecclesiastical color, but (as symbolical of Heaven or truth) forms a beautiful and significant ground for a text. Green, the emblem of eternal spring, hope, immortality and conquest, is used on all Sundays. Gold of yellow signifies glory, the goodness of God, faith; it should be used on texts only for the divine name, Dingy yellow signifies deceit. Black is used only op Good Friday. It is symbolical of death and extreme grief. It is used also at funerals, frequently combined with white. Purple signifies royalty, love, passion and suffering. It is the color osten worn by martyrs as well as by kings. Alter His resurrection Christ is sometimes represented in a purple mantle, as the symbol of his kingly power. Violet and blue are the colors of penitence, signifying sorrow and constancy. Gray signifies mourning, humility, and innocence unjustly accused.

Symbolism of Precious Stones.- Diamond : Light, innocence, purity, and joy. Sapphire : Hope, truth, constancy. Emerald: Hope, faith, joy, and victory. Topaz: The goodness of God, charity. Ruby: Divine love. Carbuncle : Blood and suffering. Five carbuncles on a cross signify the five wounds of Christ; they are placed in each limb and in the center. Sardius: The blood of martyrs. The amethyst signifies sorrow, deep love, and suffering, in accordance with its color. The pearl is the emblem of purity, innocence, and humility.—The Decorator and Furnisher.

NOTES.—There are 7,000 Esquimau converts in Greenland under the care of the Danish Missionary Society: -The number of Japanese in the Mikado's em. pire prosessing the Protestant faith is now 11,602, showing an increase during the past year of 2,706. The total number of churches is 151. -There are 23,000,000 of people in the Punjab among whom there was no Christian effort made till 1870; but so numerous are the Christians there now that last year they purchased tracts of land to the value of 10,000 rupees.

-The Wesleyans of Victoria celebrated their jubilee on May 19, when promises of $105,000 to a thanksgiving fund were received. There are now 791 churches in the colony, with 113 ministers, 751 local preachers, 818 class leaders, and 4,691 Sunday-school teachers. The Spiritualists are the only religious body in Wareham, Mass., who pay a tax upon their house and place of worship. Warcham assessors tax the Temple and land upon a valuation of nearly $6,000; the headquarter building and lot-used wholly and exclusively for its purposes—for several hundred more. The large courtyard of the Pine (Pigna) at the Vatican will be covered and given up as a place for the exhibition that will be held in the Vatican on the occasion of the Pope's Sacerilotal Jubilee next year. Besides this, the vast Hall of the Tapestries and that of the antique vases and candelabra, splendidly restored by Leo XIII last year, will also be used as exhibition halls on this same occasion. The Grand Duke of Baden has sent to His Holiness an autograph letter thanking him for the catalogues of the Palatine library, lately sent to him by His Holiness. Acom. panying this letter was the gold medal of the Heidelberg Jubilee, sent by the same Grand Duke. -The Maronites of Tripoli and Syria have addressed a telegraphie dispatch to IIis Holiness, Leo XIII, to ask his protection against their oppressors

The negotiations between the Holy See and Montenegro have ended in very satisfactory result. The Little Sisters of the Poor established a mission is Rome in 1880, and the new chapel of this institution was blessed by the Cardina Vicar, August 11, 1886. Leo XIII has given great encouragement to this wor of charity. By his clesire a house of these sisters was established in Perugia a fer

This work of charity is widely France there are 100 houses; in England, 22; in Spain, 36; in Belgium, II Italy, lo; several in America, 3 in Africa, and 3 in Prussia. ' The report of 18 gives the total number of sisters as 3,400, who feed and take care of 23,000 PO persons. Since their establishment in 1840 they have cared for 60,000 poor p sons of both sexes.

Very Rev. Father Favier, Prefect of Lazarists' mission China, has offered some presents to His Holiness, Leo XIII, among which beautiful reproduction in enamel of Leonardo da Vinci's celebrated fresco of "T Last Supper” in the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie at Milan.tieth annual conference of the Evangelical Alliance will be held at Ryde, in Isle of Wight, on September 21-23, inclusive. Protestant Iepiscopal Church property in the diocese of Pennsylvania is estime at nearly $10,000,000,-A number of young Lutherans in St. Louis have form


weeks ago.

Cile CH DECORATION.—The most remarkable of the floral emblems is the passion viuwer—the common blue one. Its leaves are thought to represent the head of we spear by which Christ's side was pierced; the five points, the five sacred wounds; the tendrils, the cords which bound Him; the ten petals, the ten faithful Apostles, omitting the one who denied Him (Peter); the pillar in the cente: š the Cross, the stamens, the hammers; the styles, the nails; the circle around the pillar, the crown of thorns; the radiance, the glory. It is used on 1 Toly Thursday. The fleur-de-lis, or conventional form of the lily, is the symbol of the Virgin Mary, adopted in the middle ages. It is also an emblem of purity. It is c'ways placed by the medieval painters in the hand of the Angel Gabriel, and son times the hand of the Infant Savior, and of St. Joseph Lilies of the valley: re the ! 'ral emh!cın of Christ. “ The rose of Sharon,” and “the lily of the valicy” are embleins of humility. The rose is also an emblem of Christ. The laurei is an emblem of victory and glory, also of constancy, as the leaf changes only in death. Ivy denotes immortality. The laurestinus has the same meaning. Tl star of Bethlehein is the emblem of the Advent and Epiphany. The snowdrop and marigold are emblems of the Virgin Mary, and of purity and truth. The violet is an emblem of modesty. Pansy (heart shaped) of charity. Rosemary is dedicated to the grave; the custom of using it at funerals is thus explained by Wheatley: “To express their hopes that their friend is not lost forever, cach person in the company usually bears in his hand a sprig of rosemary—a custom which seems to have taken its rise from a practice among the heathens.” Ile alludes to their use of cypress at funerals, “a tree that being once cut never revives, but dies away,” On the contrary, rosemary, which is always green, flourishes more

ead throughout the world.

- The

-The aggregate value of


an association to secure funds and erect a statue of Martin Luther in front of their necticut, Albany, Long Island, Northern New Jersey, and New York, besides in
seminary in that city. -Mr. McMasters, of Toronto, who erected the building other ways promoting the temporal and spiritual welfare of deaf-mutes after they
for the Baptist Institute at Woodstock, Canada, and endowed seven of its proses- leave school. -Within the last eighteen months the Presbytery of Boston has
sorships, has recently added $250,000 to his gifts for the purpose of making it a organized eight new Presbyterian churches in Eastern New England. They are
full college. -The present summer has witnessed an unusual number of promi- composed, for the most part, it is said, of immigrants from Scotland, the North of
nent American divines in England Evangelist Moody will shortly open his Ireland, and the provinces.
sixth training school for Christian workers in Chicago, where $150,000 has been
raised toward the sum needed for suitable buildings. -The Metropolitan Taber-
nacle, of which Rev. C. A. Spurgeon is pastor, records for the past year an addi-
tion of 267 members, which brings the number up to 5,314. The Colportage

Association, connected with the Tabernacle, has a staff of eighty men, who are
continually engaged in visiting from house to house, and selling Bibles and reli-
gious books.
-The agents of the Bible Society make a rather startling report

THE BUSINESS SITUATION.—The reports published in commercial papers indifrom Maine. During the past they visited 30,004 families, and found that 14,653

cate that the business of the country is in a prosperous condition, and that the outattend no church; that 15,253 children attend no Sabbath school, and that 1,662

look is most favorable. The last report of the Agricultural Department shows Protestant families were without the Bible. In the town of Gray, 264 out of 361

that the wheat and cotton crops are better than at the date of the previous report, Protestant families were non-church goers, and 325 children were not attending

while the condition of corn is not so favorable, but a crop of 1,600,000,000 bushany Sabbath school. -A new charity for children, to be known as the Children's els is promised. The receipts of the railroads known as the Granger lines were Home, was formally opened on September 1, in Fiftieth Street near Second Ave decidedly larger during last August than during August, 1885. This is due to It is in connection with the work of Rev. A. B. Simpson, of the Gospel

the larger wheat crop in part, but more to the fact that the crop is being shipped to Tabernacle, and will be in charge of Mrs. Schultz, sister of Rev. Mr. Funk, assist

the seaboard and exported to a much greater extent than was that of last year. ant pastor of the Tabernacle. This work is to be conducted on the "faith” prin- The shipment of wheat has put money into the pockets of the producers, which has ciple that is, no subscriptions will be solicited, but the income is to be derived

had the effect to stimulate trade. The prices of most agricultural staples, except. from contributions volunteered in answer to prayer. -At the last meeting of the

cotton, are firm. Cotton is weaker, and the promise of a crop of 6,575,000 bales to Pastoral Conference held at Strasburg it was agreed to urge the authorities of the

5,706,000 bales last year indicates that there will be no scarcity in the supply. Lutheran Church to rule that every theological student, on completing his studies,

There has been little change in the money market during the past week. Money should be required to serve one year as a curate, and at the end of that period to

is in active demand, but there is not such a stringency as interferes with business. undergo an examination in practical theology. -The St. Paul Globe relates that

Silver bullion has risen during the week from 43 pence per ounce to 44. pence. as Bishop Whipple was walking along a street in that city one day last month an

This advance is attributed to the appointment of a commission by the British govalleged " savage” on the opposite sidewalk pointed him out to a companion and

ernment to consider the silver question. General trade the past week, particularly said: “There goes one white man who never lied to an Indian.” -A cable dis

in the West, has been brisk and in large volume.—Boston Journal, September 13. patch states that an American citizen, who was recently arrested at Simferopol for ENGLISH AND AMERICAN DAIRYING.—The dairy literature of the United States spreading heresies, has been released, as a result of the interposition of Mr. Loth and Great Britain is so freely exchanged through the press that the people of the rop, the United States Minister, and has been ordered to leave Russia. His

two countries are pretty well posted in regard to each other's dairy practices. The offense was baptising persons of the Lutheran faith. -The Young Men's Chris.

dairymen of each country—the reading dairymen—have ample opportunity to pick tian Association of Chicago has for a quarter of a century supported a free bureau up any improvements, facts or suggestions which are afloat in the other, and hence of employment as a convenient exchange between employer and those in search of their modes of management naturally assimilate pretty closely. But changes in work. During the time the bureau has given work to 75,000 men and boys, a either country seem now to be moving rather slowly, more slowly perhaps in Engvery large proportion of whom have been scattered throughout the Western States land than here. The factory system has been growing in England since 1869, and Territories. A call has been issued for the anti-instrumental conference

but the number of factories has only got up to 80 in the 17 years it has been proresolved upon at the last General United Presbyterian Assembly. The meeting is gressing, and yet they seem to be doing fairly good work; judging from the few to be held in the Fourth Church, Allegheny, on the second Tuesday of Novem factories visited and the cheese seen, they are turning out quite as good work as ber. - The international Sunday-school executive committee, at its meeting at factories in the States, but not as good as the Canadian factories, especially those in Chautauqua fixed upon Chicago as the place and June 1 to 3, 1887, as the time Western Ontario, in the neighborhood of Ingersoll. The best cheese I met with for holding the next international triennial Sunday-school convention.—The was from Western Ontario, and it everywhere took the lead in reputation and Episcopalians of Long Island have a Lay Helpers' Association, before which a price. Not all the cheese, however, from Western Ontario was fine. All I saw course of free lectures was lately given, especially for lay readers. The subjects that was made on the old acid process, still too much in vogue in Canada as well covered by the course were the duties of the lay reader's office and the history as in the States, was no better than State or English cheese, if as good. It was and use of the prayer-book.-—-If the Northern and Southern Presbyterian churches the cheese made by drawing the whey sweet, and giving the curd a long ripening were united there would be a church extending to every part of the country, with after it is out of the whey, by keeping it warm, that has given to Canadian cheese 8,479 churches, 6,621 ministers, and 805,551 members. The income of these the good name it has acquired, and it seems a pity that other factorymen, and esPresbyterian bodies amounts to very nearly $12,000,000.-— The colored Baptists pecially our own, are so slow in adopting it. This process is as much superior to of the Northwest have sent two missionaries to the Congo field, and are showing the acid process as the factory system is to private dairying, which the English increased interest in that mission. They have a membership of about 930,000 in dairymen are adhering to with a tenacity that looks to us like a blind and stubborn the United States. - The captain of a river steamer on the Lower Niger states conservatism ;. but many of our own factorymen show a conservatism equally blind that in every trip during the last two years the natives, among whom a missionary and stubborn in their stupid continuance in the old acid rut. The English have is unknown, have boarded his ship with the invariable question: “ Is God palaver the advantage of us in respect to conditions favoring cheese-making. Their rich soil man aboard ?” or, “When is he conting? If he come to teach us so that we and moister climate produce grass that makes a curd that will average mellower know white man's book, then we build him house and school and give him chop- and richer than in the States or Canada, and their lower and more even-tempered plenty.” The Roman Catholics are said to be ready to occupy this field. St. atmosphere in summer is more favorable to good curing. They ought to beat us in Bartholomew's church, New York, will soon receive two handsome tablets of the cheese branch of dairying, and they may yet do so if they study the philosophy brass and marble, in memory of the late Jacob Reese and William H. Vanderbilt, of the art as industriously as many of our dairymen do. But before they can get both of whom were members of the vestry for many years.--The two churches ahead of us in this line they will have to abandon what they significantly call the in Charleston—St. Michael's and St. Phillip's—which have been ruined by the “home rule” in dairying, and allow their cheese to be made on the associated earthquake, both possess great historic interest. The tower of St. Michael's was

plan. Whether the product is butter or cheese, so long as the bulk of it is made the chief or only beacon in the period of the Revolution, and was painted black in families, there will be about as many varieties as there are families making it, and when the assailing British fleet was anticipated, in order to prevent their use of it while some of it may be fine and as fancy as it is possible to make, yet the bulk as a guide to the harbor ; black against a blue sky was a less certain land-mark will always be inferior, because the great majority of makers are not experts. A than white. Close beside the church is the tomb'of John C. Calhoun. Both St. few can always be found in any community more skillful than the rest, and it is Michael and St. Philip were frequent marks of Federal gunners during the war. by submitting the milk of the many to the skill of these few that gives the associSt. Philip's was founded in 1711, though not used until 1723. Its tower was 200 ated system an advantage in quality and uniformity over private dairying that it feet in height. All the Lutheran churches of the South have united. The will always retain. So long as the English stick to their present preference of Holston and Tennessee Synods were the last to agree to the Church Constitution making cheese in families, the great bulk of it will continue to be inferior to that of 1884. The United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South made by their kin in America who associate and employ their best experts. In has six States, cight synods, 182 ministers, 354 congregations, and 31,000 members. the midland counties, where most of my time was spent, English butter, I became It is planted on the Augsburg confession of faith. -The First Colored Baptist well satisfied, was not quite as high flavored or as high colored as American butChurch of Nashville, Tenn., has a $35,000 house, and a membership of 3,100. ier, either States or Canadian, when all were uncolored and otherwise made alike. Statistics of the Brooklyn Children's Aid Society work for this summer up to the A rich soil, all other conditions being equal, contributes to richness of milk and to present time show 728 mothers and 1,021 children to have been entertaived in day high flavor in butter, and seeing that the soil averaged richer in England, I anticicxcursions, and 518 mothers and 836 children who have been kept one week and pated finding higher flavored butter, and was surprised and at first a little puzzled to provided with board, lodging, and bathing privileges at the Health IIome. This account for its being lower flavored instead, but after studying the situation awhile, Home is located on Coney Island.

A memorial church is to be built at Pitts I thought I saw two causes operating to produce the unlooked for qualities. One burgh, Pa., in honor of Bishop Kerfoot. It will cost $50,000. -Dr. William C. of these was the want of sunshine and hot weather. In England there is more Baker, formerly of Philadelphia, one of the founders of Ocean Grove and the As foggy and cloudy weather than here, and the grass there gets much less sunshine. bury Library Association, died at Ocean Grove August 30. -The largest Protes England has a more equitable climate than we have. It is warmer there in winter tant Sunday-school in Philadelphia is the Bethany Presbyterian, with 2,456 | and cooler in summer than with us. Flavor in grass, as in fruit, is the combined scholars.

- The Church Mission to Deaf-Mutes, of which Thomas Gallaudet is product of sunshine and warm weather. Other circumstances may modify the general manager, is holding sign-services in twenty-five different places in the flavor of grass, but where all other conditions are equal, the lower the temperature at dioceses of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- A which it grows the less flavor will develop in it. That growing grass is sweetened

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various ages :

Cost of


Per ct. Of





and improved for milk, butter and cheese is a fact known to observing dairymen, Southhampton to Halifax in 24 hours, and from New York to Calcutta in 10 days
and to all such the low summer temperature and cloudy weather of northern and is the latest scheme of a Pennsylvanian, who is experimenting to that end. The
middle England will appear a sufficient cause for depressing the flavor and color best preparation for a successful master's life is a faithful service, and he who
of butter made from the green grass growing there. The other cause modifying during that time does his duty acts in every way as if the affairs were his own, and
the butter of England is the breed of cows employed for its production. In the not his master's, and takes a pride in the appearance of the premises, can be cer-
midland counties they are nearly all Shorthorns, and many of them pedigreed tain of being able to fill whatever higher post may fall to his lot competently and
animals. That breeds, as well as species, mold the flavor of their milk differently, well, so says P. II. Marteau, in Ironmonger.
is a fact well understood. The difference between the milk of different species is
wider than between different breeds of the same species. The inilk of a mare
and a cow differ more than the milk from different breels of either species, but
that the Jersey, Devon and Kerry cows give milk which makes higher flavored

and higher colored butter than Dutch cows and Shorthorns is plain; and the dis-
ference between Shorthorns and the common American cows, though less distinct,
is wide enough to be distinctly appreciated and to be recognized as a sufficient
cause for a difference in the butters made from the milk of two kinds of cows.

LIFE AND PROFITS OF A Car.—This is a very important subject, and one which

has been somewhat neglected. When we consider the cost of equipping a road do not make this comparison to speak disparagingly of English butter as compared

with cars, the expense to keep them in repairs, and mileage earned, we at once with American, or being in any sense poor when taken as a whole. It is inentioned because the peculiarity made an impression from its being unlooked for, and be.

have three very important subjects which involve an enormous amount of capital,

An investigation of the subject can not fail to be interesting, and we will find cause it serves to illustrate how breed and slight modifications in feed mold dairy products. English butter is no more uniform than our own, but though originally

some important suggestions presented during our examination. Taking the value not possessing quite as much flavor as ours, as an average it goes upon the table to

of a car as a basis, its mileage as revenue or profit, and the repairs as expense, we

are sometimes astonished at the vastness of the interests intrusted to our care. A suit my taste, and the taste of the average human, better than average American butter does. I consider it a vitiated taste that calls for crowding an ounce of salt

car will cost on an average, $500. A road owning 1,000 will have invested into a pound of butter. Even a mild taste of butter is more palatable to me than

$500,000; a road operating 10,000 will expend $5,000,000 in equipping itself, etc. the taste of salt, and I believe this is true of all the world outside of America. The

During 1882 our management required me to keep an individual mileage record English, so far as I saw, use butter with very little or no salt. Whatever good there is

of each car, and, as we were then in the South interchanging daily reports of move.

ments and mileage, I was able to compile my tables from accurate figures and not in it is in a condition to be appreciated and enjoyed by the consumer. It is neither

estimates. A road, as we before mentioned, secures its cars at an immense excovered up nor warped by an overdose of salt, and that meets my choice exactly.

pense. These cars are then turned loose on the country and are expected to earn Prof. L. B. Arnold, in New England Homestead, August 21.

a reasonable interest on the investment. We see at a glance what an important THE WORLD'S Wheat Crop.-The wheat-producing countries of the world, department in railroads this is. The question then is, what is the revenue and exclusive of the United States and Canada, promise an aggregate of fully 1,500, expense involved, and what profit to a railroad is a car? This, of course, de 000,000 bushels this season, or 35,000,000 bushels below an annual average propends upon the age and condition of a car. Below I present a table showing the duction for such countries, and 100,000,000 bushels short of last year's crop. In average mileage made by our cars of various ages, also repairs donë, thus giving the United States and Canada the production will be about 75,000,000 bushels the average revenue, expense, and net loss or profit (or original cost) by cars of greater than last year, or say, 15,000,000 bushels short of what may be accepted as an average, so that the year's wheat crop of the world, as now indicated, will

Earnings and Cost of Box Cars in General Service, fall 50,000,000 bushels short of an average production, and approximately 25,000,

Age of car.

Mileage Money 000 bushels below last year. If these calculations be justified by actual results, and

repatrs, profit. proft it be considered that the United States has an available surplus of previous growth

13,149 $98,62 $9.58 $89.04 718.00 amounting to 30,000,000 bushels, with practically normal stocks abroad and afloat,

13,478 Io1.08 38.13 62.95 12.50 it is apparent that there can not be likely to arise any special stringency in the

10,475 78.56 48.24 30.32

6.00 needs of the wheat-importing countries during the year, although all the surround

9,847 73.85 45.85 28.00

6.00 ings justify an expectation of materially better average prices than have been real

9,881 74.11 57.31


3.00 ized for wheat the past year. During the past year the United States exported

9,349 70.12 70.74

*0.62 *0.11 95,000,000 bushels of wheat, flour iucluded. With a crop of fully 435,000,000

8,968 67.26 60.74

1.25 bushels this season, and an available surplus of previous growth of 30,000,000 8

9,250 69.37 55-49

2.80 bushels in case of needed reserves, the available supply is approximately 465,000,

9,295 69.71

19.911 4.00 000 bushels, from which can be spared for export 120,000,000 to 125,000,000

7,656 57.42 53.67 3.75 0.75
bushels quite comfortably—say 25,000,000 to 35,000,000 bushels more than thus
disposed of the past year.— The Price-Current, Cincinnati.

NOTES.-A Florida firm is cultivating 350 acres of castor beans and will build a It will be noticed that for the first five years cars make good mileage, and will
mill for the manufacture of castor oil. -The Florida Dispatch says the new average 9 per cent. profit on the investment; but during the next five years the
capital in that State during the first six months of the present year amounts to mileage decreases, repairs increase, and the net profit is reduced to an average of
$981,000, against $479,900 during the same time last year. The American 1.6 per cent. This suggests that for the first five years of a car's life it is a good
Builder is responsible for the following: A plumber was sent for to the house of investment, but after that it is not profitable to run them as an investment. For
a wealthy stockbroker to execute some repairs. He was taken by the butler into the first five years a car will net 9 per cent on the investment, or about half pay
the dining-room, and was beginning his work, when the lady of the house entered. for itself in mileage. After that it is almost “nip and tuck” between mileage
• John,” said she, with a suspicious glance toward the plumber, “ remove the silver and repairs for the next five years. The life of a car depends altogether upon
from the side-board and lock it up at once.” But the man of lead was in nowise how long a road is willing to patch it up with repairs. "I believe we have an
disconcerted. “ Tom," said he to his apprentice, who accompanied him, “ take occasional car now in service which was built twenty years ago, but I apprehend
my watch and my chain and these coppers home to my wise at once. There that very little of the original cars remain, and that it has been more expensive to
seem to be dishonest people about this house." -The Imperial Russian Technical keep them up than it would have been to have destroyed them, and used the old
Society is making preparations to hold an exhibition of petroleum and manufactur- iron in the construction of new cars. These figures prove, I think, that mileage
ing appliances at St. Petersburg. It is proposed lo make the exhibition complete at the rate of three-fourths of a cent per mile is not excessive, and results only in
in all its details, covering everything connected with this industry, which, in fair profit on the investment.—Mr. É. C. Spalding, of the Western, and Atlantic
Russia, is a very important one. A box was received at the Government re Railroad.
demption office the other day which contained scraps of burnt paper, which the
sender said had been bills amounting to $10,000, which had accidently been

Railroad MILEAGE OF THE Status.--If the average reader were to be burned, and which he wanted redeemed. It did not take an expert long to die

asked to name that State of the Union which can show the longest railroad mile termine that the contents of the box were pieces of common writing paper and a

age, he would in all probability designate New York or Pennsylvania. But he few two-dollar bills that had been burned and mixed.

would be mistaken. Of all the Stales, Illinois heads the list, with 18,904 miles

-Italian emigration reached in 1885 the large number of 83,786, being an increase of 23,297 over the

railway, while far behind come Pennsylvania, with 7,767 miles, Iowa, with 7.59 preceding year. Of these 57,880 have gone to Montevideo and Buenos Ayres ; 12,493 to Rio Janeiro and Santos; 13,662 to New York and New Orleans, and

6,687 miles. or all others, Indiana and Michigan alone have over 5,000 mile 351 to Valparaiso, Callao, and Lima. -A writer in the Milling Engineer put

while Wisconsin, Missouri, Kansas and Minnesota have over 4,000, and Georgi solid truth in the following: “A good many men in this world run away with the

and California have over 3,000. Illinois has a longer railroad mileage than Ne saled that they are working for Mr. Smith, Mr. Jones, or Mr. Robinson, and they England, as a unil

, "has not more than 6,399 miles of railway. In the same on take very good care that their employers get no more than they pay for. receive low wages for their service they render a return in kind, and jog along in

capital stock New York is first

, with $468,322,777; then follow, in the or their little rut as contented as possible. Now this is a great mistake for any work

named, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois, in which States alone the capital sto ingman to make, for he fools no one but himself by such a practice. It is a mis

exceeds $300,000,000. In bonded debt Pennsylvania stands highest

, with 842 take for any workingman to suppose that his employers do not rate him at his ex 579,204; after her come New York, Ohio and Illinois, each with over $300,00 act value, and know whether they are paying too much or too little in any given

The surplus of assets over liabilities is highest in Illinois, being $64,841,9) Labor is one of the greatest items in all operations, and employers are

then follow Maryland, with $47,867,675; California, $32,152,850; Nebras keenly alive to the fact. Men who measure out scant work for the pay they re

$31,658,179; Missouri, over $10,000,000.” The surplus of liabilities over ceive, or who measure their work by their pay at all, are injuring no one more than

largest in Indiana, being $13,969,395 ; New York, $13,376,072; and Geor themselves, for in a slack time, or in competition with others, they are the first to

$9,637,505.– Frank Leslie's Tílustrated Weekly. be laid off, or the first to be swapped off for the men who promise better." -From Notes.—An Italian minister of state, Grimaldi, minister of commerce,





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