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argument in favor of inferior music in churches that might not apply equally in favor of, say,

defective ventilation.- Toronto Globe. The attitude of the Liberal party on the question of promoting immigration to Canada is a decidedly novel one, and if one did not well understand that it has

ROARS FROM THE RAMBLER. been taken in the hope of catching a few votes in the labor centres, might be re EDITOR—“ I don't see why our paper don't make more money, Mr. Quill. garded as serious and startling. The one need of the Dominion to-day is popula Everybody seems to speak highly of it.” tion.—Montreal Gazette.

Quill— Yes; I lelieve it is generally liked. Even the sheriff to-day acknowlMANY municipal rulers of all kinds in all countries have been to the full as guilty

edged he had an attachment.” as the New York lot. Only with us are municipal oificers (elected at the same SNIFKINS_“I hear you are going to marry Miss Mimosa.” time and in the same way) to Le found who labor successfully to bring the guilty Podgeson—" I acknowledge the proud fact that the young lady is my fiancee." to justice. We wash our soiled linen in public; but we wash it, it seems.- Phila. Snifkins—“As you are going to marry her mainly for her moncy, I should sugdelphia Fress.

gest a better name.”

Podgeson—- What do you mean?”

Snifkins—“ Your Financee would be more appropriate.”

TREASURER—“Well, madam, wha: do you want? Don't keep the people wait-

Woman (who has bought her ticket before and returnel with it)—« Lcok here, An English reviewer notices that Bret Harle’s women say very little, though

young seller, this ticket you sold me puts me next to a nigger. Do you heargenerally to the point. The reception to Mr. W. 1). Howells by the Author's

next to a nigger." Club of New York promises to be a notable affair, not only from ihe guests inviled, but also from its absolute informality. - Mr. Frederic J. Stunson's American

Treasurer-"Well, tell the nigger if he doesn't like it he can have his seat Statute Law, about to be issued by Chas. C. Soule, of Boston, is a systematic com

changed. Next!” parison and statement of the laws of all the States on every subject pertaining to “Sir,” said the customs officer to the tourist, “ I thought you told me you had the persons and property of citizens. Swalenborg's Di nina will soon lie nothing l ut your personal wearing apparel in this trunk.” published for the first time in English. It has been translated and edited by Frank “ So I did.” Sewall, A. M.-- Part of the reminisences in the autobiography of C. M. Clay will Well, how do you account for the presence of a dozen bottles of brandy ? " be ministerial and pertain to Russia. Henry Holt & Co. are to publish “ The - Oh, that's all right. They are all night caps.' Romance of the Moon,” by Mr. J. A. Mitchell, art editor of Lifi. -D. Lothrop & Co. announce "A New Departure for Girls.” -The American Society, for I'sycical research, intend to bring out a report on Apparitions and Haunted

One of the reasons why the Missouri strike is unsuccesssul is because the strikers Houses. They desire dates from any who have well-authenticated cases.

have one too many irons in the fire. Joseph Victor Scheffel, who died April 10, is said to have been the most popular PIULANTIIKOPIST (collecting)—“I'm soliciting sulscriptions for the benefit of the German poet of the generation. The letters of Schumann, edited by his wise,

poor girls who work in the cigarette manufactories. They make just enough to are giving much clelight 10 their readers.-Joseph Cower, M. P , the English pay their boarı), and have nothing lest to purchase their clothes.” Radical, has published his speeches.“ Bob" Burdette is to be elected an hon

Crusty old gentleman (who has seen pictures of the cigarette maker in the cigar ary member of the Chicago Press Club in return for generous services to the stores)—“ I guess it cloesn't cost them much for clothes." organization.-Mr. Howells recently told a reporter that he had never writien a book simply for the purpose of getting the people to read it, but to give them something to think about and better themselves for this world and the next. -The PAPER slippers are the latest novelly in that line. They will never take the editor of the Brooklyn la razine has decided that novel writing is the most place of the old style for loy-fanning purposes, however. remunerative of all branches of literature. -Gollwin Smith will soon publishi

MAKING IT BINDING.-“ I am a lawyer's daughter, you know, George, dear," “The Political History of ('anada.” - Andrew Carnagie's “ Triumphant Democ

she said, after George bad proposed and had been accepted, “and you wouldn't racy” is on sale. - Browning is preparing a complete edition of his


think it strange if I were to ask you to sign a little paper to the effect that we are brief introduction.

engaged, would you ?”

George was too happy to think anything strange just then, and he signed the

paper with a trembling hanıl and a bursting heart.

Then she laid her car against his middle vest button, and they were very, very happy.

“Tell me, darling,” said George after a long, delicious silence, “why did you SENATOR JONES, of Florida, declares that he originally went 10 Detroit for his

want me to sign that paper? Do you not repose implicit confidence in my love halth, and not to make love to pretty Miss Palm. We expect to hear next ol

for some conscience-tossed statesman going to Texas for the purpose of getting religion.--St. Louis Globe Democrat.

“Ah, yes,” she sighed with infinite content, “ indeed I do; Lut George, dear, I

have been fooled so many times.” A GREAT deal is involved in the proposition to have open executive sessions in

(LIPPINGS FROM CONTEMPORARIES. the Senate. Some of the Senators are not yet really to swear off on cold tea.Chicago lleralit.

“ GIVE us, () give us a man who sings at his work,” says Carlyle. Oh! yes ;

give him to us; deliver him into our hands. He occupies ihe next office, and we It will presently be so that a firm which does not advertise its business ly

can't get at him. having itself boycotted will be regarded as lacking in enterprise.Indianapolis Fournal.

A LADY writer asks: “ Why don't bachelors marry ?” That's so-why don't they?

Come to think about it, we have never seen a bachelor who was married. Ii's Now if the strikers and militia at East St. Louis should fall to writing letters to lamentable, too. each other the situation would become decidedly complicated.-- Chicago llerali.

Tings one woull rather bave lest unsaidl-Ile. “ What a pretty fan!” She. A DEFEATED) candidate is apt to look upon the gloomy sidle of evcrything for “ Yes; I had it given to me when I first came out." Ile. Really! It has worn awhile after he has received a trouncing.– Oshkosh Times.

well!” Il tariff bounties went to the laborers, wages in this country would be much “ I wonder what makes these buttons Lurst off so,” Lora petulantly exclaimed. higher than they now are.-- New York Star.

David looked at her tight dress. force of habit I think,” he sail softly.-N. ). It is to the common interest of both par:ics to aid in the suppression of the

Independent. mugwump nuisance.- New York Sun.

YOUNG PLAYWRIGHT="Well, Mr. Buncomb, have you reail my comedy?” The surplus should le reduced, and the surplus of politicians should be begun


Buncoml - l'es; and I lind I shall be unable to use it. It has some good on first.Detroit Tribune, April 18.

points, my dear boy, but it's crudemlem crude."

Young playwright" Then you couldn't think of putting it on the stage ?” The labor question is a game of ball. Men go out on strikes and want of julg Buncomb)—“ Well, I didn'i mean to say that. I could have it ground up and ment.-New Orleans Picayune.

use it for a snowstorm, is you would care to have it put on that way." The Democratic party is enjoying, not wolian, but sheolian harmony.— The

(Exit playwright abruptly.) National Republican, April 20.

JOTTINGS FROM JUDGE. The protection that prevents the importation of raw material is a fraud and a

BARNUM need not weep over the absence of his treasurer. Is he can get the law to stupidity Philadelphia Record.

caplure the ger

man he will have a greater curiosity than any other in his col

lection. There is nothing so merciless as the coercive power of a narrow party majority.-T. B. Reed of Maine.

FORCE OF TIADIT.--Customer. What have you this morning ?”

Waiter. “Beessteak and shad; shad all gone. What'll The power behind a throne is that which plans and thinks much and says little.- New Orleans l'icayune.

A REVISED VERSION." () where are you going, my pretty maid ?”

" I'm going a-chestnuting, sir,” she said. Don't let the cholera news distress you. It is the regular spring outbreak of

And she spoke sober truth, in sooth, for lo ! filth abroad.—Chicago Mail.

She had a ticket for the minstrel show.


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shot and killed by his brother Richard at their home at Richford, N. Y. The
damage caused by the floods in Montreal, Quebec, is estimated at from $3,000,000

to $6,000,000. Dr. Louis Sheffield, of New York, who was robbed by Arthur

Williamson, his vale, last summer, took him back after his release from prison and

has been robbed again. The thief was caught again and property worth $5,000 DOMESTIC.-Fuller reports show immense destruction of life and property by

recovered, Governor Oglesby, of Illinois, makes a requisition for the East St. the cyclone in Minnesota, and serious devastation from a similar cause in Iowa

Louis deputies. and Missouri. Militiamen in East St. Louis shot by unknown men. The ma

FOREIGN --At Madrid an unfrocked priest attempted to assassinate the bishop of jority and minority reports of the special committee charged with the investigation

that diocese. A town in Galicia was destroyed by fire. Asiatic cholera is still reof the election of Senator Payne were submitted to the Ohio Legislature. Grand

ported at Brindisi. Irish tenant farmers denounce the land-purchase bill. Bern-
Master Workman Powderly addresses circular to the Knights of Labor asking aid

hardt announces her American plans.
for the strikers. E. L. Kimberly begins a $10,000 libel suit in the Connecticut
courts against Alexander Troup, editor of the New Haven Union. W. A. Swayze

was shoi and killed at Crockett, Texas, by A. Katterus. A passenger supposed to DOMESTIC.—There is little change in the situation on the Gould roads. The
be D. S. Chase, of Carthage, Mo., jumped overboard from the steamer City of Knights appear confident of ultimate success. The railroad officials declare that
Mackinaw and was drowned. D. Turpin, a farmer living near Maryville, Mo., they have fully resumed business, and that the attitude of the strikers is of no
was shot and killed by an officer at St. Louis. The second trial of General Shaler importance. Mr. Powderly opposes any eight-hour movement on the first of May.
on charges of bribery, based on the testimony of Monmouth B. Wilson before the The eight-hour agitation continues at Chicago. There was a general strike on all
Gibbs investigating committee and the grand jury, was begun. Mrs. Gray ap the New York street railroads except the Eighth and Ninth avenue lines. A labor
peared before the grand jury in New York to plead for the aid of the law in meeting was held in Washington at which Messrs. Voorhees, Weaver, Farquhar, and
removing the boycott from her Hudson street bakery. One more boycotter was O'Hara made speeches. Two brothers nained Weaver were forcibly taken from
arrested and fined at the Jefferson Market police court.

the custody of the sheriff at Anthony, Kan., and shol to death by lynchers. Killis

Moorman was hanged by a mob at Axton, Henry county, Va. A manufactory
CONGRESSIONAL.—Mr. Logan addressed the Senate at length in favor of open of counterseit coin, cleverly hidden, at Fort Keogh, M. T., was captured by United
executive sessions. A sharp personal recontre occurred between Messrs. Blair and States officers.
Hoar in the Senate. The House discussed the River and Harbor bill.

CONGRESSIONAL.- Both houses in session. The House of Representatives
FOREIGN.—The budget was introduced in the English House of Commons. decided to make the Navy reorganization bill a special order. Attorney-General
Official text of Gladstone's Irish bill was promulgated. Dilke called for reopen. Garland testified before the Pan-Electric special committee.
ing or his case. Cholera has broken out in Brindisi, where there have been sixty-
two cases and three deaths.

FOREIGN.--The Montreal flood is the worst ever experienced by that city, and

the loss to the wholesale merchants alone will aggregate $10,000,000. Forty dead
DOMESTIC.–St. John, N. B., will contribute a floral decoration for General

persons were taken from fire al Stry,
Grant's tomb on May 31. Canonchet has been purchased by Mrs. William

Sprague. The bishops of the American Catholic Church have responded to the DOMESTIC.--Nine lives were lost in a flood from a broken dam at East Lee,
greetings of the Australian heirarchy. An assembly of the Knights of Labor, Mass. The 7th New York regiment was reviewed by the President in Wash-
numbering 700 members, at Hudson, Mass., has been suspended for insubordina ington. The Citizens' National Bank, of Williansport, closed its doors. The
tion. A few of the pupils in three public schools of St. Louis demanded shorter National League issued an appeal to Irislımen. Engineer McFarland, Fireman
hours. The schools of Waltham, Mass, are closed in consequence of the Maley, and Brakeman Matthews, train hands, were probably fatally injured on the
strike of the te.ichers. Vice-President Hoxie again refuses o arbitrate with the Pennsylvania railroad, near Hermanville. Lena Ruih was burned to death at St.
Southwestern strikers. A large number of New Yorkers visit the Walters' Art Gal. Louis, Missouri, liy the explosion of an oil stove. The ice gorge at Montreal hav-
lery in Balt more. W. H. Vanderbilt's sons give $250,000 10 the College of Physi- | ing bruken, the water is falling, and further danger to the city is averted. Sir
cians and Surgeons. John Bigelow submits his report on the Panama canal. John Macdonald's appearance in the Canadian parliament caused the conservative

members to enliven the proceedings by singing “He's a jolly good fellow.” A
CONGRESSIONAL.-In the Senate Mr. Camden spoke on inter-State commerce, pensioner in Stamford, Conn., who recently received $2,300 arrears,

now miss-
and Mr. Dawes on Indian deprecations. The House adopted the Dingley reso. ing with his money, Mrs. George Hull, in consequence of marital disagreements,
lution calling on the President for information concerning the fisheries questions. cut her throat with a razor at Bridgeport, Conn. Mobs gathered at the Lake

Shore railroad yards, near Chicago, obstructed freight trains and assaulted men at
FOREIGN.— Mr. Gladstone explained the Irish Land Purchase bill in the English work. The governor arrived on the scene later and cautioned the crowd, declar-
House of Commons. The presence of cholera in Italy has caused uneasiness in ing that the whole force of the State would be employed to protect the roads.
France and Egypt, and strict quarantine regulations have been enforcerl. The There is a little bitch in the movement of trains at St. Louis and East St. Louis.
Dominion government was sustained by Parliament in its management of the Two militiamen were fired on at the latter place and had narrow escapes from
Northwest rebellion, the vote of censure being lost by a decisive majority.

death. The collon will presidents at Augusta, Ga., received a communication

from the Knights of Labor, and notified their employes that they would recognize

no organization. The Kmghts resolved to insist on recognition.
DOMESTIC.-Lewis Loards, of Wasson, Tenn., shot two young men beciuse his
sister said they liad insulted lier. A subchief of the Utes, on the Utah reservation, CONGRESSIONAL.—The Senate rejected the Weil and La Abra claims treaty.
suspecting an enemy of causing the death of his three children, killed him and was The House continued debate on the River and Harbor bill. Mr. Powderly testi-
hinself shot immediately by friends of the victim. Two ladies, while watching the fied before the House committee to investigate the Western strikes.
progress of a storm in western Pennsylvania, were killed by lightning. The navi-
gation of the great lakes is open. Washington's farewell address, published in the FOREIGN.—The news from Greece is warlike. Large numbers of soldiers and
Toronto papers as coming from Sir John Macdonald, hoaxed that city. A Texan quantities of war material are being forwarded to Thessaly and other points. Mr.
assassination, with more than usual cowardliness, is reported from Comanche. The Jesse Collins and Mr. Chamberlain have written and published letters setting forth
disappointed candidate for mayor of Camden, N. J., killed binself. The first of their views in opposition to Mr. Gladstone's measures for the relief of Ireland.
the twenty-fisth anniversary celebrations of "departures for the front” 100k place in The powers have rarified the Congo treaty.
Massachusetts yesterday. Rhode Island has appropriated $5,000 per annum to care
for the destitute veterans. The Baltimore and Ohio switchmen are still on a strike at

Chicago; the Lake Shore switchmen went out yesterday, and trouble is feared DOMESTIC.—The New York Seventh Regiment, guests of the Washington
on the Rock Island and Burlington roads. The great elephant, Alice, from the Light Infantry, visited Mt. Vernon. Returning to Washington in the afternoon,
“ 200" at London, arrived here in the steamer Egyptian Monarch. Many persons they were escoried to the Po'omac Railrond Station by the Washington Light
were injured luy an explosion of molten metal in Piitsburgh. Governor Hill has Infantry, and took a special train for New York cily. There are no startling de-
signed the bill making twelve hours a day's labor on street railroads in New velopments in the pending strikes. The Governor of Louisiana has issued a proc-

lamation establishing a quarantine from and after May 10 against all vessels arriv

ing at the Mississippi quarantine station from inter-tropical American and West CONGRESSIONAL:—The House passed the bill authorizing the establishing of ex

Indian ports.

Senators Edmunds and Hoar make denial of slanderous misstateport tobacco factories.

ments relative to reports of speeches in secret sessions of the Senate. All hope of

recovering the bodies of the twenty-six miners entombed at Nanticoke has been FOREIGN.—A meeting of Liberals opposed to Mr. Gladstone was held in London.

given up

The National Academy of Sciences was in session in this city. Loss
M. de Lesseps denounced Mr. John Bigelow's Panama canal reports. Callegrams by the flood at East Lee, Mass., is estimated at $155,800.
disclose the deep impressions made in Great Britain by Mr. Gladstone's Irish
measures, and intimate that the chances of their success are more favorable. Paris CONGRESSIONAL.—The Senate consumed the day on unimportant bills, and the
is excited over the accounts of New York Aldermanic malleasance, and the Temps House continued discussion of the River and Harbor bill.
devotes much space to reflections on the “scandal, corruption and venality” of offi-
cials in the American metropolis.

FOREIGN.--The Powers demand that Greece shall disarm. Gladstone's two

Irish bills are being extensively discussed in all parts of the United Kingdom.

The remains of the bishop of Madrid, who was shot and fatally wounded by a
DOMESTIC.—The report that President Cleveland is engaged to be married is priest on Sunday last, were buried in the center of the cathedral. Mr. McLane,
discredited. The resident directors of the Missouri Pacific at St. Louis reject the the United States minister to France, has received a furlough, and will leave for
overtures of the Citizens' Committee looking to arbitration. De Witt Ferry was his home in America in May.

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No. 3.

are rejected by the former in a supercilious and disdainful manner.

Gould pub

lished some days ago a stenographic report of his negotiations with Powderly's It is the purpose of the managers of PUBLIC OPINION to present committee, which was calculated to excite the sympathy of the public in his own

behalf, and there are weak-minded people enough, who have suffered themselves in one paper the views of many, to give each week the pith of pre to be deceived by it, and who exclaim: “This man Gould means well, and is

humane enough; but Hoxie is the villain who thwarts all his good intentions." vailing thought, and, in short, to impartially reflect public opinion.

For ourselves, we take Hoxie to be merely an involuntary tool in the hands of PUBLIC OPINION will contain, in attractive form, printed and spoken Gould, who has to frustrate all the concessions made by the latter, and who proba

bly, at heart, is sincerely ashamed of the role he is compelled to play. The strikers opinions on leading questions, taken as they appear, without com conduct themselves peacefully, and are seeking to bring over to their side the new

laborers engaged by the monopoly. The Congressional committee which was to ment, and with due credit, from newspapers and periodicals, from

investigate the causes of the Southwestern strike has begun its labors at Washingorgans of political parties, from the independent press, from the pub-to-day will examine Gould. The investigation is of very little practical value, for,

ton, under the presidency of Gov. Curtin; has examined already Powderly, and lications of various orders and associations, and the utterances of at the moment, the question is not to acquire information through Jay Gould as to

the development of the order of the “ Knights of Labor,” or of the profits of the professional and public men-thus focalizing many and divergent Southwestern railroad system, but to avert a great catastrophe, which must inevitviews and opinions.

ably ensue if the affairs of thirteen thousand workingmen are not soon brought to

some form of adjustment. When one sees a match burning which leads into a PUBLIC OPINION will aim to be an epitome of American thought,

powder magazine, it is no moment to ruminate upon the material out of which the

match is made, or to rack one's brains over the miscreant who has laid it, but he in which the reader will find prepared and arranged for instant pe should promptly avert the danger. That the Congressional committee will suc

ceed in doing this, unfortunately, we fear there exists but a slender prospect. rusal and examination the most important comments and expressions

New York Times (Ind.), April 23. on the foremost topics of the day. They will appear without bias

No one will dispute the justice of the President's observations about the value of toward any political party, commercial enterprise, religious sect, or

labor and the right of workingmen to a full share of the benefits of legislation.

But our population is made up of workingmen, and as citizens they are hardly subcontending influences. Recourse will also be had to papers in this ject to classification. National legislation, so far as it affects citizens, is necessarily

general in its character, and it is a difficult matter to apply it to classes or to recogcountry printed in foreign languages, and to European publications, nize classes at all. It is doubtless true that discontent is in many cases caused by for matters and opinions therein.

the “grasping and heedless exactions of employers,” but that is a matter that can

not be reached by national legislation, and if discontent arises in some part from PUBLIC OPINION, in brief, is designed to be the one medium

an “alleged discrimination in favor of capital as an object of governmental atten.

tion,” the logical cure is to cease such “alleged discrimination.” Though these through which will be given current and contemporaneous opinions reflections upon causes present no tangible ground for legislative intervention, the

existence of ever-recurring disputes is a broad fact that may perhaps be dealt with. on subjects commanding public attention, together with a carefully The President thinks that the proper theory on which to proceed in dealing with prepared miscellany, a chronological record, and items of general

it is that of voluntary arbitration This is generally admitted, and there is really

no obstacle in the way of carrying it out, provided the parties to disputes are disand special interest.

posed to be reasonable and are willing to submit their claims to arbitration and

abide by the result. The different trades which have their own organizations For the purpose set forth, and believing that the Capital of the could without difficulty adopt a system of arbitration ; States can provide for official Nation is the best point of observation, the Public Opinion Com

methods of constituting such a system, and the scope for national action in the mat

ter is really very limited, while the necessity or utility of it is not altogether evipany will prosecute the enterprise with energy and persistence, con

dent. It is often forgotten that the United States Government is only an agency

of the whole people for certain specific purposes, and that they are left to other infident that it will meet with public favor.

strumentalities to accomplish those ends for which that agency is not necessary or

well adapted. However, as it is only proposed to clothe the head of the Labor THE PUBLIC OPINION CO.

Bureau with the power to hear disputes voluntarily submitted to it by the parties, and to render decisions which may or may not be accepted and which it would have no power to enforce, its constitutional authority would not be likely 10 be

called in question. It could do no harm, and there is a possibillty that POLITICAL.

might do good, if so constituted as to command confidence. By inquiry into cases of dissatisfaction, and by recommendation and counsel, it might do something to pre

vent or allay troubles. There is little ground for believing that it would accomTHE PRESIDENT'S SPECIAL MESSAGE.

plish much for the settlement of such contests as those which have induced the Der Deutsche Correspondent (Baltimore), April 23.

President to address Congress on the subject. The latest difficulties have sprung

wholly from unreasonable demands and a refusal to listen to reason, and when no [Translated expressly for PUBLIC OPINION.) The President's message to Congress up in the subject of the labor complica

unreasonable demands are made or insisted upon there will be no difficulty in findtions must give food for reflection to the public mind.' This is the first occasion

ing means for settling disputes. Such a commission as the President suggests since the formation of our Government that such a message has been addressed to

might serve a useful purpose and help in the general adjustment of the relations of Congress. After all, it points to no threatened danger; but it surely would not

capital and labor by contributing to a better understanding of them, but what could

it do for men who refuse to work because other men are allowed to work or behave been written had no such danger existed. The expedient herein suggested of a Government commission is, besides, very weak. We have a Labor bureau, a

cause some man is not employed by somebody who does not want him? Congressional committee is proposed, and now, further, a civil tribunal is to be

Chicago Times (Ind.), April 23. established. Day after day, week after week elapses without any change for the The recommendations of the Execuiive upon this question are not characterized better having intervened in the condition of the workingman. To-day we enter by the sturdy common-sense and practical wisdom which have distinguished most upon the seventh week of a strike which touches the means of subsistence of at of his former official deliverances. At a time when clear thinking and sound realeast sixty tho sand persons, and the situation is as cheerless and comfortless as soning upon economic problems have all but vanished from the field of American ever. One prospect after another vanishes, and as respects the endeavors of Con statesmanship, it is most unfortunate that the President should have given the sancgress to compose the differences, they are as a wisp of straw, to which no hope can tion of his influence and authority to the mischievous delusion that a remedy is to exist of attaching one's self. Gould's monopoly is daily becoming bolder and be found in legislation for evils whose sources lie far beyond its reach. There is more confident, and Hoxie telegraphs the most rose-colored reports to his lord and nothing now to prevent the widest application of the principle of voluntary arbitramaster in New York, in which he maintains that traffic is not at all interrupted, and tion as a means of adjusting differences between the workingman and his employer. that everything is going on in the best possible order. The efforts of the St. Louis Whenever they are unable to agree as to wages, hours of labor, or any other matmerchants to arrange the controversy between the monopoly and the laboring men ter growing out of their mutual relations, they are at perfect liberty to refer the

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case to arbitrators. Either party is also at liberty to abide by the decisions of the arbitrators or not, as he may elect. It is not within the potency of a legislative enactment to alter these conditions in any degree. Compulsory arbitration is a misnomer, a contradiction of terms, a practical impossibility. Congress can do a good many things, but it cannot compel citizens who have not been convicted of crime to labor against their will. Neither can it control railroad corporations or manufacturers or merchants to employ men whom they do not want, or to pay a higher rate of wages than they feel able or willing to pay. The most and besi that the Government can do for the workingman, or for any other citizen, is to afford him adequate protection in his person and property. The authorities can best promote the interests of all who labor with hand or brain by maintaining resolutely the supremacy of the law. Congress can do little for the wage-earners except to make the burdens of government as light upon their shoulders as possible, and to remove all unnecessary obstructions and hindrances to the exchange of the products of their toil. When the several branches of the Government, legislative, executive, and judicial, have done their full duty in these respects, they have exhausted their powers. The relations of labor and capital must then be left to adjust themselves, subject to the inexorable economic laws which are above and beyond the authority of president, parliament, or judge.

Washington Post (Dem.), April 23. The special message which the President sent to Congress yesterday is timely and important, both as regards its subject and its recommendations. Never before in the history of the nation has the labor problem presented so many difficult and threatening aspects. It is now generally felt and conceded to be of a nature to affect the prosperity of every interest and to involve in a very large measure the welfare of society. It is because the relations of labor are so extensive, fundamental and indispensable that the propriety of special legislation arises. Not only has the workingman an equal right with all other classes of citizens to such encouragement and protection of his interests as may be secured by statutory enactments and the operation of governmental functions, but society also has a right to such immunity from class or trade disputes as law may be competent to afford. Such legislation, the President urges, “should be calmly and deliberately undertaken, with no purpose of satisfying unreasonable demands or gaining partisan advantage.” Themessage recognizes—what is now a matter of universal acknowledgment—that the simple and rational mode of composing the disputes which are liable to arise between laboring men and their employers is to be found in the application of the principle of voluntary arbitration. But the President suggests that instead of arbitrators chosen in the heat of conflicting claims” a commission of labor to consist of three members, who shall be regular officers of the Government, may be created. It is probable that the efficiency of such a body would increase with its experience, and that all parties to a dispute within the scope of its duties would speedily come to preser the experience and trained quality of the official arbitrator to the cruder consideration and action of one more limited in knowledge of such cases. It is very certain that the decisions of such a commission as is indicated would have immense weight with the general public. Congress has its attention already directed to this labor question, and seems in a mood to deal with it thoroughly. It will find the President's suggestions deserving of its most careful consideration.

The New Yorker Staats-Zeitung, April 23.

[Translated expressly for PUBLIC OPINION.) Had the President's message, which to-day is lying before us, had even no further significance than that it was Mr. Cleveland's contribution to the labor question, every unprejudiced mind must admit that it is among the most valuable, if not the most valuable, which has as yet been delivered. Indeed, from the point of view as to what the Confederation can do for a removal of labor troubles, one can go still further. As compared with the attempts of the House of Representatives, at one time falling short of the work, at another shooting far beyond it, the proposition of the President is like Columbus' egg. Mr. Cleveland shows that he perfectly well understands how to overcome the difficulty; his language is pithy, and he discards from his mind every art of the domagogue, the temptation to employ which was certainly inviting. In his statement of the occasion of his message he spares neither the capitalists nor the workingmen for the errors they have committed, and he gives Congress plainly to understand that their efforts to crack the nut hitherto have been good for nothing. The O'Neill bill for a court of arbitration, accordingly, even if it could pass the Senate, would not receive his approval, and the special committee in reserence to the investigation of the strike of Gould's Southwestern roads he decidedly does not think very highly of, as his warning in the preliminary words, that out of the labor question it would be sought to make party capital, can be clearly seen. The President says something must be done; Congress, as its experiments hitherto prove, is likewise of the same opinion. The latter, therefore, cannot do better than to carry out the President's recommendations.

Philadelphia Times (Ind.), April 23. REDUCED to its practical suggestions, the special message of the President amounts simply to this, that is Federal authority is to be invoked in the arbitration of labor disputes it would be better to have a permanent commission, to which disputants should be free to appeal, rather than to form a fresh board of arbitrators for every dispute, as contemplated in the O'Neill bill. This is a sensible suggestion, as far as it goes, though it is a little surprising to find Mr. Cleveland falling back upon the Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers. Aside from the question as to whether Congress has any business to meddle in this matter at all, the weakness of all arbitration laws must be that they do not arbitrate. There is already provided, in the courts of law and equity, quite elaborate machinery for the adjustment of disputes. Questions that cannot be referred to the courts inust be settled by mutual agree

If the parties agree to submit their differences to arbitrators, then there can be arbitration, with or without legal authority. If they do not so agree, no laws can make them. This has been sufficiently demonstrated in the experience of our own State. The President's general remarks about the relations of capital and

labor will hardly be disputed. What seems to be most needed just now is a little cool-headed common sense all around and an adherence to the principles of Constitutional liberty. The principal function of government is to secure justice and to protect every man in the peaceful pursuit of his lawful vocation. It really seems as though we had machinery enough for this purpose already, if only it were rightly and equitably employed.

Cleveland Leader and Herald (Rep.), April 23. PRESIDENT CLEVELAND's message upon the labor question is remarkable, not for originality, for it neither asserts nor suggests anything new, but for the fact that it is the first of the kind ever sent to Congress. It flows from and reflects an in. tense popular interest in the subject. The President's recommendation for a Federal commission to arbitrate disputes voluntarily submitted to it for judgment is in accord with popular sentiment. There is no doubt a vast amount of good could be effected by such a commission, in State as well as interstate troubles, and that its clecrees would be respected, although it could have no power to enforce them. With such a commission in existence, the party to a great labor contention that resused to arbitrate, or that refused to abide by the decision of the arbitrators, would be condemned by the public and forfeit all its sympathy and support. The power of such a commission would be moral only, but it would be tremendous. The force it would exert would be the very refinement of law—which depends upon conscience for obedience. The President has done well to recognize and voice the sober judgment and earnest demand of the people for the institution of an agency that shall

prevent or quickly settle the labor troubles that have peculiarly marked the present year, and Congress will act wisely in giving legislative force to his suggestions.

New York Evening Post (Ind.), April 23. It would have been much more satisfactory if the President had given the exact facts which he thought called for a special message. It would have been helpful if he had stated his own opinion whether the relations of labor and capital had lately taken on any new phase, and whether they are more disturbed now than at any former time. It was incumbent upon him, if he wished to impress thoughtsul men, to define labor, and tell whether we are to include in that term the 10,598 contented laborers on the Missouri Pacific Railway, or only the 3,717 who struck without assigning any reason for striking. In default of any precise information, we are driven to other sources of knowledge. The last collection of the statistics of strikes published by Bradstreet's showed the number of men out of employment by their own choice in the whole country to be about 39,000, not a very alarming percentage in a population of about sixty millions. Mr. Powderly, who is supposed to represent the only organization that is making much disturbance, testified before the House Committee that the Knights of Labor numbered 500,000, the number having been “raised” by as much as 200,000 since the date of Mr. Powderly's circular published last month.

New York Star (Dem.), April 23. WHATEVER may be the immediate result of the message in shaping legislation, its ultimate effect on the effort of workingmen to better their condition will be of incalculable value. Here is a recognition by the highest officer of the republic of the existence of their grievances and of the substantial justice of their demands for the redress of wrongs. This is a sufficient answer to those who fondly imagine that this movement can be met and suppressed by merely ignoring it. It is also a most timely and forcible comment on the impudent pretense of Jay Gould that there is no trouble on his western road demanding investigation, while it is a fact of public notoriety that, so bitter is the discontent on account of troubles originating on that very road, that order is only preserved in an important town in Illinois by keeping the militia of the State in arms for the preservation of the peace, while fugitives from its justice cannot safely be taken back to the State for trial. Such order as once reigned in Warsaw may appear all sufficient 10 Jay Gould and Mr. Hoxie, but the American people want a peace based on justice and upheld by popular con. tent, and the President expresses their opinion when he proposes a practical measure tending to this result.

Philadelphia Press (Rep.), April 23. INSTEAD OS casual arbitrators chosen in the heat of passion, who come to their work without any special preparation or experience, the President recommends that a labor commission of three members be appointed, who shall be regular officers of the Government and charged with the consideration and settlement, when possible, of all controversies between labor and capital. The value of such a commission would depend altogether upon the uality of its members. If they are men of high character and command the confidence of both employers and employed, such a commission would be very much better than any improvised board of arbitrators and could do a great public service in lessening the friction between labor and capital and clearing away the misconceptions of each side. If; however, the commission should ever be composed of self-seeking politicians and demagogues, its influence would be wholly pernicious. The difficulty of judging the merits of such a commission scheme lies in the necessity of taking the most important element in its value on faith.

Boston Transcript (Ind.), April 23. The importance of the labor question appears from President Cleveland's message to Congress recommending an arbitration commission. This labor question enters into political and public matters on many sides. From it have issued the Chinese troubles. It operates powerfully to prevent any proper tariff adjustment. It is, therefore, one of those problems so comprehensive in its character that its setllement should be on such a basis as to satisfy all parties to the controversy, if the thing be possible. President Cleveland discusses the subject in a judicial spirit for the most part, although there are some who may take exception to his remark that the “discontent of the employed is due in a large degree to the grasping and heedless exactions of employers.” A good deal here depends upon the meaning of the

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qualifying phrase, “ in a large degree," for everybody knows that to some degree eral auspices, with the right of the railroads to appeal for protection to United “ the grasping and heedless exactions of employers ” cause strikes.

States courts instead of State courts. Mr. Gould is unquestionably in favor of Baltimore Sun (Ind.), April 23.

centralization. He might be induced to favor a change of the form of govern

ment. Something neat in the Imperial way would, no doubt, suit him. A PERMANENT body, non-partisan and experienced, would be able to arrive at decisions that would command general respect, and such a body would be much

The Philadelphia Evening News, April 23. preferable to the temporary commission appointed as directed by the act recently AFTER all the debates in the House on the labor question, the passage of a labor passed by the House during the pendency of hot disputes. The legislatures and resolution, the creation of a special committee to investigate the labor troubles on executives of States would, perhaps, at times desire its services, and in questions the Gould system, and the introduction of a bill in the Senate for a commission of involving interstate commerce its aid could be offered with the most perfect pro arbitrators, it is just a bit sunny to find Grover coming in at this stage with a mespriety. The mere existence of such a commission, he believes, would tend to lessen sage in which he is “constrained to recommend to Congress legislation upon this labor troubles. Its lack of power to enforce its decisions would not impair its useful serious and pressing subject.” Still, the message is in time for 1888. ness, the experience of railroad commissions, with advisory powers only, having

Boston Journal (Rep.), April 23. shown that such power is not essential to the persormance of very important and valuable duties.

Such a tribunal as the President suggests would seem to be more fitting than one N. Y. Commercial Advertiser (Rep.), April 23.

made up largely of members of Congress. All that any board can do is to seek to

conciliate differences, no one yet assuming that Congress or any other body can enThis calm and sensible message from the President should be met and dealt force the decisions of any commission. The fact, however, should not deter Conwith in good faith by Congress. It is unfortunate, possibly, that the House has

gress from the policy of arbitrating the differences which are now seriously disturbalready committed itself to a bill for special boards of arbitration to which the ing the business and industry of the country. President now urges the objections we have quoted. But it is to be hoped that the friends of that bill, which was acknowledged to be only tentative in its nature,

Troy, N. Y., Times (Rep.), April 23. may see that the legislation recommended by the President springs from more PRESIDENT CLEVELAND's message to Congress upon existing labor troubles dismature consideration of the subject, and more nearly meets the objects sought for cusses the situation in a calm and equable temper, and its suggestions accord with in the O'Neill bill. But whatever the action of Congress--and it will not be safe the principles of our form of government. It meets in excellent spirit a problem to take much for granted in that direction—the President's message will make a threatening the country with grave trouble if there shall not speedily be found a favorable impression on the people, and will help to crystallize public sentiment in the just and satisfactory solution, acceptable to all interests and affording reasonnble right direction.

hope of permanent pacification. Chicago Mail (Ind.), April 23.

Chicago Inter-Ocean (Rep.), April 23. THE President has absorbed the voluntary arbitration theory from the columns

The President's message on the labor troubles is written in most excellent spirit, of the administration organs, undoubtedly, and having no better plan of his own

but his observations are better than his recommendations. The idea of arbitration is anxious to have it tried. But how voluntary arbitration is going to settle present

is based on the choosing by the contending parties of fair-minded men to repreor prospective disputes between employés and employers we are at a loss to understand. There is nothing to prevent them from arbitrating voluntarily now,

if they

sent both sides. The plan recommended by the President fails to take cognizance

of what disputing parties regard as most vital in arbitration. wish to do so, and no law, which will not compel them to settle their disputes in the interests of the peace and welfare of the general public, can change for the

Buffalo Courier (Dem.), April 23. better the present methods. It is just as reasonable to suppose that the criminal We believe that the recommendations of the President are worthy of the immewill voluntarily step into jail or that the murderer will voluntarily hang himself for diate and the favorable consideration of Congress. The methods of arbitration that the good of society as it is to expect employers or employés to voluntarily admit he proposes are certainly more practicable and commendable than are the several that one side or the other is right, and be governed accordingly.

crude bills now pending. The message is timely, and it will without doubt call Albany Evening Journal (Rep.), April 23.

forth an interesting discussion in all parts of the country. To the credit of the President be it said his message is not a “screed” or a

Memphis Avalanche (Dem.), April 23. political proclamation, designed for effect upon the public; but is the presentation The President's suggestion of a sort of advisory arbitration commission strikes in rough outline of a solution of the problem, more sensible than any which has us as perhaps wise when nobody has anything better to offer. It does not strike us yet fallen under our observation. So far as arbitration can accomplish anything as a solution of the problem or as a step directly toward a solution. Sometimes, President Cleveland's method of applying it is possibly as judicious a method as however, any step that is a change brings about a new situation which of itselí can be devised. Yet, after all, arbitration could be of no avail in cases where

suggests further and better remedial measures. strikes are ordered simply because employers retain the services of men who decline to join labor organizations, and this has been the foolish cause of many of the

Brooklyn Times (Rep.), April 23. recent strikes. No legislation can be devised which will take the place of com OF COURSE the obvious objection will be made that unless some penalty is mon sense and fair play.

attached to the refusal, on the part of the employers or employed, to accept the Boston Herald (Ind.), April 23.

decision of such a board of arbitration as the President suggests, its decisions might The President's message on the labor question is a most acceptable contribution

be disregarded. Nevertheless, the suggestion is a good one, and Congress will do toward the settlement of the leading issue of the day.

The Constitution not only

well to carry it into effect without delay. gives the executive the right, but it imposes upon him the duty of recommending

Washington Star (Ind.), April 23. to Congress such legislation as he may deem necessary and expedient. In the

Much time, trouble and exasperation would undoubtedly be saved if there conscientious discharge of this obligation, Mr. Cleveland has suggested a measure

were always on duty a tribunal whose special business it should be to act as a which looks, at once, simple, practical, inexpensive and equitable. Having all these qualities, it contains, as we measure it, the promise of doing a great deal of harm, and might accomplish a great deal of good, by giving the President's plan a

peacemaker when capital and labor get in collision. Congress could do little good, unbalanced by any chance of doing harm.

trial, at all events. Pittsburgh Dispatch (Ind.), April 23.

The Milwaukee Wisconsin (Rep.), April 23. It is to be regretted, and yet it affords a striking illustration of the political ten

PRESIDENT CLEVELAND's official contribution to the solution of the labor-strikes dency in that direction, that the President is so far affected by the political predilection for establishing commissions to take charge of everything, as to recommend

problem is an official blunder. As a remedy when the disease is passive, President the establishment of a permanent commission to arbitrate labor disputes. Whether

Cleveland's prescription is admirable; as a remedy when the ailment is active and his opinion is influenced by the erection through that means of three more well

virulent, and when only a remedy is imperatively needed, it is absolutely good for paid offices, is of litile importance, in view of the manifest unsuitability of such a

nothing method of treating pending troubles.

Philadelphia Record (Ind.), April 23.

A VERY timely and valuable suggestion on the subject of the present labor Washington Critic (Ind.), April 23.

troubles comes from President Cleveland in a message sent to Congress. Such a The President's recommendation is good as far as it goes, and it goes a little plan as he suggests is already in successful operation in Great Britain. Congress further than the House Arbitration bill, by making the Commission a permanent ought at once to consider the matter in a spirit of patriotic co-operation. institution, instead of calling in new arbitrators every time a new question is to be heard. But the country needs something more efficacious just now than soothing

Buffalo Times (Ind.), April 23. syrup of this sort, and it is somewhat strange that with four hundred legislative

In one of the ablest messages ever sent to Congress President Cleveland yesterdoctors at the Capitol not one has been able to strike for the root of the disease.

day recommended the establishment of a national board of arbitration. N. Y. Mail and Express (Rep.), April 23.

From the Courrier des Etats-Unis, April 24. CONGRESS needed no hint or advice from the President on this question. It has

[Translated expressly for PUBLIC OPINION.] set him an example of attention to the labor problem. It has not been en ned

It is proper, indeed, that the Chief of the State should bear his part in throwing by the message, and it will simply consummate the work for which its thorough light upon the inquiry as to the best means of restoring tranquility to the public debates have been a preparation by creating Federal tribunals of arbitration whose

interests at a moment when the equilibrium of the relations between their essential moral authority will be ensorced by that instructed and impartial public opinion

elements is deeply disturbed. Here, it must be admitted, that the question has which has solved for us so many problems that seemed incapable of solution.

advanced a step, a way is traced out, and every one is agreed upon the point

that arbitration, in the present phase of the problem, is the most appropriate mode N. Y. World (Dem.), April 23.

of arranging the differences which have arisen between the employer and his workJay Gould indorses the President's message on the proper method of dealing

The House of Representatives in its yesterday's session did not enter into with labor_troubles. He is in favor of a permanent Arbitration Board under Fed an immediate discussion upon the ground-work of the question. The conclusion


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