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In the first place, a sufficient quantity of finely ground cement is mixed with water, the country. Of the remaining $9,000,000,000 he allows $450,000,000 as profit of and allowed to harden in slabs, either in the open air or in an oven. When the capital, and a like sum ($450,000,000) for the savings of capitalists and other classes. cement has set, these slabs are wetted and heated until they crack in all directions; The gross amount of taxes he places al $700,000,000. The remainder of the vast it is then reduced to a fine powder, and is well mixed with an equal quantity of fresh aggregate ($7,400,000,000) he says is paid to labor. Of course, these figures are cement, This mixture, in a dry state, is put into strong cast-iron moulds, and sub largely speculative, but they are arrived at from the best obtainable data, and are jected to a pressure of srom thirty to thirty-five atmospheres. A sufficient quanity certainly very near the truth. The most cursory consideration of them will show of water is then introduced on one side of the mould, and is drawn through the that the great bulk of the world's riches annually passes through the hands of the mass of dry powder by means of a pump connected with the opposite side; this workingmen of the world. Seventy-four dollars in every hundred goes to labor.water contains a certain quantity of finely powdered cement, which is thus caused

Indianapolis Fournal, April 19. to penetrate through the mass ; expelling at the same time the air and cementing it together. The artificial stone is subjected to further pressure. In this manner slabs of the required size can be formed economically: Carbonate of lime may be

It appears from these that the poultry yards in that country represent a very substituted for cement, in which case the stones are of a lighter color.

large capital. The number of fowls is estimated at 45,000,000, which, valued at
272 francs each on the average, would amount to 112,500,000 francs.
ber of laying hens is taken at 34,000,000, and taking the number of eggs laid by
each at an average of 90 yearly, the total production of eggs in France would not

fall short of 3,000,000,000, which at an average of five cents each, would amount

to 150,000,000 francs. Of this number it is calculated that 100,000,000 of eggs
are hatched, of which 10,000,000 die as young chickens, 10,000,000 serve for
reproduction, while 80,000,000 of chickens serve for food, which, valued at 172
franc each, would represent 120,000,000 francs. To these figures must be added

an extra value of 6,000,000 for capons. · Altogether the value of poultry and eggs The total wealth of our country, now the richest in the world, is reported at

produced in France may be taken at 300,000,000 francs, or £12,000,000.-L'Illus$43,500,000,000, in a population of 50,000,000, with a total of 17,500,000 pro

tratione, Paris. ducers. An enormous sum in the aggregate, representing, however, the accumu. lations of 250 years, much of it in land, buildings and machinery. An equal division would give to each man, woman and child a capital of only $870, much of it The production of coke in the United States in 1885 was 5,106,696 tons. The relatively worthless to the individual owner, or of $2,500 to each producer. The bulk of this production comes from Pennsylvania, Alabama, West Virginia, and latter sum represents the limit of average wealth attainable. There is no more to Tennessee. Pennsylvania produces 60 per cent. of the whole, and her production be had. The same result is emphasized by annlyzing the annual production. The is mainly confined to what is known as the Connellsville coking field. Like other most caresul estimates place this at $10,000,000,000 annually. From this inust be businesses in which a monopoly may be readily established, through the conoivance deducted $700,000,000 paid in taxes, $1,300,000,000 to make good the annual wear of the railroad companies, the coke trade has fallen into the hands of a combination and tear of the means of production, leaving $8,000,000,000 to be divided among which maintains prices by controlling the supply.-- Philadelphia Record. 50,000,000 consumers, without allowing anything for interest on invested capital or

TAX ON ALCOHOL. for its increase. Allowing 5 per cent. for these, the net production is reduced to $5,725,000,000. Throwing capital out of the account there is only $160 a year for THE temperance people of England ought to be pleased by the statistics in the each inhabitant or of $115 if capital is entitled to a dividend—an average of from Budget speech of Sir W. Vernon-Harcourt. Within the last fiscal year the rev31 10 44 cents a day. Forty cents a day must suffice, on the average, to feed, enue from the tax on alcohol was £971,000 less than bad been expected, and clothe and shelter the people of this country. Or, dividing the annual production £1,179,000 less than for the fiscal year of 1884-85. Within ten years the receipts among the actual workers, the average income will be between $327 and $475 a from this source have decreased $22,500,000. Evidently a good many Englishmen year. Three hundred and fifty dollars a year must buy bread, raiment, pay house have reformed (or died) within a decade, or the times have been so hard that they rent and provide a margin for saving in every family of three persons. Two dol could not afford to buy drink.-N. Y. Tribune. lars a day is far above the average income that the productive energy of the coun.

IN 1840 one operative working thirteen or fourteen hours a day turned off 9,600 try can pay. He who secures it belongs to the privileged classes, with many, per

yards of standard sheeting a year; in 1886 an operative in the same mill turns off haps, above him, but with many more below him; and every man belongs to the

nearly or quite 30,000 yards per annum. In 1886 the mill's hours are ten. In bloated plutocracy, against whom socialism urges its crusade, who owns $2,500

1840 wages were $ 175 per year; in 1886 they are S285 per year. You can buy worth of property, or who receives more than $400 a year for his work.- Rev. Dr.

more for each dollar of your money-wages in 1886 than you could for each dollar Behrends, April 18.

in 1840.- Edwarı Atkinson. INTRODUCTION OF RAILROADS.

Or the 5,640 insane resident in institutions of all classes in the State, 4,670 The following are tlie dates of the introduction of railways in the various coun are maintained at the public expense; 516 are curable; 5,124 incurable; tries from 1825 to 1860:

2,841 are single, 1,785 married. The average weekly cost of maintenance varies England, September 27, 1825. Peru, in the year 1850.

widely, being $11.50 in the Friends' Asylum, at Frankfort; $9.80 in the PennsylAustria, September 30, 1828. Sweden, in the year 1851.

vania' Hospital; $ 3.8272 at Norristown, and $1.95 at Blockley.--- Philaaelphia France, October 1, 1828. Chili, January, 1852.

Press. United States, December 28, 1829. East Indies, April 18, 1853.

A LONDON insurance company shows by a comparison of tables that it has caused
Belgium, May 3, 1835.

Norway, July, 1853.
Germany, December 7, 1835.
Portugal, in the year 1854.

to be made, that by adhering to the rule of insuring only regular abstainers from Island of Cuba, in the year 1837. Brazil, April 30, 1854.

intoxicating lipuors, after an experience of sixteen years it has a margin in its favor

of 30 per cent. in the death rate. There is but seven-tenths the probability of Russia, April 4, 1838. Victoria, September 14, 1854.

temperate men dying in a year as the common run of drinkers. Habitual drinkItaly, September, 1839.

Colombia, January 28, 1855.
Switzerland, July 15, 1844.
New South Wales, September 25, 1855.

ing increases the probability of death by stimulating complaints that hasten death.

Pittsburgh Times. Jamaica, November 21, 1845.

Egypt, January, 1856. Spain, October 24, 1848.

Middle Australia, April 21, 1856.
Canada, May, 1850.

Natal, June 26, 1860.
Mexico, in ihe year 1850.
Turkey, October 4, 1860.

TO BE out of sympathy with your country and with American ideas is a griev-
-Scientific Commercial, April 17. ous fault, to be shunned at all hazards. The most utter despicable of all things is

the Anglomania which prevails in certain quarters.llenry Cabot Lodge to the

Harvard Students, DR. Worms, medical officer to the Chemin «lu Fer du Nord, has recently published a report and presented it to the Academy of Medicine. Among 1,173 rail

Bishop Bowman's remark that he would like to see Jay Gould kicked through way officials whom he examined, in 224 the visual power, for colors was imperfect,

the streets of New York will strike a responsive chord in many a breast. The independent of any other lesion ; 118 hesitated in (listinguishing the different

Bishop might undertake the job himself. It will never be done by a better man. colors; 41 (listinguished red easily, but consounder green, blue, and gray; 4 were PRESIDENTS may lamentably fail, Congresses may prove impotent or injurious, perfectly color-blind; 63 confounded red, green, and gray. Those who presented measures that are long elaborated may result in (lisaster, but the Democracy can an alteration of chromatic power sufficient to prevent clear distinction of signals never die.- New York Sun. were not entrusted with the care of a train. The examination of railway servants before they are employed by the company excludes men with Daltonism from being IIONEST and regular work kills very few persons. Add worry to work, and the employed in running the trains. Dr. Worms states that the proportion of color dlanger begins. Add dissipation of almost any sort, and the trouble thickens – blind subjects was 5 per cent. Many others, however, did not distinguish colors

New York World. clearly. These officials had been submitted to an examination previous to that

You might as well put a mustard plaster on a bald head for heart disease as to made' by Dr. Worms, who suggests that color exercise should be included in public apply legislation for the cure of labor troubles.Daniel, of Virginia. instruction.- Public Opinion, London.

Jlow to boycott Jay Gould in a way that will make him stay boycotted is the

biggest question that the Knights of Labor have yet tackled. EDWARD ATKINSON, the statistician, makes the following estimate of the amount

POWDERLY and Gould both fall back on the law. That is right. Let the cars that is paid to abor out of the gross production of the country. According to the

run, and the strikers strike, and the lawyers do the fighting. last national census the total value of the increase of wealth in this country is ten thousand millions (310,00 1,000,000.) Of this vast sum he estimates that one thou No President has ever yet attempted with success to run counter to the wishes sand millions are cinsi me I where produced, and without going to the markets of of his party, and several have tried it.Boston Globe.

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provincial ports. Yet the Congressmen are themselves equally open to attack on FINANCE AND COMMERCE.

account of iheir declaration that such rights exist. One side is no more securely entrenched than the other; and from the nature of things the controversy can be settled definitely only by force, or by the concurrent action of the Governments or

Great Britain and the United States, REPORTS from all sides indicate that the uncertainty attending the agitation rela

The American cause has one eleinent of great strength in that the British Govtive to labor is laving an unfavorable influence upon business. It comes atout in

ernment has always objected to, and sometimes thwarteil, action by Canada hostile this way: Conservative men who have capital to invest in new enterprises will

to United States lishermen ; and it is possible that full commercial rights may be hold back until there is less uncertainty in regard to wages and the liours of labor.

accorded in the course of time without a new treaty. The American view of the No prudent contractor will make proposals to build a large block or a mill until

situation, in other words, is more in accord than the Canadian with the traditional it is settled whether eight or ten hours is to be a day's work, or whether the wages

policy of the British Empire. But it is none the less true that the course of the are to be advanced considerably. No man will build a block to rent until he can

administration in advocating the appointment of a commission to adjust the dislibe made reasonably sure within certain limits of the cost of labor. Another un

culty once for all was much inore patriotic than the contemptuous rejection of this favorable influence is that which comes from the trouble between the managers of plan by the Senate on Tuesday. the Gould system of roads and the Knights of Labor. There is reason to believe that traffic has been very largely resumed on the Gould roads in spite of the strike; nevertheless, the existing condition of matters lends to the future the element of The first national convention of wool growers, held last week at St. Louis, uncertainty. All business is now transacted on a close basis, so great is the com seems to have had for its principal object the organization of wool-growers throughpetition and so small the profits. Add 10 these conditions others over which those out the country, so as to enable them in the future to influence national legislation in business can have no control, and we have a good explanation for the slowness with a view to protecting their indlustry against foreign competition. Resolutions which characterizes the revival of business. Go where one will, he will find people were unanimously adopted denouncing the bill recently reported by the Ways and discussing the situation from the lal or standpoint, and discussing it without arriv Means Committee of Congress, admitting foreign wool free of duty, and urging a ing at any conclusion in regard to future inovements. The raising of the tariff restoration of the tariff of 1867 or its equivalent. The importance of establishing question, the disinclination of Congress to place some limit upon the coinage of sil. a journal of national scope, devoted to the interests of sheep husbandry in particuver, and the sailure of that Lody to enact a bankruptcy law, are further causes of lar and agriculture in general, was recognized by the convention, and a committee uncertainty and uneasiness; and yet, in spite of these embarrassments, the volume was appointed to look over the ground and report upon the feasibility of establishof Lusiness being transacted is very large. Our people are able to be large con ing such a journal and the means to be employed in securing the necessary capsumers of the p:oducts of labor and capital, and labor is very generally employed. ital. - Brandstrect, April 17. Slocks are not accumulating; on the contrary, there is not a quarter part of the goods in the hands of ihe nianusacturer and the selling agent that there was a year

EVERY principle of cquity and justice, of common lecency and common right, ago. A selling agent belonging to a leading house remarked a short time since: dictate tat the outstanding trade dollars should be made convertille into goool “There will Le 10 Irade sales in July or August this year.” Clearing-house re.

money at once and without surther loss to the holders in the way of discount.

Balt turns inake the clearings the past week $837,521,967, which is $193.000,000 over

rore American, April 20. those of the corresponding week of 1865, Lul nearly 576,500,000 less than those of The export of gold is one of those sudden signs of unfavorable commercial the preceding week. This decline is largely accounted for by the reduced stock conditions which in many directions show how serious is the effect of the shock operations in New York, which were $58,000,000. The export of breadstuffs has between capital and labor.- Philadelphia Press, April 20. increased somewhat of late, and present indications point to a larger expo'tation prior to August 1. The price of wheat has slightly advanced. The few reports respecting the prospect of winter wheat which have been pullished are favorable. The nuniber of failures continues low, Bradstreet's report for the past week putting

RAILROADS. the number at 159 in the United States against 141 the previous week and 196 in the corresponding week of 1885. Money is easy, and at present there is not a large outflow of gold; lut the fact that ihe balance of trade is against us should prepare us for such a movement at an early day.—Boston Journal, April 19.

ENGINEERS and capitalists have for some time past regarded the Celestial CROP RETURYS,

Empire as offering one of the most promising fields for railway enterprises that "The chief feature of the crop returns, up to the close of the week, is contained

still remains unoccupied. They have manisested, consequently, a very strong in the uniformly gloomy tenor of the returns from Kansas. The reports from Kan

desire to possess it. A dense population and large natural resources give sas for the past six weeks have indicated only partial crops, but the latest bulletin undoubted assurances of success, could the officials who guard the imperial predicts an almost total failure in a number of the counties, while at the best there conservatism once be propitiated. But this is an obstacle which the most importuis the proniise of not to exceed one-third an average yield for the entire State. The nate cliplomacy has not yet succeeded in overcoming. If one glances at the later reports from McPnerson county are that the prospect is the poorest ever known, history of China, however, her unwillingness to entertain any foreign propositions, and that the yield will not pay sor the cutting. The outlook in Neosho county is

without very caresul consideration indeed, can readily be understood. very bad, and alrcady many fields are being plowed under. In Ottawa county

l'rom experience, the Chinese officials have come to have a positive dread of the fully 50 per cent of the crop is reported to be winter killed, while in Sedgwick " promoters” of foreign enterprises. They have, unfortunately, been taken in so county the outlook does not promise to exceed 25 per cent. of a crop. In some of often by irresponsible adventurers that it is quite possible what we have flattered the southern counties the ouilook is slightly more favorable, but a sull yield does

ourselves has been an opening wedge may be in reality another nail in closing the not seem to be promised in any part of the State. Wheat is reported to be going

doors against us. It is hard to predict what their course will. We have allowed backwards, on account of the recent freezing weather. In some of the counties a ourselves to regard them as a very slow people ; but while their foreign policy has great deal of the wheat is reported lying on top of the ground. In other States osten only negative merits, it shows in many cases a justice and wisdom of which the outlook in many is flattering for winter wheat In some portions of Ohio the our country cannot always boast. We are even now in the midst of a dispute with recent storms have left the ground fullof water, which, with the accompanying cold

China in regard to the question of indemnity for the deplorable outrages committed weather, has threatened the growing plant, but as a rule the reports are very favor.

against the Chinese laborers in Wyoming and other parts of the West. We cannot able. Throughout all Southern Indiana the fields are looking green and the plant

blame China, is the settlement of this question determines the treatment of our healthy. The fields on some of the highlands do not appear at the best, and some

own countrymen within the borders of her empire. To injustice, or at least relook badly, bu: they are the exceptions. In Missouri some of the upland wheat is tarded justice, we have now added discourtesy. The Chinese Minister and his looking poorly, but on the lowlands the prospects could hardly be better. Ini suite on their entrance into our territory are received, not with the courtesy and'atsome of the counties in Tennessee the plant has already attained the growth of

tention due to their position, and particularly ordered by the State Department, but twelve inches, and the general prospect is encouraging. In the spring wheat area

with unequivocal marks of disrespect and with churlish demands for credentials. Dakota appears to be in the lead, with fine weather for seeding and plenty of These things must all react upon ourselves. W cannot outrage a nation, howmoisture. No seeding has been done either in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa or Ne ever conservative, with impunily. China is not vindictive, but she has shown herbraska, and in the two last-named States the work threatens to be delayed twenty

self to have a good memory. She will hardly permit Americans to take any part or thirty days. In many portions of Nebraska the season is already becoming so

in the development of her resources while such serious grievances remain unfor advanced that large tracts will be seeded to flax." – Farmers Review (Chi- answered.—Scientisc American. caso), April 20.


Until the business of transportation is put into the same category with all In reference to the provincial fisheries Bradstreet says: In asserting their other business, and treated by the public in the same manner as all other respective claims to commercial privileges on the British North American business enterprises, there will be no stability in the business world. Men coast, both the Maine and Massachuscits fishermen and the Dominion Gov thus far have been looking in the wrong direction for prosperity. The fatal ernment stand on alleged rights. It is worthy of note, however, that the only mistake lies in the theory that the railroads, differing from all other enterrights undisputed on either hand are those granted by Great Britain to the prises, are the lawful prey of all avaricious-minded men, and that whatever can United States in the treaty of 1818. Fishing privileges are not at issue. Apart be squeezed out of them is so much added to the general good. There must be a from the matter of taking fish, the convention referred to gave American fishermen mutual reciprocity in all branches of business, and on that basis prices must rule, liberty to enter port for shelter, to repair damages, to buy wood and to obtain and to single oui one branch as a victim and prey to the others is to derange the water, but * for no other purpose whatever." There is no doubt about the privi- whole. “One member cannot suffer without all the members suffering with it." leges thus allowed. They are plain, indeseasible and admitted universally. But The dividends on the whole capital investeil in railroads in the State of New York with respect to all other commercial advantages there is a question. Senator Frye from earnings in 1885 were only about one per cent. The taxes paid into the and Representative Dingley ridicule the dogmatic assertion of Mr. Foster, the Do treasury from these roads were almost $5,000,000, or nearly five-sevenths as much minion Minister of Marine, that American fishermen have no commercial rights in as the dividends. But the reply will be, “Watered stock.” It is a vain cry, for


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the report shows but little difference between the actual cost of the roads and the with somerimes an icteric tint of the conjunctiva, and in some cases albuminuria.
stock and bonds issued. To whom, then, is there a balance due ?

The fever lasted, as in the ordinary form, from five to days. The
thing due to the people in cheaper rates, or is there something clue to these corpo author believes that this method of proclucing artificial yellow fever will ultimately
rations in higher rates that shall put investors and employes on a par with other be found very valuable as a prophylactic against the natural and dangerous form
interests, and in such a manner that they will prove a prosperity to other interests ? of the disease.--Lancet.
But alas! what can we expect towards this condition of health when officials of
railroad corporations are engaged in cutting each other's throats? One law should A Case of heroic self sacrifice of medical men has just occurred at Kharkoff.
be passed making it a misdemeanor for any officer or set of officers to reduce rates A patient was brought into the lunatic asylum with the hydrophobia, who was so
below a paying point without the consent of all the stockholders. It is the only violent that he had to be put into a sack and carried along by sens d'armes. All
safely to investors, and until this crime against labor, against producer and con the attendants resused 10 louch the unfortunate man, declaring that they would
sumer ceases, there is no hope out of our present dilemma. Let the ax be laic al rather lose their situations; whereupon two of the medical officers, Drs. Guinikoff
the root of the tree! ~E. A. Holbrook, in Railway Age.

and Davidoff, themselves undertook to wash him and attend to him, though he was

in the filthiest condition and covered with vermin. They managed after some time

to get him somewhat cleaner and calmer. However, in one of his paroxysms, he In the decade embraced between 1886 to 1875, inclusive, So German

bit Dr. (utnikoff in the finger, and bespaltered Dr. Davidoff's hand and eye with locomotives were forwarded 10 Italy. In the same period 40 English loco

his saliva. The man did not live through the night. The two doctors are considmotives, 267 French and Belgian locomotives, and 83 Italian locomotives were

ered to be in great danger, and the principal, Professor Kovlesski, has written placed upon Italian railways. In the decade embraced between 1876 and

to Pasteur about him. It seems, however, that they have no sunds to enable them 1885, inclusive, the number of German locomotives forwarded 10 Italy rose,

to undertake such a long and expensive journey. Perhaps, however, public or
however, to 322, the Jeliveries of English locomotives in the same period private generosity may step in, or, as they are government officials, it is conceivable
declining to 36, and those of French and Belgian to 7, while 170 locomotives were

that the imperial Treasury may be opened for the purpose.--Lancet.
turned out in the course of ten years from Italian workshops. It follows that out
of a total of 536 new locomotives placed upon Italian railways in the ten years
ending with 1885, inclusive, 322, or about 60 per cent., were made in Germany, in EVERY year makes it plainer that cholera can Le excluded from a country by
fact, so far as the Italian markets are concerned, German locomotives appear to have judicious and complete quarantine, and that it can be kept down to a minimum by
pushed English locomotives almost entirely on one side.— The London Colliers thorough sanitary precautions. Both precautions can be actively employed by the

United States; and from such grounds, the conclusion is plain that only our own

carelessness will permit the cholera 10 gain a foothold in America. But public The use of metallic permanent way appears to have made more progress

carelessness is not an unknown vice in our official system, and for that reason it
in Germany than in any other part of Europe. M. Henri Mathien, engin will not do to rely exclusively on quarantine precautions against cholera. Pres-
eer-in-chief of the Southern of France Railway, calculates that in 1884 Ger

ent indications are that they will afford but a weak saseguard, and that the seeds of
many liad 5,471 miles of metallic permanent way; Austria and Hungary. 58 the disease are liable to slip throug!. the cordon at one point or another. Against
miles; Holland, 191 miles; Belgium, 7 miles; and Switzerland, 63 miles. The such a contingency every city in the country should proiect itself by establishing a
Belgian figures were helped up a little last year by an introduction of the system high sanitary standard and keeping it up throughout the entire season. If that is
upon the Belgian state railways. German steel-makers are disappointed with the done the work will be richly repaid whether the cholera reaches this country or
meagreness of the exports of steel rails from Germany in 1885, the shipments of - Pilisburgh Dispatch.
last year not exceeding 165,000 tons. It is contended by German industrials that
foreign markets must be more sedulously cultivated. Railway Morld.

RAILWAY earnings are fairly well maintained on nearly all the lines that have
not been affected, directly or indirectly, by the strike on the Gould systemi. The
earnings of sixty-four reporting lines during March, 1896, were $18,371,975, No doubt there are men who smoke merely because they like it; but the mass
against $18,095,637 in the corresponding month of last year, an increase of $276,

of smokers regard smoking from the higher standpoint of duty. If our female rela-
338. The important gains were in northern and northwestern lines, but the rail.

lives could understand how cruelly we feel the injustice of their innuendoes, they roads in such localities were by no means universally successful in increasing their

would cut out their longues rather than say another thoughtless word about tobacco.
revenues, aril the most important declines were on southern railways.-K'nilwo'

It is bitter to a man, naturally of an open dispusition, to have to introduce another

box of Ilabanas to the house beneath his overcoat, llung carelessly over his arm,

when he knows that it is really for his wife's sake that he really smokes at all She

compares the price of these cigars, making no allowance for ileir flavor, with the
sums expended on the children spinafores and school books. Ah, if she only knew!
With many men smoking is merely a matter of treatment. Ouing to a lack of proper
supervision, we acquire the habit at school; and when we reach man's estate we

pul ourselves in the doctor s hands. It is for him to decide whether it would be
Ax ainusing an interesting article has been contributed by Dr. Macgowan to safe for us to give up smoking. If he thinks it would, there is nol—I speak from
the Medical Reports for China for the half year ending Marcin 31, 1885. P'An hearsay-one man in twenty who would not bow to the decision. In the vast ma-
Wei, the present Governor of lupeh, wrote, in 1858, a brochure on Important jority of cases the doctor's judgment is, that when once a habil is thoroughly ac-
Life-Main:aining Methods, which gained him much renown, causing him to be quired it is trifling with one s organic system to give it up. That some persons can
sent for on the occasion of the fatal illness of the late Empress. The accumula ting off a bad habit without seriously clamaging their health is well known; but
tion of air in the system dy swallowing the breath was regarded as an important there is always a risk. The question at once resolves itself to this : Are we pre-
method of prolonging life by the ancient Chinese. Chih Sung-tiu, a legendary juared to take that risk? This must depend on circumstances If we are not bound
personage, is said to have been the author of this method. Ile flourished for á

by family lies, and a break-up of the system only affects ourselves, then we may period of at least twelve centuries somewhere about 2600 B. C., when the Yellow make the experiment with a clear conscience. It is clillerent, however, when we Emperor sought instruction from him in the art of prolonging lise. Leibtzii, the have a wise and family dependent on us. In llat case we must think first of them, inmediate clisciple of Laotru, inquireil of Ch'il Sung izu, the custodian of the and what might be their late if we tampered raslly with our constitution. Just as writings of his master, how the power of traversing the air, of living unscathed in there are men who continue to smoke because, having got into the habit in their fire, and the like, might be acquired, and was told that it was neither by wisdom youth, their inedical adviser warns them against giving it up, so there are others nor skill, but through suppori by the vital aura, by which was understood to who take to it with the one object of preserving their liealth. The non-smoker mean breath-swallowing. A man who is permeated with the viral aura is invul must mix with smokers. It may be objected that this is not necessary. I am, nerable. Disease appears only when vitiated air can find entrance or when the however, conceiving the case of an unselfish man with a wise to support

. By circulation of the vital aura is (lesective. The air starts in its circulatory move. keeping out of the company of smokers he seriously interferes with the success of ment from the “ little heart, which is situated in the pubic region. Without fire his business; for he loses many opportunities of pushing it, and acquires the repu. this aura is the source of animal heat; without water illubricates the viscera. The

tation of benig an unsociable fellow. So long as he is unmarried this cloes not object of postures, motions, and frictions is to promote the clue circulation of inc

much matter; but the married man is ambitious for his wife's sake, his expenses viral air. A massage lal and massage pestle were employed in cqualizing the are increased, and it is his duty to let slip no honorable means of adding to his inaura throughout the body. Mustrations of these tools are given in Dr. Macgow

I anticipate the suggestion that he could mix in the comp ny of smokers an's account.-- Lancet.

without smoking himself. Many non-smokers have tried it and kept to it in the EXPERIMENTAL YELLOW FEVER.

pluckiest way till their health was completely shattered. Any medical man will tell DR. CARLOS FINLAY, of llayana, bas published the results of several experi you that to inhale iubacco smoke from other people's pipes or cigars, when you are ments he has macle on the innoculability of yellow fever. lle performed the not a smoker your self, is to commit gradual suicide. It is quite a coninion thing operation, or rather got il performer for him mosquitoes, which le caused first for a man to take to smoking deliberately because it adds to his working power. In to sting a patient suffering from yellow fever and shortly afterward a healthy per this way tobacco is a marvel; for, if the temperament le naturally sluggish, it son, who was to lie (with his own consent, of course) ihe subject of the experi warms it into activity; and if in its normal state the temperament be irritable or ment. He found ihat the clisease was only inoculable from the third to the sixth over active, the one thing to southe it is a pipe. Among men this is almost univerday. When two mosquitoes were employed, so that a double dose was given, ) sally admitted. (Scotchmen note a somewhat similar effect in whisky.). Some the symptoms of the experimental disease were somewhat more severe than men, of course, feel the beneficial effect of smoking more than others, and hence when only a single mosquito was used. Of eleven cases of inoculation six were the difference in the consumption of tobacco. ii is not an unusual thing for a efficacious, one doubisul, and four negative. The period of incubation varied from man of an abnormally sluggish or an abnormally active temperament to smoke a five to fourteen days. The symptoms consisted of headache, pyrexia, injection, pipe or even a cigar before beginning his day's work. He would preser not to do


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“O! never till life and its shadows shall end

so, but he finds that it pays. A number of literary men smoke simply to make an comes in sheets of two sizes, 14 hy 20 inches and 20 by 28, the sheets being
income. They have learned that with a pipe in their mouths thoughts not only packed in cases holding 112. The process of manufacture is thus described :
come more readily but in better order, and that, while it is often difficult to get the The sheets are first sent to a knise, which cuts them into various lengths, from
proper word if they are not smoking, it runs to the point of the pen the moment which drums of sizes varying from 672 inches across the head to thirteen inches
they light up." Psychologically, this is most interesting; and the reason woman are made. This done, the strips are each punched with a hole, then secured and
kind cannot grasp it probably is that psychology is not, unfortunately, taught in tightened together. Hoops are placed on the inside rims, and the barrel is then
ladies' seminaries. Smoking is a great safeguard against infectious diseases. It is only ready to receive the sounding skin. This is generally a sheepskin, which is
by reading up the subject scientifically in medical treatises that one thoroughly gets stretched lightly across the heard above and below, and fastened from the outside
to understand the thousand risks of this kind that we run every day. In the coun by hoops. These skins are all imported from Liverpool, and costs from $1.75 10
try during the summer months, when men are on their holidays, they look forward $2.50 a dozen. Previous to using, they are stretched and dried by steam in the
to having a temporary respite from smoking. Then it does not so much maiter winter and by the sun in summer. Before being stretched over the drum Larrels,
how the temperament is; living so much in the open air the smoking of other per they are once more moistened, generally in a solution of pure water or slightly
sons has little effect on them, and there is less danger of infection. It is to keep ammoniacal. Then remains the tightening of the drum hoops. This is done
off the flies that men smoke at the seaside and on the hills. Their own weather either by strings or rods. The first are stretched diagonally, leather lighteners
beaten countenances can stand the flies; but these little demons would not only being inserted to stiffen the sound skin. The rods are hooked on one end and
spoil the summer for our susceptible wives and sisters and childr-n, but would dis screwed at the other. Of this latter kind, the consumption is over six times that
figure them as well. That is what a man cannot endure. You may have seen of the older fashioned. Woolen drums differ but slightly from the above The
picnics on the river or among the fields, with all the men smoking and the ladies barrels are generally bass or white wood, occasionally oak. The stay hoops
standing quite near them. With many men, smoking is merely an excuse for stay are os oak or heech. Besore the strip of wood can be used, it needs to undergo
ing at home. A man looks foolish of an evening doing nothing. Yet he is 100 many processes, among others being tending, plaining, and sweating. The first
tired to do much. A cigar supplies the amount of labor he requires, and he does drums made used to be boiled in open tanks, and the limit that could thus be pre-
not mind the trouble of smoking it so long as it enables him to stay at home with pared daily was less than fifty. The introduction of machinery and more perfect
out loss of dignity and look over it admiringly, and yet undemonstra'ively, at his methods has increased the daily prorluction, so that 2,000 drum pieces is consid-
wife. Should a man with a small income be an epicure, or naturally of an irasci ered nothing more than one man's fair day's work. The lor, usually cut to three
ble temper, it will add greatly to the happiness of his home is he compels himself feet in length, is placed between the teeth of a huge machine, and the sliceing
to smoke. And at present, when times are so hard as to affect everyone more or legins The knife receives it, and as the log revolves, the piece sliced is received
less, a cigar is a cheap and excellent substitute for expensive amusements.--St. on a wooden cylinder and then rolled up. Seventy-five thicknesses make one
James Gazette.

inch of the log. If then the log is three feet through, one revolution will yield a
piece nine feet long, and the total length sliced from the log would extend over a

(specially translated for PUBLIC OPINION.)

Cutting machines further reduce this huge sheet to the desired lengths. A THE telegraph has reported the publication in Paris of a military work entitled

core of six inches thickness is left, which is taken out of the jaws and split into “Before the Battle," having for its object to show that France is in a condition to

drumsticks or tenpins. The veneers are heated, then lent, and are soon ready to defend herself against the possibility of an aggression from Germany. It was fore.

be shaped as a drum. There are also planing and sandpapering machines, all run seen by us that this publication would constitute an event. We were not deceived.

by water power: The strips are put through the bender, from three to six at a The telegrams have demonstrated how profound has been the impression produced

time. The sticks are smoothed by rolling in revolving barrels, the process being by its appearance We find evidence of this fact in the London Times of to dlay,

continued for three or four hours. — Scientific American. · which, in analyzing the work, comments upon its salient points and appreciates MORE than one author besides Moore has testified to the sweet influences of bell fully its political significance. This instructive book well merits a perusal. All music. Bowles has written: those who love their country will find in it reassuring conclusions, and we could not commend it more highly than in giving some extracts from it which will edify

Can I forget the sweet bells of Ostend." the reader upon the military situation in France of to-day Adverting to the great In like spirit Southey says: “When I remember their tones, life seems to me like French victories of Jena and Auerstadt, the capitulation of Erfurth, &c., it contin a dream; and a train os recollections arises, which, is allowed to have its course, ues : "Are these achievements of France forgoiten? Has a more lamentable spec would end in tears.” No wonder that the gentle, sensitive Elia spoke of the tacle been afforded than that of 1870? Has Prussia not recovered from her crush sound of bells as “ the music nearest heaven.' It is told of Napoleon that one ing deseat, and wheresore should we not succeed in doing the same thing? By

day, long after he had reached the summit of fame and ambition, he broke off the what right should the power be denied us? More than sixty years of laborious conversation to listen to a chime that recalled to him the early peaceful days at and constant exertions were required to enable our hereditary soe to measure Brienne. Such is the sympathy of souls with sounds, and the feelings awakened weapons with us. Only sixteen have elapsed since she fully satisfied her revenge; may or may not be in accordance either with the original purpose of the bells or and we, too, are ready—ay, more than ready to repel her aggressions, is haply she with the moltoes that they lear. There is no doubt that greater attention was should conceive the idea of renewing them. Let those who have heard the con given to bell-ringing in former times, although the practice has in our day begun trary expressed—who, perhaps, are prepared to believe it-take the trouble to cast

to assume more of its ancient importance. The writings of Ellacombe, Hubbard an attentive coup d'æil upon the following pages, and they will there see in what a and H. R. Haweis display enthusiasm as well as learning, worthy of the art, and short period of time we have been enabled io shield France from aggression. They commend the subject to the higher consideration of the clergy, while useful to camwill find how many men we can put in line of battle. They will at least, I hope, panologists and amateur ringers. There are many associations and guilds in the imbibe from it a sentiment of immovable confidence as to the future. If, reassured

cities and rural districts of England who emulate the zeal and the skill of the as to the number, they should wish to inquire into the valor of our soldiers, let them “Ancient Society of College Youths,” who first met two centuries and a half since again read over the reports published in regard to the expeditions to the south of at St. Martin's Vintry, College Hill, to practice the “manly art of ringing.” The Oran and to Tunis, in which our young troops endured hardships, privations, and sweet and solemn melody that fills the air, both at Christnias tide and in s ringing epidemics; upon the operations in Tonquin, in Madagascar, between the Niger the Old Year out and the New Year in," proves that England still deserves the and the Upper Senegal, where they gave such indubitable proofs of bravery and appellation given to it by Sir John Hawkins, of the “ Ringing Island."The Chrisheroism. In recapitulating the different elements which constitute our land forces, tian at Work. we reach the sum total of 4,108,655 men, placed by law at the disposal of the government for the national desense. This total of 4,108,655 men is subdivided as

GEORGE ELIOT is said to have worked harder on “ Romola” than on any of her follows, from the point of view of military instruction : 2,025,253 men thoroughly

other books. In her own words : “ I began it a young woman-I finished it an disciplined, 697,072 men disciplined by one year's service, 686,100 men partially

old woman." And yet but about seventeen months were consumed in the work. disciplined, 701,230 men without any training. This colossal fúrce corresponds to

Some authors have lived long: Alexander von Humboldt lived to be over eighty. more than one-fifth of the male population of France, and rather more than one

Goethe was over eighty-one when he died. Kant lived his quiet life for just cighiy tenth of the entire population. We can affirm authoritatively that every year

years, the quietest and most uneventsul lise known to a man of genius. Titian died 1,153,423 mien under different appellations are receiving or are keeping up their

at the age of ninety nine. Michael Angelo lived to be more than eighty. Among military instruction. This is a magnificent result, and there is no country in Europe

the royal persons who have become known as authors are Queen Victoria, King or of the whole world that imposes upon itself such great sacrifices to guarantee the

Oscar II, of Sweden; Dom Louis, of Portugal; the Shar Nasr-ed-Deen, of Per. national independence, or to maintain, develop, and invigorate the military spirit.

sia; Queen Elizabeth, of Roumania; Prince Nicholas, of Montenegro; Dom Such, I think, are the peremptory arguments which every one among us can oppose

Pedro II, of Brazil; King Louis II, of Bavaria, and several others. The novel. to the malevolent who criticise our military organization. Unquestionably numbers

ists are at present dominant among us, so far as popular acceptation and remunerare not the only factor in victory, but they are the principal. Did not Napoleon

ation go. It has been lately ascertained that Mr. Tennyson makes £4,000 a year declare that the field of battle, under like conditions of armament and inilitary dis

by his poetry. Walter Dessant, who was seduced from the career of a college cipline, remained always with the heavy battalions? This axiom has to-day its full

don by ihe sacinations of the novelist's art, carns more for any one of his romances force so much the more. If assured as to the quantity, we have not neglected the

than Carlisle earned in the first ten years of his literary career. Charles Reade training which the quality demands, seeing that our soldiers remain under their

averaged, we believe, £5 per page for his writings. Herbert Spencer's r?munercolors longer than in all the other European armies.” — Courier des Etas-Unis,

ation scarcely exceeds five shillings per page. Matthew Arnold's imaginative
powers earned him an income at least four times sinaller than Wilkie Collins'
imagination can command.

A shoemaker's son, a few years ago, wrote a short
Or a total of 200,000 drums made in this country last year, it is said that

comic story which tickled the public taste; his success was so immediate that the 178,000 were manufactured in Granville, Mass. The old-fashioned drum with

public—represented by the publishers—are paying him £1,000 a year for whatever wooden barrel, which was formerly the only kind in the market, is being rapidly

he chooses to write.-- Christian at Work. supplanted by the neater and lighter model with a tin barrel. For the manufacture of the latter, tin or various colors is employed, blue and red predominating,

A PERSON who has never been in the polar regions can probably have no idea of though the larger quantity of tin drums are made of a brass imitation. This tin what cold really is; but by reading the terrible experiences of arctic travelers in

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April 19.



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that icy region some notion can be formed of the extreme cold that prevails there. When we have the temperature down to zero out of doors we think it bitterly cold, and if our houses were not as warm as, at least, 60 deg, above zero, we should begin to talk of freezing to death. Think, then, of living where the thermometer goes down to 35 deg. below zero in the house in spite of the stove. Of course in sucli a case the fur garments are piled on until a man looks like a great bundle of skins. Dr. Moss, of the English polar expedition of 1875 and 1876, among other old things, tells of the effect or cold on a wax candle which he burned there. The temperature was 35 deg. helow zero, and the doctor must have been considerably discouraged when, upon looking at liis candle, he discovered that the flame had all it could do to keep warni. It was so cold that the flame could not melt all the wax of the candle, but was forced to eat its way down the candle, leaving a sort of skeleton of the candle standing. There was heat enough, however, 10 melt oddly shaped holes in the thin walls of wax, and the result was a beautisul lace-like cylinder of white, with a tongue of yellow flame burning inside it, and sending out into the darkness many streaks of light. This is not only a curious esseci os extreme cold, but it shows how difficult it must be to find anything like warmth in a place where even fire itself almost gets cold. The wonder is that any man can have the courage to willingly return 10 such a bitter region after liaving once got safely away from it, and yet the truth is that the spirit of adventure is so strong in some men that it is the very hardship and danger which attract them.-L.ondon Public Opinion.

THE QUEEN'S SCOTCH ESTATES, THE Queen's palace at Balmoral is set clown in the valuation roll for the county of Aberdeen at the yearly rent or value of 1,500. The whole estate of Balmoral is valued for assessment purposes at less than £2,000. The principal items, in addition to the palace assessment above mentioned, are Ballochbuie Forest and shootings, valued at $550; woodlands and deer-forest, Glengelder, £ 300; sarın at invergelder, £100). "The Royal Dairy Farm is valued at £42; the new laundry at £20; fishings in the Dce, £10; East Lodge, 48; West Lodge, £10. The remaining subjects of assessment are residences of so called tenants of Her Majesty, mostly servants engaged on the estate. The valuation of the estate of Abergeldic, wliich Her Majesty rents from Mr. Hugh Mackay Gordon, is under £1,500. We understand that the lease of this estate has recently been renewed at £4,000 a year. The castle and comestic offices are valued at £100; the approach lo lge at £4; the garden, lawn and pleasure grounds, £ 20; the woodlands, grazings, &c., £400; the fishings in the Dee, £10; the fishings in tributaries of the Dec, £5; the House Abergeldie, £30; the farm, mains of Abergeldie, £110. The largest tenants are representatives of the late Jolin Begg, wliose farmhouse and distillery, Lochnager, are valued at £125, and the machinery at the distillery at £120 London Daily News.

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should be taken into consideration by those contemplating schemes of wholesale Chinese importation into that country. - San Francisco Cull.

This luxuriant weerls which riot in excess on the cultivated fielcis and decay upon the surface supply nilrogen and carbon, so that nothing is wanting but gool farning to make the southern country rich in fodder, grain, fruit, and cattle of all kinds, and to make the land smile with abundance and thrist. The one thing neeilsul is more population, and that of farmers who are skillsul and enterprising, who have means to secure the unoccupied lands and cultivate them in a skilllul manner, producing a diversity of crops instead of the prevalent cotton, and stocking their farms with sheep, cattle, and horses. The present situation of the South, and all that it implies, may be appreciated from the fact that I have ridden eight hundred miles without seeing one barn, or one heap of manure that would fill an ox cari!-Henry Stewart, in Country Gentleman.

INCREASE of population, when it is not forced, is a very good test of prosperity, but we begin to see the other side of the shield when we compare our wealth with that of Kansas, we being assessed last year at more than $725,000,000, against less than S250,000,000 for our rival. With California's greater wealth and greater natural attractions in the balance, it is very evident that the recent increase of population in Kansas is only a forerunner of what we are to espect. Complete cessation of Chinese immigration, enforced by act of Congress, would serve as an invitation to people of our own race to come and occupy the waiting fields of California. In the matter of climate Kansas is immeasurably inferior to this State—a point of advantage on our siile which must ultimately tell immensely in our favor.-San Francisco Evening lost.

The sale of the stallion l'hallas for $50,000 shows that the prices of our trotters are gradually creeping up to the top notch of equine values. That is now £17,500, or $87,500, paid for Doncaster, a Derby winner. The price for Phallas is a jump of $10,oco over the former trotting limit, the $40,000 paid for Maud S.; $20,000 over the $30,000 that was lately paid for a former conqueror of Phallas, Director, also a son of Dictator, and $21,000 more than the present limit for American thoroughbreds, the $29,000 paid for Dewdrop. It was a great price, but Phallas is a great horse, and if he doesn't die, at the end of ten years his new owner may be just as rich as he is now. It is not probable he will be any richer.-. Y. Sun.

· The whale fishery is, for the most part, carried on in this country on the co-operative plan. It is exclusively so on the Pacific coast. Capitalists furnish the ship and the outsit. One share of the profit goes to the ship and another to the men. In good seasons, or when the voyages have been lucky," the men mike much more per capita than they could from mere wages. It is noteworthy that in one of the most hazardous and uncertain of all indlustrious pursuits, one industry is prosecuteil wholly on the co-operative plan, while in those industries where there is very little risk, co-operation, as yet, is only a special and exceptional scature of the inclustry of the country.— kuzning Bulletin, San Francisco.

It was surprising to hear it said in the House of Commons that Canadians had exhibited so much antagonism towards American fishermen as to interfere with their enjoyment of fishing privileges secured to them by the Treaty of Washington. But as the statement was confirmed by no less than three ministers of the crown, who spoke of Canada having been made liable for damage by outrages committed on United States citizens, there was no choice but to accept it as accurate. Ottawa Free Press.

The ocean appears to be a vast reservoir of treasure in solution which awaits only the operation of positive laws and influences to be organized into form and substance for the uphuilling and replenishing of new continents rich in every re

A stuly of the subject of formation at this point in its history woull doubtless give more satisfactory results than any yel obtained. — Chiago Mining Review,

ABSENTEEISM in Congress and in State legislatures has become a serious evil. Il retards public business and co-ts the people of the United States millions of dollars every year. This is one of the drawbacks on the blessings of rapid transil. But for the existence of railroads it woukl not be difficult to musler à quorum in the Ohio Legislature any lay in the week. But as mallers now stand a quorum is not present much more than one-half of the time that the houses are in session, and it is not safe to put any important Lill upon iis passage except on Wednesdays and Thursdays and the forenoon of Friday.--Ohio State Journal.

As long as the Democratic adininistration can put off the mischief threatened by the silver act, the party may conceieve that it has accomplished a most successful straddle; its House insists upon the law, and its administration renders the law harmless. But if events should make it no longer possible for the administration to protect the public credit, there would be a sudden anxiety for an adjust ment among Democratic members.lew York Tribune.

A LARGE majority of the voters in all our cities are in favor of good government, and can have it if they will only take the trouble to use their privileges as srcemen. Our form of government, the most advanced in the history of man. kinıl, is based upon the supposition that citizens will not shirk their political responsibilities. If they voluntarily relegate them to the “ristraff," what can they expect ?--N. Y. Worlá.

Wuen ladies of good sense and correct taste are ordering their spring bonnets let them set their faces like Nints against this craze of carrying dead birds on their heads with all the elceleras which ihat fact 100 generally implies

. Aturnip on the crown and a respectable carrot on each side of the head would be healthier, quite as listesul, and in no degree either so cruel or so injurious.— Torontó Globe.

There is no reason why, incidentally, churches should not in many ways be instruments of general culture. The bulk of people, if they do not hear good music in their churches, practically get no opportunity of hearing it at all. There is no

The Russian government has decided to attempt tea cultivation upon a large scale. Under advice iç is the intention of the government lo import Chinese coolies, and the position chosen for the first plantation is Soukhum Kalé. That tea can be successfully cultivated in the Caucasus has been often proved, but whether it will prove a success commercially is questionable. It is argued that there is quite an ex ensive home market, the imports amounting to about 72,000,000 pounds annually, valued at $30,000,000, the Russians drinking tea of much superior quality than is consumed in this country. It is questionable is there will be the kind of labor available to compete with the Chinese and Ilindoostan laborer. At the same tiine it is impossible to develop the industry to any extent without the assistance of foreign capital.—Bradstreet.

PAPYRI are constantly being brought to light. Notwithstanding their perishable nature, hidden away in tombs, or buried under the monuments, in the dry air of Egypt they last through centuries, and come to the light as fresh and as perfect as when first inscribed. In this relation our scientists have just been made acquainted with the statement of the discovery near Assiout in Egypt of a manuscripi which, according to the report of Dr. Jules Oppert made to the l'rench Academy, contains reserence to Jacob and Joseph. Egyptologists, Semitic scholars and Biblical students will await with interest surther particulars concerning this papyrus. Recent scholarship has contributed much to the elucidation, amplitication and confirmation of the Biblical story, particularly of the Exodus anci of the Exile. If the new manuscript proves to be of the character that is expected, it may throw considerable light on the history of the sojourn of the Hebrews in Egypt.

A RUSSIAN traveling in the Malay Peninsula claims to have found in use there the smallest “ coin” in the world. It is a minute waser made from the juice of a

Its value is about the millionth part of a dollar. A gentleman living in Columbia, S. C, has a cent coined in 1783, bearing upon one side the letters U. S., encircled by a wreath, with the inscription, “ Jusiitia et Libertus,” and the dale 1783; upon the reverse side is a blazing sun with an eye in the centre, surrounded by thirteen stars, and the inscription, “Nova Constellatio.This is an older coin ihan that of 1793, which the Chicago Journal states was the first issue, and which Appleton's Encyclopedia also says is the date of the first coinage of a cent, and the question arises, where did the coin of 1783 originate? It is generally understood that the first issue of coins in this country was in 1793.

It has been assumed that the laboring classes of Mexico would lack inclination or energy to olject to the importation of Chinese, but the outbreak at Mazatlan indicates the contrary.

If the Mexicans really start in to oppose Chinese immigration, they will be likely to adopt much more extreme measures than the self-poised citizens of California. The Spanish and Chinese race conflict in the Phillippines surnishes a hint of what may ensue in Mexico. The Chinese continued crowcling into Manila until the people rose en masse and butchered them. This was repeated several times with intervals of many years. The possibility of similar action on the part of the ignorant, prejudiced, and passionate mixed races of Mexico



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