Page images
PDF
EPUB

The Schulthels, von Silenen, Zumport.
The foremost of our faithful bands
Waxed desperate, with the force of their
Halbords strove in vain to break
Through the steel wall of lances.
Now is it the turn of Underwalden-a strong man.
'Twas Winkelried, I know him instantly.
Grasped in his arms a sheat of spear points,
And pressed them to his breast
He showed a way to freedom, and our braves rushed In.

That indood was a murderous, deadly, pitiless death struggle. The fifth group shows the triumphant return of the confederates, laden with armor and spoils, some of which is borne on country carts, drawn by oxen before the scene. Songs of victory rise from the choir, and the warriors kneel to render thanks to the God of battles.

The peasants now retire, leaving the stage to the warriors, who are picturesquely grouped round their wounded. Prominent among them is the dead body of Winkelried, surrounded by the sorrowing confederates.

Hab Dank, Hab Dank, Winkelrled.
Dich Preist dias Herz dich schallt das Lied

Und Freudenopfer gluhen.
(Have thanks, have thanks, O Winkelreld.
Our heart praises thee, our songs shall rise to thee,

And our thankofferings shall be thino.)
To which the chorus replies :

Big im letzten Behen

Selbst die Sonne schied Wird dein Name leben

Leben Winkelried.

upon it;

the roll call was read over of the Swiss who were that day left upon the field of honor and of freedom, and at the stone which marks the spot where the patriot Winkelried gathered the hostile lance-points into his manly breast most eloquent speeches were delivered by the great men of the republic. But the people's festival only began when all these solemnities were finished. We must leave the spot where Winkelried fell, and the battle chapel, and crossing some fields enter a barrier behind which the whole gentle slope of a hill has been laid out with tier upon tier of rude pine benches, rising above one another, with a more elevated tribune of honor for the authorities of the republic. In front of the spectators, at the very foot of the hill, the orchestra of 600 patriotic amateurs of both sexes is placed, and beyond rises the stage. This has been shaped out of a grassy mound, approached by steps and boarded over, and is of sufficient size to allow two or three hundred performers to move about on it with facility at one time. Other steps lead to the funeral monument of the fallen patriots, for the moment draped with black, and surmounted by a gigantic statue of the genius of the Confederation in the shape of a victory, which to the spectators appears to float in the air against a background of dark pine trees, while beyond the jagged outline of Mount Pilatus looms hazily against the blue sky. Between the spectators and the proscenium is an open space sufficiently large for each of the groups of the play to defile upon before mounting on to the stage.

The actors are all volunteers, mostly peasant men, women, and children from the neighboring villages; the armor in which the warriors are clad has been lent by the museums and arsenals of the several cantons. The official guests had no sooner taken their seats than a herald in the colors of a Lucerne

appears

and

proclaims the opening of the play. Then rises from the orchestra, as a prelude, an air that takes its name from the cow-bells (Kuhreigen), the Ranz des Vaches, which never fails to stir Swiss hearts wherever they may beat. The people of Sempach, men, women, and children, reapers and gleaners, in the picturesque costumes of five hundred years ago, with wagons of corn and shouts of harvest-home, cross the scene and slowly mount the stage, where they remain until the last song is sung. All is mirth and rejoicing at the plentiful harvest. The young men and maidens join in country dances, when suddenly there appears a hunter, who in the course of his wanderings has come across the vanguard of the avenging army of Duke Leopold. Before, however, I tell of the consternation wrought by the news he brought, I must mention the solo sung by the first peasant in the harvest group, the sentiment of which came home to every one of us, “ Die Julisonnebrennet heiss”—“The July sun is hotly burning”—for the spectators were not permitted to put up their umbrella or parasol, though to touch a metal button or a watchguard almost burnt the hand. The hunter tells the peasants of the rapid approach of the Austrians, and with what scorn the steel-clad knights regarded any attempts at resistance they may make. They comfort themselves with the recollections of their victories at Morgarten and Laupen, and the scene closes with a martial song, rendered by the whole of the great choir, “ Wer is ein Held ? "_" Who is the hero?”

The second scene opens with a crowd of fugitives from the neighborhood who have escaped the fire and sword of the invaders. Then passes before the scene and mounts the stage the arny of the confederates. Not only are the costumes and the armor in strict accord with historical exactitude, but many of the weapons were actually used either at Sempach or in the Burgundian wars one hundred years later. Here come the brave Schultheiss. Gundoldingen, president of the re. public of Lucerne, with the banners and soldiers of his city. Look at the bull of Uri! The coat of arms of the canton is a ferocious bull's head, and not only is it blazoned upon its banners, but at least one of its warriors wears bull's head and horns as a sort of helmet-a terrific head-dress, indeed! The men of Schwyz are dressed in red, with a white cross on their br easts. Unterwalden, Zug, and Glarus also send their contingents, each in its own colors, and with its banner flying. Haste, brave confederates! The foe is advancing upon you! The hour has arrived for you to do or die. From behind the stage in the wood the confused sounds of battle surge up. A gray-headed man, the miller of Sempach, comes forward, and encourages the peasants to hasten to the assistance of the confederates. He says: “ Hasien to join them. Oh! young men, how I envy you your youth and strength of manhood. Old age, alas! can only groan and be an idle witness how the Swiss strive after the highest glory, and strive and die for the Fatherland.”

The peasants arm themselves with clubs, scythes, halberds, and morning stars with their long teeth of steel, and hasten to the sight, with the charge to the old man to care for their wives and children. As the confused noise of battle rolls up to the spectators, Gundoldingen, mortally wounded, is carried on to the stage by some warriors, and he first says:

Sultry is the day and murderous the fight. To which his companion replies:

Like a wall stands the foo,

And laughs to scorn our impotent blows. Gundoldingen dies.

There is solemn music and some fine singing from the choir, and in front of the stage soine Austrian grooms in steel caps pass in wild gallop on the war horses of their lords; behind them spur in headlong Night some knights armed capa pir. A mailed noble at the foot of the stage cries :

Here with the horses! the horses here ! like Richard at Bosworth :

A horse) a horsel my kingdom for a horse ! But the grooms have saved their own lives by riding away on their masters' charg

The Austrian sugitives leave the stage on foot pursued by peasants, crying : No quarter.” More Swiss arrive from the field proclaiming victory, and a warrior thus explains to the peasants how the day has gone :

Uncertain hung the fortune of the day,
Death harvested many bold heroes

(Unt in the last death throes of worlds
The light of the sun is quenchod.
Thy name shall live,

Shall llye, oh Winkelrled.) It is the last scene; the funeral trappings at the back of the stage are withdrawn, anul in marble whiteness appears the tomb of Winkelried, with the words in gold

Sorget fur weib und kind

(Care for my wife and child.) At the foot of the tomb his widow is seen in prayer; her children are kneeling beside her. A young lad in red and white mounts the steps to the tomb and lays upon it a wreath; he is followed by twenty-one others, to represent the twenty-two cantons. Each is dressed in the colors of his canton. The final hymn is sung by the choir, and then comes the familiar strains of our own America, which in Switzerland is set to the words :

Rufat du mein Vaterland ?

(Dost thou call me, oh my Fatherland ?) and the celebration is over

..

:-Samuel Capper. THE ROUSTABUUT'S FAREWELL.- The last bale of cotton having been rolled on board with many a “ • Heave ho!” from the darky crew, the happiest hour in the improvident, " levil-may-care” existence of the Mississippi river roustabout is at hand. Roosting on railing, rope coils, and cotton bales on the rear dock like a convention of dilapidated scarecrows, they are waiting to respond to the farewell songs of friends and sweethearts congregated on the levee.

“ Farewell broders, if yo's gwlno fo' to go

We'll weep fo’ to see yo' face once mo'," wails out a dusky maiden on the shore, and

"On do leboe by de riber side," roll the united voices.

I've let my gal iu Now Orleans,

Fo' she is young, Jos' In her teens," trills a thin tenor from the deck, and again

“ On de lebee by do rlber side," swells the refrain.

" Ducks plays cyards an' chickens drinks wine,

An' de monkey grow on de grape vine.
Co'n sta'ch pudding and tapioca ple,

Oh! do gray cat pick out do brack cat's eye!" thrillingly announces the heavy bass, while the dual crowd breaks into united rhythmical sway at the rousing refrain,

"Walk thal, LOU. Oh ! Miss Loo!

Ah! ah! ah! heał we go!
Fo'we ah gwine lo' to leabe you, good-bye, good-bye!

Fo'we ah gwino fo' to leabo yo', good by, Liza Jane."
The echo scarcely dies away when a rival songster on the shore begins:

Monkey dress' in soldier clo'so;

All cross ober to Jordan!
Went out in de woods fo' to drill de crows;

Oh ! Ja-ru-sa-lom!
Jay bird sat on olo hickory limb;

All cross ober 10 Jordan!
I up wid a rock an' hit him on de chla!

Onl Ja-ru-sa-lem!"
And then the excited crowd sweeps with wild enthusiasm into:

“Shino on! Shine on! All cross ober to Jordan!

Then shine on! Shine on! On! Ja-ru-sa-lem!” Next a woman's figure breaks out from the levee crowd with waving arms and swaying body, and proclaims in a ringing treble:

"Oh, I long fo’ to reach that heavenly sho'

To meet ol' Peter stan'in' at de do'.
Ho say to me, Ohi how you do?
Come sit right yonder in de gol'on pow';
Fo' do good colo'd people da go clah froo

To dip in de Golden Sea."

ers.

new era,

his ambitions are now on the line of social revolution. There is discontent that is not causeless, and poverty that is not without sin. The market is full of remedies. They vary in merits, and are more in number than patent medicines. The majority of men see that the real trouble is nearer at hand than the certain cure, and are willing that investigation, study, and time should remove the evil. The anarchist is not of this patent stripe. To him all slow and legal methods are but postponements and perils. He believes in force; to him it is the midwise of the

To this man, to whom time is an enemy, dynamite is a friend. One can blow up faster than he can build. It is a saving of time in converting a stubborn citizen to cut his throat.

A terrible type of reformer and butcher is this self-same anarchist. He has made some red spots on history already, but apart from his wordy terribleness he is generally a piece of living dog in the skin of a dead lion. His danger of hurting lies in too much lager and license, and in using times of public excitement to practice his doctrine of throwing bombs at policemen. The country has this consolation, that he is not numerous and generally not a home production. There is comfort in this, so far as it goes, though the causes of his malformation might in time produce ours. There are ugly indications of a spirit of violence being abroad; lise has not its old sacredness, and there is two much bowie-knife yet in Uncle Sam's jeans. Men lick their lips at blood and like the smell of gunpowder, though as a rule it can not as yet be enticed into revolutionary organizations. The instinct of fair play is dominant in the ruling race. The English laborer came through centuries of oppression and has borne the brunt of a grand struggle without a taint of anarchy in his bones. He has never suckled on that kind milk. Anarchy, true and proper, is a blood disease, and history is a record of its local eruptions. I am no race worshiper, but am not blind to the danger of certain blood predominances in this Republic. I am aware that this thought has little or no place in the calculations of many who are otherwise far-seeing and thoughtful; but, as the ingredients in a cartridge or a bottle constitute the explosive force of one and the poisonous liquid of the other, so in line with the law of proportions, is the master race of this continent is subordinated to or overrun with the communistic and revolutionary races, it is or will be in grave danger of social disaster. I hold the fusion of races to be on the divine programme, which, if not outraged by bad statesmanship, will wisely arrange the distribution.— The Age of Stecl.

And the sympathetic brethren swell the melodious

Den dip me! bave me!

Sisters you and mot
Come get in de boat, fo' we all gwine to float

Fo'to dip in de Gol’en Sea!” This is evidently a favorite air, and the throng becomes frantic with enthusiasm as it repeats it with many a quaint stanza. An ecstatic sister takes up the burden again with

“Good Mr. Jesus a sittin' in de prow,
Come all yo' niggahs make yo’ bow:
Oh! I look down on do wo'ld below
An' watch dem white trash shublin' snow,
While angel fishes da nip my toe,

While! I dip in de Gol’en Sea!” Then the responsive chorus swells out, and again the basso profundo of the crew determines that the sisters shall not have a monopoly of the solo parts, so he breaks in and crushingly refers to the erratic mother of them all:

"Ol' Adam he wah de lus' built man,

Dat's jis what de Good Book say;
An' Ebo come nex', den sin began;
Dat's jis what de Good Book say.
Ebe bit de apple right in tw(),
A wicked fing fo’Ebe to do;

Yes, dal's what de Good Book say!"
But his effort to silence them is futile, for they join him with unabated gusto in

“ Dat's jes what de Good Book say, it am;
Yes, dat's what de Good Book say!
Jes' read it fro0; you'll fin' it true,

Fo' dat's what de Good Book say.
Another biblical expounder is quick at hand to continue the song :

“ Dah wah a man, he name wah Lot ;

Dat's jis what de Good Book say,
An' ho hab a wife an' daughters got ;
Dat's jis what do Good Book say.
Ho wife she balk an' make a halt,
An' de Dord ho turn hah into salt;

Oh! dat's what de Good Book say !" But the swaying, time-beating crowd on shore is now fast receding from view, and the boat's many-voiced crew unites with heart-stirring carnestness in

I'se gwine l'om de cotton fields, I'so gwine l'om do cane,
I'se gwino l'om de ol' log hut dat stan's down in de lane;
De boat am in de ribbor dat am come to take me off,

An' I'se gwine to jine de ex.0-cus and strike out fo' de No'l.” And afar over the moon-lit waters faint notes of weird melodies came floating like a distant echo of this pathetic strain.—New York Tribune.

LANGUAGE OF WOMEN'S DRESS.—From a woman's bonnet to her shoes, there is not a single portion of her toilet which is not a confession, says the Parisian. Riches or poverty changes nothing in this fact. A washerwoman's little cap expresses all her thoughts in the same way in which a banker's wife's bonnet with its feathers proclaims all her ambitions. A look may lie, a smile may be perfidious, but dress never deceives. Generally, ridiculous toilets, historical trimmings, puffs, conspicuous head-dresses, and bunches of feathers and rosettes scattered profusely over a dress, announce great amiability of character, and even generosity. Women who are untastefully dressed in this way rarely have bad natures; and, for the same reason, women who really have bad natures are never ridiculous.

Beware of women who always, and for no apparent cause, wear yellow dresses bound with red, or lilac dresses mixed with green, or blue dresses trimmed with black. They are artful women who do not dare to consess that they are intensely fond of dress. Beware of them, especially if they are not pretty, for they conceal numberless ambitions. They are hypocritical coquettes, who do not understand joking. Tell them quickly that their dress is charming; they will never forgive you for not having remarked it. Do not tell them lwice that you like them; they will want to believe more.

Beware of those women who wear high-necked dresses, and who make a parade of severe modesty; they are full of pride and jealousy. They have natures of iron and passions of fire. Nothing escapes their eyes, which they always keep cast down. Beware of women who wear tragical gowns, and who have their heads dressed after a certain type. Such women are possessed with an intense desire for producing effects. The Phenological Journal,

RELIGIOUS.

ADAM'S EPITAPH.
“llere lies, reduced to a pinch of dust, he who, from a pinch
of dust, was formed to govern the earth,

ADAM,
The son of none, the father of All, the step-father of

All, and of himself.
llaving never wailed as a child, he spent his life in weep:

ing, the result of penitence.
Powerful, Wise, Immortal, Just;
he sold for the price of disobedience,
Power, Wisdom, Justice, Immortality.

Having abused the privilege of free will,
which weapon he had received for the preservation of

Knowledge and Grace,
by one stroke he struck with death himself and all the

Human Race.

The Omnipotent Judge
Who in His Justice took from him Righteousness,

by His Mercy restored it to him whole again :
by whose goodness it has fallen out, that we may call that
crime happy, which obtained such and so great

A REDEEMER.
Thenceforth Free-will, which he in happiness used to bring

forth Misery,
is used in Misery to bring forth

Happiness.
For if we, partakers of his pernicious inheritance,

partake also of his penitential example,
and lend our ears to salutary counsels, then we
(who could by our Free-will lose ourselves)

can be saved by
the Grace of the Redeemer, and the co-operation of our

Free will.
The First Adam Lived to die;

The Second Adam Died to Live,
Go, and imitate the penitence of the First Adam ;

Go, and celebrate the Goodness of the Second Adam.”' -Historia Ecclesiæ Antediluviana of Gabriel Alvarez, Madrid, 1713. A SOUTH CAROLINA AFRICAN CHURCH.—The preacher's desk was hung with white cloth trimmed with black border. In character the sermon was mainly funereal. * Sister Liddy” was dead. This was the “preachin' aftah the buryin':” Whahsumeber de kahkuss am, dayah shall de eguls geddah togeddah. Ho! you niggah dayah, doan you let dot egul a-cotch you! Dot egul he a-comin', a comin, a-comin', 'n he flop down on dot mizzabal kahkuss, ’n scoop 'em up, 'n rin off wid 'em! Rin away from 'em, my sistah, dayah. Doan you do ebil, or you'll counterfeit all de good—you'll counterfeit it all, bredren-counterseit it all! Dayah am one kahkus less wid us all, heah, dis mawnin', bredren-one kahkuss less

SOCIOLOGY.

ANARCHY AS A BLOOD DISEASE.—It has come to pass in these days that all of men seem more or less affected with the sever of restlessness and change. The area of contentment, if ever such there has been, is gone. Novelty is the new intoxicant. We are discarding rum for a new drink. To all kinds of milleniums we are on the run, and are vainly expecting to make as good time in going up hill as we might in coming down.' It can't be done. Gravitation is not a matter of hysterics. In the beginning it was easier for a stone to fall than rise, and in the end it will move on the same old rule. It is so in the science of progress. “ Patience in well doing” is an ancient virtue, but it is far from being mouldy yet, though we simply keep it as we do old china, and drink our tea (rom another kind of cup. We are playing leap-frog in politics, creeds, and liberties. We are making men temperate by states and moral by legislation, and are seeking riches, not by old methods of patience and economy, but by speculation and in big chunks. sn this hot-house straw we provide a warm bed for the anarchist. He is simply a worse form of the same teyer, or a blossom from our button-hole bud. He has found political liberty, and

[ocr errors]

64

great groans and sighs-“fur whalısumeber de kahkuss am, dayah am de eguls other side, and to the extent of this increased lateral friction is the ball retarded afiratin' 'roun'. Dayah am a penitentiary fer all true believers. Fur dem dat in its progress on the side on which the increased friction bears. The result of falis in inatarnitude shell also rise in raternitude." Cries of « Da's so !" « Da's this changed relation is naturally a curve in the line of its delivery in the direction jis' right!" 12:2!"

- Bress de Law!" “ Pooah Sister Lyddy!" Long-drawn of the side on which its progress has been retarded. This is the simple philosonote of woe from the congregation in perfect harmony, “ Oh-h-h-h!" « Dat phy of the curve of modern base-ball pitching. The application of the theory in pooah crippul Lyddy!”-thuis in a higher tone, with accompanying congregational practice is to learn to give the necessary bias or rotary motion to the right or left

, cresceudo burst of woe in the same tone as the preacher's" She done gone up in order to produce the “in curve ” or the “out curve.”—Scientific American. on ugh!”—- Uh-h-h-h! Ah-h-h-lı! Oh-h-}-h !" on still higher tone, base, tenor, soprano, ad alto harmonizing beautifully in most plaintive minor chords—“She

EXCESSIVE HEAT IN THE PAST.-In 1303 and 1304 the Rhine, Loire, and couldn't eben walk heah !" « Oh-h-h-h! Ah-b-h-h!" “ Now she kin flew!" By

Seine ran dry. The heat in several French provinces during the summer of 1705 this time preacher and congregation are wrought up to the highest pitch of ex

was equal to that of a glass furnace. Meat could be cooked by merely exposing

it to the sun. citement and the sermon is literally chanted in the weirdest of melodies, the

Not a soul dare venture out between noon and 4 p. m. In 1718 whole congregation, between each rhythmical pause, bursting forth in a heart

many shops had to close. The theaters never opened their doors for three months, rending pil, wild yet singulaıly musical. At the close of his sermon the preacher

Not a drop of water fell during six months. În 1773 the thermometer rose to gave out the “leben-huner' an' fifty” hymn, two lines of which the congregation

118 degrees. In 1778 the heat of Bologna was so great that a great number of sung with uliconscious blasphemy.

people were stifled. There was not sufficient air for the breath, and people had

to take refuge under the ground. In July, 1793, the heat again became intoler"I'll meet my sweot Excuser thero,

able. Vegetables were burned up, and fruit dried on the trees. The furniture And tell him that he lies."

and wood-work in dwelling-houses cracked and split up; meat went bad in an The next hymn contained the soilowing line:

hour.— Amateur Photographer. "Thus spake tho sheriff, and forthwith."

WHY WE CAN NOT SEE THE STARS BY DAY.–The extinction of "starlight When “ collection time" canır the congregation nielted away in a very surpris

in the daylight is not due to the vapors of the atmosphere, but to the stronger" ing manner, some people sliding out of the front, others out of the back of the vibrations of sunlight, which prevent our eyes perceiving the weaker vibrations of church most mysteriously.Brillchem Times.

starlight, exactly as a stronger sound, say a cannon shot, prevents us from hearing

a smaller noise, say a mouse piping; or, as is well known, a larger disturbance in Notfs.—One of the results of the general election in England is that more Ro water extinguishes a smaller one. The smaller noise, the smaller sound waves, ma' Catholics are returned to Parliament than at any time since James II lost the and the smaller light vibrations are not perceived by our senses when the greater 4.:€. There are now five of such members members; three are in favor of impressions or disturbances occupy them. There is not the slightest necessity of Gladstone and two are Conservatives.---- Italian papers state that the Pope has elaborate theories on “ether," when the limit of the susceptibility of our senses purchased the Palace of Lignanelli, for the sum of $300,000, and intends fitting it offers a sufficient explanation why we cannot see the light of all and every star in ur as a prinimg and puvuisig office. Ilis Holiness has long been engaged in the universe.—English Paper. publishing religious works, and the business has grown to large dimensions The Rev. W. Ì. Gill, of Lawrence, Mass., has sececied from the Methodists and

CREMATION BY ELECTRICITY.-An electrical crematory is said to have been joined the Unitarian body. -Beecher is creating a furore in England. Great

devised by a process described as follows: The body, being shrouded in sheets crowds go to hear him, especially the prominent clergy of all sects. Flis manner

made of asbestos, is laid upon a frame composed of fire-brick, while at the head is sharply criticised by some, while others consess that they had not heard preach

and foot are large copper plates, to which the leads from specially-constructed ing till they heard him. -The Rev. J. P. Chown, a prominent English Baptist

dynamos of large E. M. F. are attached. The body apparently occupies the posiclergyman, is dead. - The whole world is now open for the reception of the gos

tion of the filament in an incandescent lamp, and upon the current being passed pel. The Bible is printed in 250 languages and dialects. There are 150,000,

through it would be instantly carbonized, while, as the air would have free access 000 coiiis in circulation. Twenty-five Woman's Boards, in England and

to it, the process of destruction, or rather decomposition, would be immediate. America, are actively engaged in foreign missionary work. The number of

The process appears to have the recommnendation of great rapidity of action, and missionary societies is ten-fold what it was eighty years ago. The number of con

immunity from many of the objections to cremation in the ordinary way.-Elecverts is nearly fifty-fold. The increase in membership in heathen lands is thirty

trician. times that at home, in proportion to the number of ministers employed.

-The

THE LODYGUINE GLOW LAMPS.—These new lamps, now manufactured by CauBishop of Albany has received the honorary title of Knight of the Holy Sepul deron, of Paris, are distinguished from the Swan, Maxim, Edison, and other chre. —The Pope is reported to be very busily engaged in the preparation of an former lamps by their higher yield, as they produce the same luminous intensity encyclical letter, which, it is believed, will refer to socialism. —An important de with an expenditure of force three times less. By their means the electric light cree of the Holy Office declares that Catholics are not permitted to affiliate them. will completely vanquish gas from an economical point of view. Time must show selves to societies for the cremation of human bodies, and that it is not permitted

whether the duration of the lamps will be as long as a certain part of the even to order cremation, whether it is a question of him who has ordered it or of public seems to demand. It is, however, as Mr. Preece has shown, a mistake to others who would be made subject to cremation. The Catholic Church at insist too much on the long duration of lamps, since after 200 to 300 hours of serBoucherville, Canada, has a record of births, deaths, and marriages from May 20, vice they yield little more than half their original luminous intensity.-Bulletin 1688, to the present time. The first entry records the baptism of an Indian chili? International de l Electricite. by Father James Marquette, Jesuit.—The Bey of Tunis has given a choice site of land, worth $6,000, to a small Protestant congregation there, on which they in

Notes.—A monument is to be erected to the memory of Thomas Edward, the

renowned Scotch scientist. tend to build a church. -The Methodists of the West Indies are celebrating

- The military telegraphers assemble for conference their centennial. Dr. Coke, with three missionaries, landed at St. John's Antigua,

at Cleveland August 18th. There is a blacksmith at Patterson, N. J., who will December 25, 1776, and established the first Wesleyan mission in the West In

not have an electric light pole in front of his smithy. He has cut down four dies. _The old battle-ground at Fort Ticonderoga will be used as a temperance

wooden ones, and now threatens to dynamite an iron one which has been substi.

tuted for them.

_The American Institute of Christcamp-meeting from the 12th to the 18th inst. —

-Professor Robert von Helmholtz has published in Widermann's

«Annalen” the final results of the experiments and arguments on the formation of ian Philosophy, Rev. Charles F. Deems, D. D., LL. D., president, holds its summer school at Key East Beach, commencing on the 17th inst. During the suc

mist. The air must contain a normal quantity of solid particles of dust, and must

be free from bodies that will act chemically on aqueous vapor.--- Professor W. ceeding ten days many of the most learned men in the country will assemble there to discuss current topics. -Myrtle street congregation, Liverpool, are trying to

Mattieu Williams relates that he once plunged both hands into water containing raise a thousand pounds for a memorial to their late pastor, Rev. Hugh Stowell

an electric eel, intending to grasp it, but failed to reach it; but he received a very Brown, of which but one-tenth has as yet been raised. -Rev. Alexander Mac

severe shock when at some distance, probably three or four inches, “the sensational kennal, pastor of the Congregational Church of Bowdon, Cheshire, has been, by

nature of the experiment rendering any approach to accurate estimation of the

distance quite impossible.”acclamation, elected chairman of the Congregational Union of England and Wales

Professor A. Vogel has observed that plants do not for 1887 by its committee.-Canon Liddon has gotten back to his stall in St.

always contain their characteristic alkaloids when grown under other than natural Paul's for the first time in fourteen months, -Mr. Spurgeon has so far recovered

conditions. Hemlock does not yield conine in Scotland, and chichona-plants are

nearly free from quinine when grown in hot-houses. Tannin is found in the from his recent illness as to resume Sunday service at his Tabernacle. - Hospital Sunday” is reported from the Mansion House to have yielded this year about

greatest quantity in trees which have had a full supply of direct sunlight.

Dr. C. Blarez says that the materials used for coloring wine, such as sulpho. $90,000—a large increase upon 1885.

fuchsine, are capable of setting up a great deal of gastric disturbance in persons having weak digestion. Werkhojanck, 'in Siberia, latitude 67/2° north, still

maintains its position as the coldest place on the earth. Farina saw many SCIENTIFIC.

strange sights during his recent passage through the Kalahari desert in South Africa. or natural freaks and wonders the supply appears to be considerable, One of them is a bug which, on being touched, emits a perfume, and two or

three of which, carried in his wagon, scented it 'delightfully for weeks. The The SCIENCE OF CURVING A BALL.—The theory is as simple in its rules as it

first African city lighted by electricity was not Algiers or Cairo, but Kimberley, is easy of demonstration practically. It is as follows: The ball, in its horizonal with forty-two Brush lamps

, each of 2,000 candle.power. The current is also Aight through the air from the hand of the thrower-technically known as the utilized there for the killing of dogs, a step suggesting the execution of death.sen pitcher-is retarded in its forward motion by the resistance of the air, which not

tences by the same means as proposed in the United States, and in France by M only exerts a pressure on the face of the ball, but also a resisting force on its sides

Charson, a member of the Senate. by :riction. Now, if the ball is simply thrown forward without any special bias

-The strongest wood in the United States

according to Professor Sargent, is the nutmeg hickory of the Arkansas region being giv n it, the friction of the air is equal on each side of it; but if it be and the weakest the West Indian birch. The most elastic is the tamarack, th mode to rotate on its own axis srum right to left or left to right, the conditions are

white or shell-bark hickory standing far below ilat once materially changed, in r':much as in the latter case one side of the ball's surface is made to move forward through the air with twice the rapidity of the ' by the blue-wood of Texas ( Condalia vbovala).

lowest specific gravity, upon which in general clepends value as fuel

, is attaine The Cleveland experimer

[ocr errors]

The least elastic and th

II.

10.

IO.

Refined sugar

FINANCE AND COMMERCE.

Fiscal year.

of Professor Michelson indicated the velocity of light to be 299,853 kilometers before, though the aggregate is not yet considerable. The following table shows per second. The Washington experiments of Professor Newcomb, using only both total values and the percentage of gain in specified departments : results supposed to be nearly free from constant errors, gave 299,860 kilometers

Values.

Gain, 1886, per second, a difference of but 7 kilometers, or about 438 miles. These ex

1886.

1885. per cent. periments are held by scientists all over the world to be of far superior precision to

Boots and shoes .

$648,069 $598,151 8.5 -Experiments made under the direction of the administraany yet executed.tion of the Dutch state railroads with the various paints on iron plates are re

Locks, hinges, etc

1,285,285 1,156,655 Fire-arms

1,778,660 ported to have proved that the red-lead paints resist atmosphereic influences

1,700,655 4.6

Wire much better than those of brown-red and iron oxides. The red-lead paints

335,094

242,948 37.

Watches, adhere closer to the metal and possess greater elasticity than the others. It

255,887 136,892 90. was also found that better results were attained if, before the paints were In contrast with the above statement the figures below are presented, showing applied, the plates were pickled, instead of being merely scraped and brushed. sundry items of considerable account, in which the exports last year amounted to The test-plates were pickled in muriatic acid, washed with water, thoroughly less than the year before : dried, and while warm carefully oiled. -By a new process of manipulation,

Values.

Loss, 1886, hats more serviceable and finer than anything now on the market are made of

1886.

1885 per cent. wood-pulp. They are impervious to water, and not wanting in flexibility. It is Leather . .

$7,552,825
$8,539,379

11.5 claimed that felt hats will have to take a back seat as soon as the new hats can be

Sewing machines

2,584,717 2,898,698 placed in the market in sufficient numbers to supply the demand. They are Clocks

1,110,273 1,209,048 8.25 certain to revolutionize the hatter's trade, as they can be molded into any shape or

Carriages, etc.

1,340,198 1,495,475 style desired, and colored to meet the taste of the public. They can be made to Agricultural implements

2,367,258 2,561,602 7.8 represent a glossy or nappy appearance.

Organs

512,646

584,279 12.5 10,972,729 16,071,767

43 It is a curious fact that while the foreign demand for American watches almost doubled during the year, the outlet for clocks was smaller than the year before. American sewing machines are considered superior, and our agricultural imple

ments are pronounced unsurpassed by those who are acquainted with modern deTHE BUSINESS SITUATION.—In the business situation no material change has oc

vices. Nevertheless, there was a shrinkage in the value of exports of each of these curred. Some increase of activity among jobbers in the dry goods trade is reported,

classes of merchandise. In the absence of full explanation it may, perhaps, be and certain branches of the iron trade also report an improved demand; but, on the

taken for granted that the setback therein is only temporary. The loss of a large whole, business operations partake of the quietness customary in midsummer.

part of the foreign market for sugar refined in the United States is a more serious

As regards the crops, there have been copious rains in many of the drouth-stricken dis

matter. It is due in great measure to the phenomenal cheapness of sugar the tricts, and the position in that respect, therefore, is better than it was. It is clear,

world over, and to the efforts of certain European countries to promote refining at

home at whatever cost. however, that corn has suffered some damage from the prolonged period of dry

The comparative figures for quantities sent out, as well as weather which can not be repaired, though just how much the future must be left

values, make a startling exhibit. A full statement of the exports of this commodity to develop. Spring wheat in some districts is turning out better than expected.

in June and in the fiscal year is presented herewith : Bank clearings latterly have not been so favorable, the figures for the month of

-June. July, as below, showing only 8.6 per cent increase over the previous year; but with

1886. 1885.

1886.

1885. Congress out of the way and an assurance of fair avarage crops, merchants and Pounds

9,841,630 44,529,414 164,339,868 252,579,077 tradesmen will probably take hold with fresh vim, and the future be invested with Values

$626,342 $3,053,215 $10,972,729 $16,071,767 a prospect of steady improvement.— The Financial and Commercial Chronicle.

- Bradstreets. PAYING ONE HUNDRED CENTS FOR THE TRADE DOLLAR.—The proposition to SNAIL CROP IN FRANCE.—We learn from a contemporary that the snail harvest take the trade dollars from the dealers and speculators who hold them and pay for has just begun in France. The “poor man's oyster” is so appreciated that Paris them at par is a piece of monstrous injustice to the taxpayers of this country. The alone consumes about forty-nine tons daily, the best kind coming from Grenoble or poor people who had them in hand when they were refused any longer circulation Burgundy. The finest specimens are carefully reared in an escargotiere, or snail sold them to the bullion dealers chiefly at eighty-five cents to the dollar. It is said park, such as the poor Capuchin monks planned in by-gone days at Colmar and that there are between seven and ten millions now awaiting a market. If the Gov Weinbach, when they had no money to buy food, and so cultivated snails. But ernment bought them under the Bland law at the market price of silver, the holders the majority are collected by the vine-dressers in the evening from the stone-heaps, would receive (if there are ten millions of them) the sum of $7,400,000 for the where the snails have assembled to enjoy the dew. The creatures are then starved lot, which is all they are worth in the market. Some jobber has inserted in the in a dark cellar for two months, and when they have closed up the aperture of Morrison resolution a paragraph proposing that the Treasury shall be compelled to their shell are ready for cooking. According to the true Burgundy method, they buy them at par-that is, shall pay ten million dollars for them, making the holders are boiled in five or six waters, extracted from the shell, dressed with fresh butter the handsome present of over two and a half million dollars! If such a job as and garlic, then replaced in the shell, covered with parsley and bread crumbs, this can pass both houses of Congress, there ought to be no difficulty in securing and finally simmered in white wine.—Scientific American Supplement. any legislation a corrupt clique may desire. We think the President could not be induced to sign such a bill. ---New York Journal of Commerce,

The COUNTRY'S GOLD AND SILVER.— The report of the Director of the Mint

estimates the production of gold in the United States during 1885 at $31,800,000, EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURES.—()ur manusacturers have made little progress an increase of $1,000,000 over the year before. The increase in the silver produring the past year in finding foreign markets for their wares.

Gain in certain duction was $2,800,000, the estimated yield being $51,000,600. Colorado pro. directions has been quite offset by loss in others. In the twelve months ended June duced the most precious metals, California ranking second. The face value of 30 there was a noteworthy increase in the exports of cotton goods and paper, but the coinage at the mints was $56,926,810. Of this $27,773,012 was gold, and à no less remarkable falling off in the shipments of refined sugar, of leather, and $28,962,176 silver. Of silver dollars, $28,697,767 were coined. The coin and of numerous mechanical contrivances. We published two weeks ago the returns bullion imported into this country amounted to $23,645,311 in gold and $17,772, of exports of cotton manufactures down to May 31. The statement for the com 718 in silver. The exports of gold and silver were $11,417,207 in gold and $33,plete fiscal year, in comparison with 1884–85, is as follows :

280,542 in silver. The report estimates the amount of gold coin in the United Yards.

Values.

States on January 1, 1886, to have been $533,485,453; of silver dollars, $218,

259,761; subsidiary silver, $75,034, 111, or a total stock of coin of $826,779,325. 1886. 1885.

1886. 1885. Colored. 51,293,373 32,738,123 $3,140,703 $2,2 30,567

AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN PETROLEUM.—Petroleum in Russia was first produced Uncolored. 142,548,980 114,806,595 9,228,240 7,919,670

in 1832, some seventeen years before Colonel Drake made his famous discoveries in Pennsylvania. Since that time, up to 1885, the total production has amounted

to 55,471,000 barrels, against an out-turn by American wells since 1859 of 269,Totals

193,842,353 147,544,718 $12,368,943 $10,150,237 383,000 barrels. Last year the quantity produced by all Russian wells was 12,This statement shows an increase of 46,000,000 yards, or 31 per cent., in the

500,000 barrels, of which one firm alone, Nobel Brothers, controlled 195,000,000 quantity of cloth sent out of the country, but of only $2,200,000, or 21%2 per cent.,

gallons.-Age of Steel. in the value of the stuff. Inasmuch as there has been no material change in the Notes.—The world's tea supply amounts to 245,233,000 pounds, more than quality or kinds of goods exported, the returns go to confirm the assertion of mer three fifths of which goes to Great Britain. The frozen-meat business with chants in the foreign trade, and the manufacturers of fabrics for China and South Great Britain continues to increase. A single cargo of 30,000 carcases of mutton America, that the business has been done of late at low values and on slender mar lately arrived in good condition and were immediately sold. It is stated from gins. The exports of writing paper show the handsome gain of 71 per cent, in Paris that eight torpedo boats, which were sent across the Atlantic, have gone 1886 over 1885. In the earlier year they amounted to $77,418, and in the later down in mid-ocean, with their crews, numbering fisty men. -The people of Eng. to $132,227. The shipments of other kinds of paper rose in the same time from land who want to "drink” without “drinking,” are informed that, at last, their $793,057 to $897,221, or 13 per cent. The writing paper industry is one of the need is met by “a strictly non-alcoholic, unfermented wine, made from the famous least protected of the great manufactures, and one of the best able to withstand Kentish Morello cherry.” Seven-pence for still and eighteen-pence for sparkling foreign competition in the home market and to compete with foreigners abroad. samples. - The Queen proposes, among other things, to signalize her approachNothing in the world except lack of inclination hinders the American paper trade ing jubilee by changing her medallion portrait on the coinage of the realm from from securing extensive and permanent outlets in other lands. In some other im The youthful figure, which has for so many years adorned it, to one which shall portant lines the shipment of goods increased last year as compared with the year show her in the maturity of her years and honors. The supreme court of Ver

mont has decided that a promissory note to pay an ounce of gold for value re the disease. According to an eminent scientist, every full-grown'ass in Great ceived will not stand good in law, because it is merchandise, and, therefore, lacks Britain is afflicted with entozoa in the blood. To this statement the Boston Post quality of negotiability. -The Dominion Labor Congress will meet in Toronto, adds: “ If it is a fatal disease, we should like to have it introduced into this counSeptember 14.-

-The cholera is - The Victory, of Petchili, has made a contract with the house of try. There is an abundance of material for it to work upon."Jardine & Matheson for the supply of tools required for a large arsenal at Port Li. virulent in Barletta, Italy, where 132 new cases and 42 deaths were reported The contract represents an outlay of about $28,000,000.- The Pittsburgh Asso August 7.-M. Berger has lately treated a patient on whom he was able to make ciated Banks have extended an invitation to the American Bankers' Association to an artificial heel by means of a large lump taken from the opposite leg. The graft hold its next annual meeting in that city. -P, T. Barnum has written to the Bos succeeded completely, and the heel is now perfectly restored.There is a good ton Journal offering $20,000 for the skin of a sea-serpent.

deal of anxiety among physicians and others in regard to the poisonous effects of ice-cream, and chemists are employed to discover wherein the poisonous elements

exist. MEDICAL.

RAILROADS.

SLEEPING WITH THE HEAD Low.-Few persons, we suppose, sleep without a pillow or a rest of some sort to elevate the head a little above the level of the body, and very few, if any, would think of habitually going to rest with the feet raised higher

LEGAL HINTS FOR TRAVELERS.-A railway company is not an insurer of its than the head. Yet if we are to believe the writer of an article in Pfuger's Archiv, Nos. 7 and 8, 1886, the latter is the only rational and proper position during according as it or its servants have or have not been guilty of negligence.—13

passengers, according to the law in England, but is responsible for their injuries, sleep. Dr. Meuli-Hilty is the advocate of this plan. He was engaged in studying the

Pet., 181. physiological effects of such a reversal of the normal position of the body, and

But the fact that any part of the car breaks raises the presumption of negligence. found, among other results, that the circumference of the neck was increased nearly

-2 Camp, 79. two inches, by reason, chiefly, of a swelling of the thyroid gland. lle frequently fell asleep while in this position and occupied in his studies, and found that he al

And, indeed, if any of the means of transportation, whether connected with the

engine or train, or with the roadway, gives way, and you are injured, it is preways awoke earlier in the morning, felt greatly refreshed, and was capable of much

sumptive evidence that the company has been negligent.—18 N. Y., 534. better work during the day than after a night's rest taken in the usual way. He

But the fact that an accident has happened does not always raise a presumption has now slept with his feet higher than his head for the past four years, and his ex

of negligence, for the accident may be imputable to a trespasser, for whose conduct perience leads him to commend the method most highly. He says in this way the

the company is not liable.--18 N. Y.,

534. brain receives a more plentiful blood-supply and is consequently better nourished, while there is no danger of so much blood passing to the cerebral structures as to

Out of regard for the value of human life, and in view of the danger that besets cause congestion. This danger is obviated by the enlargement of the thyroid safely, so far as human care, skill, and foresight can do it.—14 How. (U. S.), 468.

a railway traveler, the law makes it the carrier's duty to convey the passengers gland, which holds back a certain portion of the blood in its dilated vessels, and

As fast as new and improved means and methods are perfected and found pracwhich also acts as a regulator of the cerebral circulation by exerting pressure upon

ticable and more safe than the old things and old ways they must be adopted.the carotids, and thus diminishing their calibre. Another advantage which Dr. 64 Pa. St., 225. Meuli-Hilty claims for his method is that it is prophylactic against pulmonary

It is a first principle that a railway company must employ competent inspectors phthisis. The apices of the lungs, being dependent, receive a more plentiful

to make proper examinations of its rolling stock. For instance, it has been laid blood-supply, and are thus rendered stronger and less liable to become the point

down that every test known to science and recognized by experts must be applied of origin of tubercular disease. The writer's assertions may be correct, and his method may, as he claims, be the only rational one, but it is likely to be a long

to boilers of locomotives, to ascertain their condition. But if there are desects

which such tests would not bring to light, and which experts could not discover, time before he can induce mankind to regard pillows as a useless and harmful

and, by reason of such defects, an explosion occurs, the company is not liable.—20 part of the bed furniture.Medical Record.

Blatch. (M. S.), 338. MEDICAL INCOMES IN CANADA.—There is only one medical man in this city The mere fact that an explosion takes place, where such tests have not been apwho last year earned $5,000 from his profession, combined with the interest he re plied, raises a presumption of negligence.—Id. ceived on his previous savings. There is not one man on the list who had $4,000, And, likewise, car wheels and other parts of the cars must be frequently inand only four who touched $3,000. When we come to the comparative modest spected. It is no excuse that the cars were bought, ready made, of a reliable carand moderate $2,000, we naturally conclude that we shall have a full legion. But

builder, and that the defect which caused the accident was a defect in manufac. no, we have fourteen only, all told, who come up to this figure. When we come to

ture which could not be discovered after the car was completed, provided the debetween $2,000 and $1,000, the number becomes encouragingly large. As many

fect could have been known during the process of manufacture.— 13 N. Y., 9. as listy-one of the best-known and greatly-sought-after doctors of our city are put

When an accident is caused by a broken rail, the company can only relieve itdown under their own hands and seals as having last year lived on from $1,000 to self from responsibility by showing that the rail was sufficient in size, free from $1,800. Some of these are professors. There remain only the unsortunates who desects, and properly laid down and spiked on sufficient cross-ties.--74 Ind., worry along with from $800 down almost to zero.

Of these, we are sorry to say,

462. there were last year thirty-six.- Toronto Globe.

If a bridge gives way, it is presumed that the company has been negligent in Notes.—The Washington correspondent of a Western daily says: “Congress

constructing or locating it.--2 Col., 442.

But if the bridge gives way and the train plunges into the water because of an men get queer letters sometimes. The other day a Western member showed me

unusual and extraordinary food—something unknown to common experience in the following : Dear Sir—My children have been afflicted with the scabs all win

that region, and which could have not been reasonably anticipated by skillful enter, and the medicine given them by the doctor here does not seem to do any good gineers—the accident may be attributed to “ act of God,” for which the company I see by the papers that there are some very fine doctors in Washington connected

is not liable.—53 Texas, 46. with the Government, and if it does not cost too much I wish you would ask them

And so is the track is undermined and weakened by an extraordinary freshet, what is good for the scabs and write me by return mail.””. -Dr. Moxau, the cele

but the engineer is in a position to notice such an extraordinary condition of brated London physician of Guy's Hospital, is dead. -The report of the com

things and lake precautions; if the water is so high as to afford 'suspicion that missioners of lunacy for 1885 shows that there are now 80,156 lunatics in Great Britain and Ireland, being a ratio to the population of 1 to 349. In the last year

the track or bridge may be out of condition, he must stop and test it, or he will the number of lunatics has relatively decreased. A public disinfection institute

make the company liable for the consequences of an accident.—76 Mo., 518.

Alusion is made to the acts of a tresspasser for which the company is not rehas been opened in Berlin under governmental direction. There are chambers

sponsible. Thus, if a shot is fired into the car and you are wounded, the railway capable of completely disinfecting the clothes of two hundred families daily. All

is not bound to pay the bill.27 L. J., 155. conceivable apparatus for thorough disinfection are provided.— A London paper

Nor is it liable is an obstruction is suddenly thrown across the track, or a switch states that it is proposed to establish an association for the purpose of dispelling ihe ignorance that prevails regarding the homoeopathic system. The title of the new

maliciously opened, and your train rushes into destruction before the employes

have time to right things.--1d. organization will be the Homeopathic League, and its objects are, in the words of

And if the train is derailed by a tornado of unforeseen violence, that, too, would the prospectus, first,“ to give a popular explanation of homeopathy, and to show

be considered an accident caused by “act of God,” relieving the company

from that it is founded on reason, science, and experience; second, to defend homæop

liability.—3 Neb., 44. athy from the misrepresentations of its opponents, and to obtain fair treatment for it. -In Leicester, England, out of 2,500 children born, only 300 have been

It is not always that a company escapes liability for the consequences of an acvaccinated. The authorities decline to apply coercion, it being evident that the

cident caused by a misplaced switch, though. If not suddenly thrown open by a greal bulk of the population would resist the law. There are said to be 5,000

tresspasser, in front of a moving train, the company must show that by no human

skill or foresight could the accident have been averted.—6 Am. & Eng. Ry. Cas., patent medicines of American concoction now on the market, and the trade amounts to $22,000,000 per annum. Of this, $10,000,000 are expended in ad

139.— Myron 1. Bly, in Pathfnder Railway Guide. vertising, and the net profits are set down at $5,000,000. -A congress, colonial and international, to consider the question of cure for inebrity, is shortly to meet. -The Boston Advertiser says: * A physician of large experience remarked the

DRAMA. other day that when he began the practice of medicine he was worried because people put so little confidence in him, and now he was troubled because they trusted his judgment so implicitly. He seemed 10 think that to be thought infali

NOTES.—Henry Irving, Ellen Terry, with Ellen Terry's daughter, arrived ble was far more burdensome than to have one's fallibility emphasized as in his in New York on a pleasure trip Tuesday, August 10.-— 'This is what Macrady younger days.”_Two cases of cholera are said to have occurred at Chippewa wrote in his journal, 30th August, 1837: "If I had a sufficient property to leave Falls, Wis., it being stated that both patients died with well-defined symptoms of each of my children a moderate allowance on their start into life, and to give them

« PreviousContinue »