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RELIGIOUS.

as they did in their own times. It is so in every age. The true prophet is never a universal favorite, and the temptation to unfaithfulness is, therefore, very great,

And yet no worse woe can befall the human race than a false prophet; a man who THE WORK OF PROPAGANDA.--The vast extent over which the Christian and

comes to his fellows under the authority of a divine sanction, but instead of procivilizing influence of Propaganda is exercised is seen in the first annual account

claining the whole truth of God, becomes the panderer to public opinion and a of this institution, just published under the title, “ Missiones Catholicæ Ritus

coward under the menace of popular disfavor; a man who consents to error, and Latini cura S. Congregationis de Propaganda Fide, descripta in Annum,

is dumb in the presence of wrong, because he fears that an independent utterMDCCCLXXXVI.”

ance of God's truth will cost him something in public favor, and possibly in money. China, that vast empire which, in the opinion of Baron de Hubner, is destined,

A sneaking pulpit is an offense in the sight of God and a curse to mankind.-- The perhaps, before the end of the century to play a part still more considerable than

Western Christian Advocate. that which the Ottoman Empire played during several centuries," occupies the NOTES.—Thirty-five years ago it was the crime of high treason in Italy to possess first place in this report.

a Bible. Now Bible depots are established in every Italian city.- The crowd The descriptive table of the state of the missions in China, which follows the which attended the ceremonies in the Basilica on the Feast of St. Peter was more particular account of the origin and progress of each district, sums up the present numerous than during several years.-_At least half of the enlisted men of the state of Christianity in that empire.

United States

army and navy are Catholics, and many of the commissioned officers The numerous provinces of China now contain a sum total of 483,403 Catho are of the same faith. -There is to be held from July 24 to August 9, at Lakelics, 2,429 churches or chapels, 471 European missionaries, 281 native (or Chi wood, on Chautauqua Lake, an assembly called the Lakewood School of the New nese) priests, 1,179 schools, with 25,219

scholars, 33 seminaries, with 654 students. Theology. It is expected to become the center of the new theology movement. In the countries adjoining China—Corea, Japan, Manchooria, Mongolia, and -Captain Bray, of the Morning Star, has resigned to become secretary of the Thibet—the number of Catholics is 77,254; churches or chapels, 227; and Chris Y. M. C. A. of Oakland, Cal. - Rev. Thomas Williams, attending the jubilee of tianitates, or stations, 416.

the Wesleyan Mission, writes from Levuka, December 19, in the Wesleyan In the Indo-Chinese peninsula, with its divisions of Birmania, Cambodia, Missionary : “ I passed a night at my old and horror-crowded station, Somosomo, Cochin-China, Siam, and Tonquin, the number of Catholics is 631,276; schools where, with the brethren Lyth, IIunt, Cross, and Hazlewood, and our noble wives, and orphanages, 1, 107; scholars in these, 21,166; European missionaries, 290; I endured sufferings of no common kind. But they are passed, and on the ground native priests, 373; and churches or chapels, 1,644.

where once I walked among the slain, amongst open ovens and devil-temples, I In India, or Hindostan, and Ceylon the Catholics number 1,185,142; the have addressed a neatly attired and attentive audience in connection with the churches or chapels, 2,677; the stations, 417; elementary schools, 1,566, with celebration of the jubilee of the Wesleyan Mission in Viti.” - Albany's anniver64,357 scholars; seminaries, 16, with 444 students; European missionaries and sary found its first official celebration in the Beth-El Emeth Synagogue on Saturnative priests, 1,089; orphanages, 73, with 4,828 orphans. Persia has only 150 day, when Mayor Thatcher and other civic dignitaries listened with interest to Rev. Catholics of the Latin Rite, but of the Chaldaic Rile there are about 7,500, with Dr. Schlesinger's historic address. - The Jews living in the Moldavian portion of 4 stations, i Administrator Apostolic, ii priests, and 20 Sisters of Charity. Roumania are leaving that country in large numbers. A large number of Aus

In the Turkish Empire in Asia there are 74,930 Catholics, 143 churches and trian-Jewish families have been expelled by the authorities at Wolocyska, and conchapels, 55 stations, and 199 schools and colleges. In Arabin there are 1,100 veyed across the frontier. Further expulsions are expected, and it is believed that Catholics, 4 churches and chapels, 4 stations, and 2 schools, with 50 scholars. the Russian authorities are about to put into force, all along the line, an old law

The missions in Africa, under the direction of Propaganda, contain about 382, forbidding foreign Jews to settle near the frontier. - It is reported that young 000 Catholics, 257 stations, 280 chapels or churches, 537 priests, 884 educational Count Muccioli, the Noble Guard of the Pope, who brought the Zuchetta to Carinstitutions, and 57 charitable institutions.

dinal Gibbons, will prolong his stay in America, and will have a business training In Greece the number of Catholics is 31,410; churches and chapels, 131; in one of the large banking houses of New York. -A European steamer arrived priests, 114; seminaries, 2; schools, 50; and pupils, 1,924.

at New York a few days ago bringing 436 new converts to Mormonism.“Dr. The Balkan peninsula has 646,755 Catholics, 597 priests, 537 churches or Elliot Coues, the “theosophist,” declares that theosophy is a “most terrible and chapels, 163 educational institutions, 23 charitable institutions, and 7 seminaries. most dangerous form of spiritual potency.” -This from The Banner of Light :

The German missions depending on Propaganda have 111,468 Catholics, 73 “ Col. Ingersoll declared that he hopeil there was a world to come, but did not churches and chapels, 108 priests, 77 schools, and 8,435 pupils. Holland and know it. Spiritualism knows it, and spiritualists are already in communion with Luxemburg have 1,646,843 Catholics, 70 diaconites, 1,242 parishes

, 2,735 priests, those that have entered the spiritual world." 11 seminaries, 1,197 students, and 1,337 schools

. England has 1,353,574 Catholics, 2,252 priests, and 1,252 churches. Scotland, 325,334 Catholics, 308 churches, 319 priests, 139 schools, and 2 seminaries. Ireland has 3,788,165 Catholics, 2,403 churches and chapels, 1,073 parish

MEDICAL churches, and 3,227 priests. As returns from some of the Irish dioceses were not complete, these numbers are less than the actual numbers of Catholics.

British North America has 1,955,325 Catholics, 1,803 churches and chapels, SUICIDES AND THEIR CAUSES_One of the sensations of New York last week 2,129 priests, 3,609 educational institutions, 109 charitable institutions, and 17 was the suicide of Adrian Crucy and his sister Lucy, aged, respectively, fifty-one seminaries.

and sixty years, who quit lise together, after eleborate preparations, by shooting The United States have 7,410,478 Catholics, 7,306 priests, 6,772 churches, themselves. All the circumstances of the case were peculiar, and invest it with an 1,047 chapels, 2,596 parish schools, 492,919 scholars, and 451 charitable institu extraordinary interest. “They were very nice people to work for,” say two pertions.

sons who knew them well, “ because they seldom went out, and had very few [We are convinced, from careful estimates, that the number of Catholics in the visitors.” Adrian Crucy is described on the Produce Exchange as a man whom United States here given is largely under the correct total.—Ed. Pilot.]

“all the members knew generally, but none of them intimately.” They were not The missions of Antilles and Guiana depending on Propaganda have 297,562 in immediate pecuniary distress, though not over-prosperous. They were religious Catholics, 146 priests, 148 churches and chapels, and 127 schools.

and of pure, calm lives. None of the usual motives to suicide appear. There Australia has 484,470 Catholics, 767 churches and chapels, 388 priests, 477 was no insanily, no known suflering, and they enjoyed fair health. Why, then, schools, with 64,325 scholars, and 2 seminaries, one in Melbourne and the o:her dill they agree together to end their lives, after living so long, serenely, quietly, and, in Bathurst. Returns are wanting from the diocese of Victoria. In the islands of so far as could be seen, happily? In (lying they publish no complaint, but assume Oceanica the number of Catholics is 147,845; of churches and chapels, 473; that the reasons which moved them are their own affair, not ours. Though of the priests, 229; educational institutions, 271; and 8 charitable instilutions.

Catholic Church, their final defiance of its known teachings indicate that their alMany places of minor importance, though possessing a considerable number of legiance to it must have been qualified, not implicit; social, not spiritual. Catholics, are omitted in this brief summary of the “Missiones Catholicæ.” There Those who, in (leath, could thus wrap the mantle of self-imposed seclusion about is, however, sufficient given here to show the vastness of the task entrusted to them, not even manisesting a desire to be understood, must in life, we may readily Propaganda. It is, as the Jesuit Werner says, “ the immensity of the globe, the believe, have preserred isolation to society. Yet that this isolation could scarcely universality of the human race, which is the domain and the auditory assigned by have arisen from peculiar or exceptional views, is shown by their final expressions the Master to His disciples. Daily new apostles set out,cross the seas, and, spread of satisfied adhesion to the church in which they unquestionably desired to die ing through boundless empires, approach the most distant shores and spare no while defying its precepts. Their isolation must, therefore, have been merely pains to extend the frontiers of the kingdom of God.-P. L. Connellan, in the social, not intellectual, Pilot.

Perhaps this very social isolation was the key to their suicide. Perchance they THE PULPIT AND PUBLIC OPINION.—The minister of the Gospel is in a sense

found a deeper and profounder social tie in dying as they had lived, together. Posa public servant, and is supported by the voluntary contributions of the people. It

sibly the fear that one of them might die, and leave the other to live on, alone, and is only necessary to consider this simple statement a little to see that this re

to lapse into greater loneliness and poverty, harrassed them until they thought it, in lation of the minister to the people is the source of a very subtle and very powersul

all but the form, more social, and even more brotherly and sisterly, to go, in their temptation to make the pulpit a mere echo of current opinion. If the people are

old age, as they had gone when children into some garden of flowers, hand in hand not pleased ihey will not pay, and although the preacher may not be conscious of

into the silent land. any lack of independence, and, as a rule, is not conscious of it, it nevertheless is a

The antidote to suicide is society--not the mere pretense of society--not very difficult thing for him to escape the logic of the fact that his support depends

"I'Midst the hum, the crowd, tho shock of men, upon the favor of the public. Nor is this all of the case, nor the worst of it

. A

To see, to hear, to feel, and to possess, man who differs much in his opinions from the people about him, and especially if

And roam along, the world's tired denizen,

With nono to bless us, none whom we can bless," he is vehement in his advocacy of his opinions, is stigmatized as peculiar. He must conform to the ideas and customs of his contemporarics, or fall under the for this is the deepest of all solitudes--but that unbending of mutual reserve and odium of having an unbalanced mind. Elijah would be called a crank, and breaking down of intervening sell-will and pride, which causes men to feel for and John the Baptist a lunatic, if they should appear now and denounce popular vices act with each other. Had these unfortunate suicides thought more of others than

of themselves, and engaged in those philanthropic works which develop the best human sympathies, the suicidal intent would not for a moment have found lodg. ment in their natures.

Religion, war, amusement, literature, science, philosophy, and politics in unlike ways compel men to unbend and be social. But what shall be done for the large mass to whom none of these bring any melting force, zeal, or burning and creative fire? Perhaps they think of religion as something like insurance, which they have altended to, and that is the end of the matter. There are no grand conflicts of nations which interest them. Amusements pall or cost too much. Books are dead, and they find only fraud in sects and parties. Science is too deep and laborious. Life is often a burden to the mind which feels that it can attain to nothing new ; that it is a mere spent ball. The possibility of novelty is with many the key to happiness.

For twelve years past the growth of suicide has been rapid, and confined to no class. When Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jr., shoots himself because he has only five millions, we say it is crackbrained dissipation. When a Cleveland iron-maker worth seven millions takes his own life because his fortune has shrunk ten per cent., we can not charge it upon dissipation. When a Presbyterian doctor of divinity in Chicago shoots his wise and himself after an adverse vote on his retention by his church as its pastor, we can not charge the suicidal tendency to irreligion, especially since millions of irreligious men manifest the most stalwart love of life. All shades of faith, from the Catholic to the agnostic, and all conditions, wealthy and poor, learned and ignorant, now and then furnish suicides. But it is seldom that a downright, heartily genial man, who welcomes a reasonable number of his fellow-men to his house and heart, and who is concerned in healthful work for others, takes his own life. It is not good for man to be alone. Unsociability, which is selfishness incarnate, whether arising from pride or sensitiveness, is more invariably the cause of the crime than any other. Now, who is the apostle that can successfully preach down unsociability ?Frank Leslie's Illustrated Paper.

AMERICAN DENTISTS IN GERMANY.—The excellence of American dentistry is nothing new to Europeans, but it is not often that such tangible testimony is borne to it as is involved in the establishment of a German journal as the express opponent of the thought and interests of German dentists educated in America. Such is the function of the “ Journal sur Zahnheilkunde, Vereins-Organ der deutchen Vereinigung in Amerika graduirter Doctoren der Zahnheilkunde,” the first number of which has just reached us. The new journal, which is to be a quarterly at first, with the prospect of more frequent publication in the future, is edited by Dr. Erich Richter, and published in Breslau. The initial issue is handsome in appearance, and is filled with excellent matter. We have no doubt of its prosperity, and we wish it the fullest measure of success, quite as much for its own merit as out of gratification at the implied honor to our country.—New York Medical Journal.

NOTES.—The total amount subscribed to date to sustain the Pasteur Institute in France is $113,719. The sultan has presented Pasteur with the grand order of Medjidie and $2,000, and will send a commission to Paris to study his methods of rabies prevention. -Sixteen of the wolf-bitten Russians who were treated by Pasteur have reached Smolensk on their way home, and, being in persect health, have telegraphed their gratitude to their preserver.

In order to settle the question as to the proper treatment for persons who have been frozen, Dr. Laptchinkski has made a series of*very careful experiments upon dogs. He found that, of twenty animals treated by the method of gradual resuscitation in a cold room, fourteen perished; of twenty placed at once in a warm room, eight died; while twenty put immediately into a hot bath recovered quickly and without accident.

-The new inethod of execution by electricity proposed for the State of New York is described as follows: The condemned person would be placed in an ordinary chair with his head resting against its back. A wire would be run from the electric light works to the prison, and entering an insulated substance, such as glass or rubber, would constitute a positive pole. The man's feet, placed upon a metallic plate, would form a connection with the pole, and, arrangements being complete, at a given signal a switch in another room could be turned, and the current, entering the base of the brain—that is, the center of the nervous systemwould pass through the man, who would instantaneously cease to exist. -Somne prominent Dublin physicians, after careful experiment, have concluded that the bicycle and tricycle offered the most economical means of using the human muscles -The Jewish hospital at Wuerzburg, which was opened two years ago, and whose assets do not reach 20,000 marks, received a bequest of 65,000 marks from the deceased Dr. (hlesheimer. -Mrs. Julia Nathan lately died at Dover, England, in her 100th year. Her parents lived to the ages of 96 and 104. She leaves six daughters, thirty grandchildren, forty-eight great-grandchildren, and eleven great-great-grandchildren. -M. Lessenne claims that a certain sign of death is the permanent gaping of a wound maıle in the skin by puncturing it with a needle. If the person be living, blood will usually follow the withdrawal of the necille, but whether it does or not, the wound will close at once.

The puncture made in the skin of a dead person will remain open, as is made in leather.

arrives at his conclusions, and suspects whatever it does not understand. The late Dr. R. Angus Smith complained of being “contemptuously compelled to herd with thieves and scoundrels in a witness-box.” He adds: “I have seen barristers speaking to a scientific witness in such a way as to show that to them a witness was always an inferior person.' Surely, every person who has been present at a technical trial, or has had to appear as an expert in a poisoning, a patent, or an adulteration case, will be able to confirm this from his own observation and experience. Now, it may, perhaps, be cynically hinted that men of science should be willing to bear all this annoyance for the public good. But is it for the public good? In the first place, not a few of the most emi. nent men in every department of science distinctly and peremptorily refuse to be mixed up in any affair which may expose them to cross-examination. “I will investigate the matter, if you wish it, and will give you a report for your guidance, but only on the distinct understanding that I am not to enter the witnessbox.” Such, in substance, is the decision of not a few men of the highest reputation and the most sterling integrity. Certainly it is not for the interest of justice to render it impossible for such men to give the court the benefit of their knowledge. Further, the spectacle of two men of standing contradicting or seeming to contradict each other in the interest of their respective clients is a grave scandal. Men of the world are tempted to say that “science can lay but little claim to certainty, and is rather a mass of doubtful speculations than a body of demonstrable truth.” To us, at least, there is nothing more saddening than to read the trial of a notorious poisoner, or the report of a great patent case, especially if taken along with the comments of the press and of society on these occasions. Here, then, we see that our present mode of dealing with scientific evidence is found on all hands unsatisfactory. The outside public is scandalized; experts are indignant ; the bench and the bar share this feeling, but, unfortunately, are disposed to blame the individual rather than condemn the system. But we fear that this unanimity of dissatisfaction will vanish as soon as a remedy is seriously proposed. To that, however, we must come unless we are willing to dispense with scientific evidence altogether. As it seems to us, the expert should be the adviser of the court, no longer acting in the interest of either party. Above all things, he must be exempt from cross-examination. His evidence, or rather his conclusions, should be given in writing, and accepted just as are the decisions of the bench on points of law.- Chemical News.

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS IN JAVA.—Herr Fennema, a mining-engineer at Buitenzorg, in Java, has made some observations on the recent volcanic eruptions in that island which are of interest, as setting at rest a matter on which some doubt has existed. On the authority of Junghuhn, the general belief has been that in historic times all the volcanoes of Java (and of Sumatra, it may be added) had thrown out solid matter only, and never those streams of lava which are so characteristic of most eruptions. But a careful examination of Smeru and Lemongau, during the catastrophe of April last year, show that the notion must be abandoned as incorrect. The former is not only the highest, but also the steepest in Java. From 700 to 1,400 meters the slope is about 60, up to 2,100 it is 200, and from 2,100 to 3,671 meters it is more than 300. For a considerable way from the summit the striking cone consists wholly of the detritus thrown out regularly by the almost uninterrupted activity of the crater. Up to April, 1885, the existence of torrents of lava was unknown. On the 12th and 13th of that month a stream appeared on the southeastern side and forced the residents on the plantations lower down to fly. The stream increased for several days, until it reached a height on the mountainside of about 2,100 meters from the level of the sea. The loss of life was due to the avalanche of stones sent down the steep sides of the mountain by the stream. Similarly, at the same time, Lemongau threw out a lava stream, but there was a curious difference between this and the one issuing from Snieru—the latter was andesitic in its character, while the former was basaltic.— Nature.

ELECTRICITY AND VINEYARDS.—A California vine-grower, in a region where once in a great while the temperature fell a few degrees below the freezing point, thus endangering his crop, rigged up an electric alarm system which signaled to him when the temperature out in the fields had fallen low enough to require the lighting of fires to prevent frost. A neighbor, more fond of his ease, immediately improved on this apparatus. He fixed his brushwood ready for firing, and then arranged his electrical apparatus so that when the temperature fell to thirty-two degrees a current should be sent through a platinum wire in some fine combustibles and light the fires, instead of signaling him to do the work himself. The apparatus is cheap and more reliable than hired men, so that it is likely to be adopted in the parts of the State exposed to inopportune frosts.— Philadelphia Ledger.

HABITS OF THE EMU.—The curious case of the emu is described in a letter from Mr. Alfred Bennett, who had an opportunity of watching the habits of this bird, which was, during several seasons, successfully bred by his father in Surrey. The hen bird, says Mr. Bennett, begins to lay about the end of October or beginning of November, and as each brood consists of twenty eggs or more, laid at intervals of two days, the process takes about six weeks. Before it is completed the cock bird begins to sit. The eggs laid subsequently are. deposited by the hen by the side of her mate, who puts out his foot and draws them under him As soon as the eggs begin to hatch it is necessary to isolate the hen, as she fights furiously with her matc, and would, to all appearance, kill the chicks if she were allowed to get at them. The whole of the tending of the young is performed by the male bird. Nature.

NOTES.—It is believed that the immense tower, one thousand feet high, that is to be erected in Paris, although principally built as a matter of curiosity and to draw people to the coming exposition, will render important services to the cause of science. Observations can, it is reasoned, be made at this height that have hitherto been impracticable. -English scientific journals are going to considerable pains to show the impracticability of attaining a speed of forty knots an hour in ocean-going steamships, as has recently been declared practicable by some writers on the subject Engineer says economical objections alone would be fatal, to

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SCIENTIFIC.

SCIENTIFIC Experts AS WITNESSES. — Let us look at this question as it presents itself to men of science, alike to the chemist, the physicist, the mechanician, the gcologist, the physician, and the microscopist, though certainly not to the astronomer, who is in no danger of being called, as such, to give his testimony. The expert occupies a totally anomalous position in court. Technically, he is a mere witness; practically, he is something between a witness and an advocate, sharing the responsibilities of both, but without the privileges of the latter. He has to instruct counsel before the trial and to prompt him during its course. But in cross-examination he is the more open to insult, because the court does not see clearly how he

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say nothing of engineering impossibilities. -A regulation as old as the French more than trebled its flocks in five years. But the severe winter of 1885 carried Academy of Sciences has just been broken through in Paris, Women have hith off 15 per cent. of the Texas sheep. New Mexico in 1880 had 2,088,000; in 1885 erro been excluded from the sittings of the Academy, but at the meeting of the it had 5,410,000, of which it lost only 6 per cent. Oregon also had increased from 2$th ult., the interdiction was raised in favor of Malle. Sophie Kowleska, professor 1,083,000 10 2,519,000, of which it lost 8 per cent. California also increased, and of mathematics at the University of Stockholm, and daughter of the eminent las not fallen back, so that its highest census was in April, 1886, when it re. palæontologist. Admiral Jurien de la Graviere, who presided, welcomed her in ported 6,069,000 against 4,152,000 in 1880. The Republican compiles from the gracesul lerms, and said that her presence should be a cause of pride and pleasure, census and the bulletins of the agricultural bureau the following comparisons of not only to the mathematicians present, but to the whole Academy. As she en the number of sheep in certain Slates in 1880 and 1886: tered, the whole of the members rose to salute her. She took her place between General Fave and M. Chevreul,

Sheep.

1880. LIt is stated that the explorations for coal con

1886. ducted by Dr. Warth in the salt range in the Punjab have proved so satisfactory

Maine

565,918

537,407 that the government is now arranging for the practical working of the seams.

New llampshire
Dr.

211,825 195,260 Warth estimates that over one million tons are underlying the plateau of Dundote.

Vermont

439,870

378,174

Massachusetts The coal is not of the first quality. It contains iron pyrites and is very friable.

67,979 64,561

Connecticut A telegram from Zanzibar, of the 30th ult., states that Dr. Fischer had returned

59,431 53,477

Rhode Island there. He has not succeeded in rescuing Herr Junker, the African traveler, who,

17,211 20,449

New York when last heard of, was in the region north of Uganda. -A machine for shear

1,715,180 1,595,824 ing sheep is said to be in successful operation in Victoria. It is made of brass, in

Pennsylvania .

1,776,598 1,189,481

Ohio the shape of a small trowel, and is actuated by a turbine wheel, about three inches

4,902,486 4,753,034

Illinois in diameter, geared into a wheel, on which is fixed a cutter. A comb serves as a

1,037,073 1,005,653 Indiana

1,100,511 1,088,517 guard against cutting the skin. The steam is conveyed from the boiler by an Indiarubber tube, which is double, having one inside the other. The inner one is the

Kentucky

1,000,269 903,223 Michigan

2,189,389 2,269,607 injection, and the space between the two the ejection. An interesting experi

Missouri

1,411,298 1,285,078 ment, showing the influence of electricity on the growth of roots, has been made

Wisconsin

1,336,807 1,218,800 in Germany by Professor Hodefieiss. Plates of copper were thrust upright into

New Mexico

2,088,831 the earth, and connected by wire with similarly placed zinc plates, about one hun

4,328,755 Texas

2,411,633 6,802,615 dred feet distant, an electric battery being thus formed with the earth between the

California

4,152,349

6,069,698 copper and zinc in the circuit. Both potatoes and beets, planted between such

Oregon

1,083,162 2,469,551 plates, gave an increased yield-beets fisteen per cent., potatoes twenty-five per

- The Springfield Republican. cent.—as compared with other parts of the same field. A writer in the Bee Journal says that bees have a strong antipathy to dark-colored objects. A brood of NUMBER OF PERSONS IN THE LEADING INDUSTRIES.--The following table, chickens ran about his hives. The bees stung one of the dark ones to cleath, and compiled from the census reports of 1870 and 1880, shows the number of persons did not molest the light-colored ones. He says that a man with a black plug hat cmployed in several leading industries, the proportion so employed to the total rarely gets stung, the bees devoting their attention to shooting the bat. Several population), and the wages received, amount and average per person in the census kinds of quadrupeds in the London 200 suffer from corns on their feet, due to the

years of 1870 and 1880: hard floors, and these produce boring ulcers, which may extend clear tlırough tlie

Proportion -Wages paid. foot.- Hernia also occasionally afflicts the monkeys.- -Mr. Graber has recently

1870.

No. persons
employed to

Each described, in the transactions of the Vienna Academy, the result of observations

employed.

Amount.

person. indicating that eyeless animals are sensible to light. In a box divided into com Boots and shoes,

138,662

278 $52,765,669 partments, and each furnished with two openings, he distributed equally a num Brooms and brushes .

5,206

1,268,875 244 ber of earth-worms. One of the openings in each compartment he obscured or Clothing

108,128

30,746,579

284 concealed, and exposed the box to the light, examining the worms from time to Cotton goods

135,763 284

39,103,383 288 time, and adding new ones every four hours. By repeated observations he Fire-armis.

3,297 11,390 2,490,774 found that they showed a decided tendency to withdraw to the darker parts of the Flouring mills,

58,448 659 14,577,533 compartments, only sorty out of a total of two hundred and fifty remaining in the Furniture

40,554

950 17,901, 379 lighi. He also studied the influence of different rays upon them, and found them llardware

14,236 2,708 6,845,640 susceptible to the different colors. When the openings were covered with blue or Ilosiery

14,788

2,550

4,429,085. 311 red glass, they manisested a marked preference for the red light. -A botanist Paper

17,910 2,153 7,149,513 has attempted to estimate the number of seed sound upon a single specimen of Paper-hanging

869 44,370 329,267 some of the most obnoxious weeds of this country. For shepherd's purse he Woolen goods

77,870

495 26,648,272 makes the number 37,500 per plant; dandelion, 12,108; wild pepper grass, 18,

1880. 400; wheat thief, 7,000; common thistle, 65,366 ; camomile, 15,920; butter weed,

Boots and shoes .

139,816

53,085,672 8,587; rag weed, 4,366; common purslane, 388,800; common plantain, 42,200;

Brooms and brushes

8,773

2,424,040 burdock, 38,068. -Experiments were made recently with a telephone between

Clothing

160,783

312 45,940,353 285 Vienna and Brunn, a distance of one hundred and fifty kilometers. Although the Cotton goods

185,472 270 The deepest artesian well in

45,614,419 weather was very bad, the results were successful.

Fire-arms
4,862 10,315

555 the world is that now being bored at Pesth, for the purpose of supplying the public

Flour mills

58,407 A depth of 951 meters (3,1 20

858

17,422,316 baths and other establishments with hot water.

Furniture

45,186

1,109 20,383,794 451 feet) has already been reached, and it furnishes 176,000 gallons daily, at a tem

llardware

16,80 1 2,984 6,846,913 407 perature of 1580 Fah. The municipality have recently voted a large subvention, Hosiery

18,885 2,655 6,701,475 in order that the boring may be continued to a greater depth, not only to obtain a

Paper
Professor Long, of

24,422 2,053

8,525,355 larger volume of water, but at a temperature of 1670 Fah.

Paper-hangings

2,487 20,167 874,921 the Illinois State Microscopical Society, after repeated experiments, says: « Tak

Woolen goods

$6,504

578 ing all things into consideration, I am forced to believe that we have no absolutely

25,836,392 certain method of distinguishing between butter and some of its substitutes, and

- The Stockholder. that, of all methods proposed, the microscopic are, perhaps, the least reliable.

RAILROADS.
STATISTICAL.

Excess in RAILWAY BUILDING.—That railway building has gone forward at a

rate beyond the commercial needs of the country is a proposition that every one SPARROWS.—Presuming that the sparrows were introduced into this country in accepts, yet the real disproportion between the means of internal transportation and the year 1870, the following figures will show what the increase would have been

the business to be accommodates can only

be guessed at or approximated. It

, perfrom a single pair of sparrows let loose in the spring, giving 6 pairs as the annual in haps, would be of but little practical service were it possible for the exact amount crease, and the parent birds dying at the end of each year : November, 1870, the in of road necessary for the purpose to be shown. There are a few leading articles crease would have been 6 pairs; November, 1871, 36 pairs ; November, 1872, 216

of production—viz., grain, cotion, coal and iron-that illustrate the growth of trade pairs; November, 1873, 1,296 pairs; November, 1874, 7,776 pairs; November,

and the relative requirement of means of transportation. An application of this 1875, 46,656 pairs; November, 1876, 279,936 pairs; November, 1877, 1,676,616 test shows that the building of railways has advanced at least three times faster pairs ; November, 1878, 10,077,696 pairs;, November, 1879, 60,466,176 pairs; No

than the average increase in production. It is admilted, however, that this method vember, 1880, 362,797,056 pairs; November, 1881, 2,176,782,336 pairs; Novem of comparison, in this country, where railroads are built in advance of and for the ber, 1882, 13,060,694,016 pairs; November, 1883, 73,364,164,096 pairs; Noven developinent of traffic, is not a definite test of aclual requirement. Iu any of the ber, 1884, 470,184,984,576 pairs; November, 1885, 2,821,109,907,456 pairs. countries of Europe, the liberal railway building of the United States would over Philadelphia Ledger.

burclen capital and embarrass trade. In this country, ronds are built in hopeful The Sheer or the Country.—The census of 1880 placed the number of practice is not often a mistake. Should railway building cease from to-day, the

confidence that a development of traffic will follow, and results show that this sheep in the country at 35,192,000. In 1885 the number of sheep reported to the agricultural bureau was 50,360,243, although there had been a decline in the capacity in moving

the traffic that woull naturally grow up. As an illustration of Pastern States. Texas had increased from 2,411,099 10 7,558,000, having thys / this, and of the too rapid progress of railway building, we compile the following

776 250 441 480

399

378 342

378 5,118

380 276

246

2,700,281

298

349 352 298

FINANCE AND COMMERCE.

tons.

1860

lows:

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figures showing the production of grain—all classes of cereals—cotton, anthracite coal, tolal imports and exports of iron, and miles of railroad in operation at the end of each period of five years from 1850 to 1885:

Cereals,

Cotton,

Anthracite, BUSINESS PROSPECTS.—Corn is the only food crop which remains in serious doubt, bushels.

bales.

tons.

and the odds steadily mass in favor of a large yield. Kansas, one of the most im1850

857,708,200
2,171,706

3,254,321 portant corn States in the Union, has had its drouth relieved by timely showers 1860

1,206,138,300 4,823,770 8,131,234 | during the last week, and there is now every prospect of a crop of this cereal 1865

1,109,048,200 No record. 9,498,396 large enough to continue cheap food for another year. Wheat, it becomes more 1870

1,619,186,100
3,154,946 15,553,380

and more certain, will equal last year's supply, and the week's advices about for1875

2,021,094,600 3,832,991 20,643,500 eign crops render improbable any large addition to the foreign demand. The 1880

2,703,580,900 5,757,397 23,437,240 English crop will probably pull up to a fair harvest, and the French deficiency in 1885

2,850, 186,000 5,669.000 31,623,529 wheat of 28,000,000 bushels or so promises no large demand on this country. SupIncrease per cent.

232
114

871 plies outside of the United States and Russia tell much the same story, and there Pig Iron, Imports and

Railroad is at present no prospect that the coming crop year will see any larger export of Year.

exports.

miles. cereals than the last. For the Atlantic coast, this simply means that the coming 1850 *763,218 $317,885,252

9,021 year will see substantially unchanged the trade conditions of the past year, in 919,770 687,192,176

30,635 which a large traffic has been carried on at very fair wages to labor, very favorable 1865

031,592 494,774,800 35,085 prices to the buyer, and the smallest possible margin of profit to the capitalist. 1870

1,865,000
828,730,176

52,900 There is a strong impression abroad that the coming six months is to see the last 1875 2,226,581 1,046,448,147

74,096 change for the better. This may take place, but two facts work steadily against 1880 4,295,414 1,503,593,404

93,349 any increase in profits. One is the growth in imports as prices lessen abroad and 1885

4,529,869 1,319,7 17,426 129,852 manufacturers in England, Germany, and France find themselves compelled to sell Increase per cent .

493
315

1,339

somehow in the United States. The result is a steady increase in merchandise * Year 1854.

imports relative to our exports. The totals in hundreds of millions of merchanAs representative of the growth of leading industries, coal and iron are reckoned dise exports and imports for the last six fiscal years, ending with June, are as folas holding a leading place, and these two articles have had the largest ratio of increase in production. But when compared with the increase in railway mileage,

'80-I. '81–2. '82–3. '83–4. '84-5. '85-6. it is seen that the means of transportation have increased about twice as fast as the Exports

$902 $750 $823 $740 $742 $679 growth in production of these commodities. When compared with the increase in

Imports

642 724 723 667 577 635 production of grain and cotton, the increase in railway mileage has been four times more rapid, and as compared with the growth of foreign trade the railway develop

The difference here between the business done in the first year and the last is ment has been more than four times as great. Were the question, however, put only 100 apparent. It is of even more serious consequence that, while in the case to-day as to what roads could be closed up or their use dispensed with, causing loss

of exports both value and quantity are greatly reduced, the imports show a great and inconvenience to tracle, it would be found that scarcely a single mile would be

increase in quantity, while the total value is little below the average of recent surrendered without protest. Railway building may have proceeded too fast, but

years. The practical result is that, while the value of our exports in 1885–6 is a there is not a mile as yet built, comparatively speaking, that will not in time find

much smaller reward than in 1880-1 for the labor expended and the capital emfull and profitable occupation.— The Stockholder,

ployed in producing the cereals, provisions, cotton, and petroleum exported, the Notes.—The Pennsylvania Railroad Company has inaugurated a series of low

imports now represent a much sharper competition with the labor and capital en

gaged in the production of like articles at home than six years ago. At the same rate excursions to seaside and mountain resorts. The result proves not only ex

time, the competition of the South and West with the manufactures of New Engtensive patronage, but a satisfactory revenue, and an ever-increasing popularity of

land and the Middle States is steadily increasing. It is noticeable, for instance, the line. The passengers are carried in their luxurious coaches a distance of nearly

that the demand made for a reclassification of domestic dry goods by the trunk 500 miles for the sum of $200. It is claimed that no company in the world, be

line pool is based upon the fact that the competition of Western mills renders the sides this, does this as a regular and legitimate part of its business. The local

high first-class freight rate a prohibitory tariff on the products of Eastern mills. business of this road, this season, has been unprecedented over the entire system,

The trifling changes in the returns of the New York city banks, shown by the agand the managers have been obliged to contract for the building of no less than

gregates published Saturday, the sluggish changes in price, and the absence of any 2,000 passenger cars. - The Canada Pacific Railway Company has fitted up a

striking trade changes during the last week all reflect the dullness of a midsummer number of cars with baths for the use of travelers. -A railroad official who, for

week. For the present, the immediate record of trade shows no serious change.twenty-five years, has kept a record of accidents at railroad crossings in this

Philadelphia Press, July 26. country, states that of 30 cases where accidents have proved fatal, in 22 the parties driving the teams run into were under the influence of liquor at the time of PROSPECTS OF THE Fruit BUSINESS.—There is at the present time a feeling of the accident. A single locomotive recently drew 141 cars in a single train doubt among orchard planters, as well as with nurserymen who supply the trees, across Louisiana, at an average rate of ten miles an hour. -The Lake Shore & whether raising fruit for market is to continue a profitable business. Prices generMichigan Southern road has added three elegant new dining cars to its passenger ally have become much reduced. Instances have occurred the present season traffic. The cars cost $14,000 each. -Twenty-five million people cross the New where in large cities the price of strawberries has been less than the wages for York and Brooklyn bridge in a year. The receipts from tolls about equal the cost picking them, not counting the cost of raising, expense of shipping, and fees paid of maintenance and betterments, but there is scarcely anything left to go toward for commission, Orchardists will remember when the best pears readily brought paying interest on the vast cost of the bridge. -Another railroad official, who has five times the sums now paid for them. Some of the leading sorts sold by the kept a caresul record of accidents on his road, states that 60 per cent. of the wrecks quantity on the trees for three dollars a bushel, which now will not bring more of freight trains on their road have been directly traceable to overloading cars. But than fisty cents. The best-grown specimens of the Anjou then were readily disa few days ago a freight car broke down and wrecked a train, doing fully $1,500 posed of in Eastern cities at twenty dollars a barrel. During the past abundant clamage to equipments, and investigation showed that, although the car was rated pear season thousands of bushels were allowed to decay for want of a ready marat 30,000 pounds, the car, when it broke down, was carrying 53,000 pounds. ket, and in the preceding year a still greater waste was allowed to take place with A New South Wales expert on bridge building says the whole secret of the suc a portion of the enormous crop of apples. Evaporated fruit sor a time brought cess of American competition is this: In England there is an absence of system satisfactory prices, but these prices have been much reduced. Apples were more from first to last, while in America bridge building has been reduced to a system, extensively planted long years ago, and, as a matter of course, prices continue worked out on sound scientific and commercial principles.—Mr. A. Sanson, in nearly the same. All these facts bring a shade of discouragement over the minds an article in a recent number of the Revue Scientifique, states that, from a com of those who are engaged in the business, or who are about to enter it. There are parison of animal and steam power, in france at least, the former is the cheaper ample reasons, however, why this discouragement should not be felt. Most of the

In the conversion of chemical to mechanical energy, ninety per cent. is changes which have taken place in prices are the single result of natural causes. lost in the machine, against sixty-eight in the animal. He finds that the steam We can well remember when, of the great multitude of the people at large, not horse-power, contrary to what is generally believed, is often materially exceeded one in a hundred ever tasted some of our finest fruits, much less had a regular supby the horse. The cost of traction on the Montparnasse-Bastille line of railway he ply of them. The few who first raised them, therefore, found a strong demand found to be, for each car, daily, fifty-seven francs ; while the same work, doné by when they were placed before the public—the demand then greatly exceeding the the horse, cost only forty-seven francs; and he believes that, for moderate powers, supply—and they went, at high prices, into the hands of wealthy purchasers Men the conversion of chemical into mechanical energy is more economically effected of moderate means had to go without. These high prices stimulated over-producthrough animals than through steam-engines. -A Philadelphia paper says : The tion in quantity at the expense of quality. There was much heedless planting, l'ennsylvania Railroad Company has recently been quietly making experiments to without adapting the supply to the probable demand. IIence the surplus in some ascertain whether or not it would pay for a big railroad corporation to observe directions, while a want still remained in others. Insectsand diseases discouraged Sunday, by cutting off more or less of its Sunday trallic. A great many of its ex many planters, and discouragement is always a fruitful source of careless treatment cursions and several of its regular passenger trains lave been discontinued. The and inferior quality. Another drawback was a want of careful assorting in packfreight trains, excepting those carrying live stock and perishable goods, have been ing for market, and still another was a deficiency in system in shipping. That all ordered off from 8 o'clock Saturday night till midnight Sunday, and all repairing these difficulties and drawbacks may be substantially overcome is shown by the work on Sunday has been stopped. To make the opportunity still further bene fact that there is now, during the present year, more money received for fruit than ficial, freight engineers are allowed the use of their locomotives to take themselves at any previous period. The fruit sales cluring the past year in some of the westhome for the day. The results have thus far proved so satisfactory that the di ern counties of New York amounted to more than half a million dollars, and in one rectors are now arranging to make these experimental changes permanent and to county to almost a million. This was owing to the great increase in quantity. extend them. The men are found to be worth more, and the liability to accident The reduced prices placed the supplies in the hands of a vastly augmented numis lessened.

ber of purchasers. The costly dainties of the few in sormer years became the

motor,

accessible dainties of the multitude. What we now want is more generous treat great saving of freight. The Pittsburgh Commercial-Gazette, discussing and ment in raising fruit generally, and more skill with insects and diseases. The discrediting

Professor Carll's prediction that the natural gas supply must in time be erroneous notion must be dissipated that fruit trees will take care of themselves, exhausted, mentions the remarkable fact that the pressure with which the gas is and that strawberries and raspberries are cheaper when neglected. Instances injected into the reservoirs is so great as to convert it into a refrigerant. By it could be named where skillful cultivators have realized more than double profits tools have been frozen fast in wells, and the converson of petroleum into paraffine by reducing their plantations to an extent in which the very best treatment could is of constant occurrence. -Silver shipments from San Francisco for the first half be given, in thorough drainage, deep tillage, high fertilizing, and careful selection. of this year amount to $14,628,484, including those made through regular mercanThe man who raises larger, handsomer, and better fruit than anybody else can ob tile channels and through the mails on account of merchants and bankers. The tain access to ready markets with high prices when common fruit in excess can not shipments for the past two years have been nearly double the average of the prebe sold.-- The Country Gentleman.

vious three years. The increase in the exports of the Mexican dollars is particu

larly noteworthy. Nearly one-half of the silver sent out of the country through NOTES.—The estimated number of fruit trees in California, according to the San Francisco is in the form of Mexican dollars. The landed property in EngPacific Rural Press, is as follows: Total number of trees, 8,000,000, divided as land covers 72,000,000 acres. It is worth $10,000,000,000, and yields an annual follows: Apple, 2,700,000; peach, 1,200,000; pear, 500,000; plum and prune, rent, independent of mines, $330,000,000. One-fourth of this territory, exclusive 600,000; cherry, 400,000; apricot, 500,000; orange, 1,600,000; lime and lemon, of that held by the owners of less than an acre, is in the hands of 1,200 pro500,000; grape vines in bearing condition, 70,000 acres. -In one day in June prietors, and a second fourth is owned by 6,200 others, so that half the entire there were landed in London 10,000 baskets of cherries, weighing 700 ions, from country is held by 7,400 individuals. The population is 35,000,000. The peers, Rotterdam. It is stated that English railway companies carry this produce from not 600 in number, own more than one-fifth of the kingdom; they possess 14,000,Rotterdam, the Hague, and other Dutch centers to London at a cheaper rate than 000 acres of land, worth $2,000,000,000, with an annual rental of $66,000,000. they will convey the same description of goods from Kent and from Essex.

-It is said that a trained seamstress in New York was found making boys' Some Western farmers state that the potatoes are being destroyed by a big black gingham waists, with trimming and buttonholes, for two and a half cents each. By bug that is even more dangerous and destructive than the common striped bug. working nineteen hours a day she earned twenty-five cents! According to the They are about a quarter of an inch long, and have done considerable damage. records of the Protective Union in New York, the average weekly wages of women The crop of potatoes, as well as that of oats, will be small in consequence of the in manual employments are from three dollars and fifty cents to four dollars. Out drought. -The new New York Commercial Bulletin estimates the fire loss in of this must come rent, fuel, lights, food, clothing. There are no vacations, no the United States and Canada from January 1 to June 30 at $53,900,000, which is recreations.-—-Starving Indians in Labrador are reported to be eating their $3,000,000 in excess of the corresponding period last year. _The American children. Machinist says:

6. The two articles that seem to get the worst boycotting are bread and beer.”. A new locomotive, involving an outlay of $25,000, is turned out each month in the Consolidated Railway shops at New Ilaven.. -A year ago this time the total stock of printing cloths in this country was 1,178,000 pieces, of

ART. which 344,000 pieces were piled up in Fall River. The market was sluggish at three cents, and the mills there were stopping to curtail production. Now the total stock of printing cloths in the country—only 311,000 pieces—is the smallest NOTES.—Henry Kirke Brown, the sculptor of the equestrian statue of Washat any date during the last five years, and is less than a fortnight's production of ington in Union Square, New York, the equestrian statues of General Scott and Fall River looms. -During the last six months there have been added to the General Greene in Washington, and other celebrated works, was buried at Newmanufacturing industries of the South 40 foundries and machine shops, 30 ice fac-burg on the 14th inst. President Huntington, of the National Academy of Detories, 1 Bessemer steel rail mill, 8 miscellaneous iron works, including iron pipe sign; Prof. John F. Weir, of the Yale School of Fine Arts ; J. Q. A. Ward, the works, bridge and bolt works, 3 stove soundries, 15 gas works, 7 agricultural im sculptor; Mr. S. P. Avery, Mr. Maynard, Mr. Jervis McEntee, and other artists and plement works, II carriage and wagon factories, 8 cotton mills, 18 furniture fac friends attended the funeral. Mr. Brown was buried beside his wise on his own Iories, 48 flour mills, 248 lumber mills, and a large number of other smaller enter pleasant grounds on the Hudson. His heir is his wife's nephew, Mr. Henry K. prises. -The Mitis process of making wrought iron and steel cartridges is attract Bush Brown, a young gentleman who is studying sculpture in Paris. -Mr. Leing considerable attention throughout the country. -The first new bale of cotton land (Hans Breitmann) has written a work entitled « Wonderful Anecdotes of of the crop of 1886–’87 was sold in Memphis, July 21, and realized 25 cents per Animals,” by Prof. Annan-Eyas Saltiarne (Ananias Salt Yarn), which is to be pound. It was raised by F. E. Sibley, of Texas. -Information has been recopiously illustrated by Lord Ralph Kerr, who is said to have a wonderful gist ceived that a Russian steamer with 4,000,000 pounds of tea had sailed from Yoko or faculty of drawing comic animals. The work was suggested by the Countess hama for Tocoma, W. T. This is the first of a steam fleet which will ply between Brownlow, to whom it will be dedicated. This lady, by the way, takes a promithose ports. -Seventyfive cents is the exact value of a nowadays silver dollar. nent and active part in the work of the Home Arts and Industries Association, The Baron de Sellcere, now traveling in this country, has been so extravagant that he which has now more than 120 schools and classes in different villages and towns has lest debts in Europe to the amount of $5,000,000, and his liability has been in England. Its object is to teach and disseminate band-work or industrial art of limited by law. --The total value of breadstuffs exported during the year ending all kinds, both ornamental and practical, among women, children, and the poor. June 30 is given at $122,800,379, against $156,451,831 for the preceding twelve -For Winslow Homer's “A Voice on the Cliff,” of which the catalogue price months. The Northwestern Miller says: The mills made a heavy increase in was $500, Mr. E. C. Stedman, who bought it a few years ago, was offered $1,000 the production last week in Minneapolis, the total output of flour being 145,800 before the exhibition closed. Since then he has declined $1,600 for it. It has barrels, averaging 24,300 barrels daily, against 121,830 barrels the preceeding just been etched by J. D. Smillie. -Among the wedding presents received by week and 46,140 barrels for the corresponding time in 1885. -The Navy bill Christine Nilsson is one from the Queen, consisting of a photograph of Her Maj

. at present contemplates a total expenditure of $10,128,000, of which $3,500,000 is esty in an oxidized silver frame. Beneath the portrait is the autograph signature, to be available during the present year. -The chief of the Bureau of Statistics · Victoria, Reg., Osborne, June 14, 1886.”—The Chicago Historical Society has reports that the total number of immigrants arrived at the ports of the United purchased from the artist, Howard Kreschmar, a marble bust of Father De Smet

, States from the principal foreign countries were for the month of June, 1885, the Indian missionary. -Mr. Charles Aldrich quotes Mr. Francis Darwin as his 42,128; for the month of June, 1886, 44,643; for the twelve months ending June, authority for the statement that the engraving of Charles Darwin, published in 1885, 349,030 ; ending June, 1886, 328,917. He also, in his twelfth monthly Harper's Monthly shortly after the great scientist's death, is regarded by his famstatement for the year ended June 30, 1886, of the imports and exports of the ily as the best portrait of him ever made. - There are some new and interestUnited States, reports that the total values of the imports of merchandise during ing portraits lately added to the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, in Edinburgh. the twelve months ended June 30, 1886, were $635,253,606, and during the pre Among others, one of Neil Gow, the distinguished violinist and composer of the ceding twelve months $577,527,329, an increase of $57,726,277. The total values last century, by Raeburn. It was taken after Raeburn's return from Italy, and of the exports of merchandise during the twelve months ended June 30, 1886, were painted as a sort of advertisement, and possibly at the request of the Duke of $679,425,972, and during the preceeding twelve months $742,189,755, a decrease Athole, with whom Neil Gow was on intimate terms. Four or five portraits were of $62,763,783.- -The Gas, Oil and Mineral Company of Ellenville, N. Y., has afterward copied from the original likeness. There is also a fine Gainsborough a force of men engaged in boring into the rocks at Wawarsing, Ulster county. The in the same collection. One of Charles James Fox, in an oratorical attitude, and surface of the rocks indicate, according to geologists, a rich mine below. The another of the Duchess of Queensberry, who was distinguished in verse by Pope Glass Bottle Manufacturers' Association of the United States met in annual con and his literary contemporaries. vention at the West End Hotel, Long Branch, July 21, President Michael Haggarty in the chair. A committee was appointed to consider the questions of wages and boycotts. California is developing another source of wealth in the produclion of vegetable garden seeds. The industry promises to expand in another

DRAMA. direction, for it is found that the same general excellence belongs to the California flower seeds. -The St. Louis “ Trades Display Association is preparing for a grand parade, under the name of a carnival, on September 10.— -Quebec ship Notes.-— The “Mercedes,” of Aldrich's “Mercedes, and Later Lyrics” (1884), ping returns show decreasing business, the number of ships inward bound having is to be played by Mr. Barrett at the Star Theater in September. The drama is decreased 60 in 1886, as compared with the previous year. The outward bound written in prose, excepting two songs—a soldier's bivouac song and a lullaby. It vessels were 27 less. - The New Orleans produce Exchange has appointed a is divided in two acts, and introduces seven or eight speaking characters. The committee, with W. B. Schmidt as chairman, to promote direct trade with Rio scene is laid in Spain during the great Peninsular wars. The Dramatic Authors' Janeiro. —The cotton seed oil combination is threatened with what appears to be and Musical Composers' Society published the receipts of the Paris theaters in the formidable competition. Capitalists of Cincinnati and other cities have formed year ending the 30th of June. The results are not altogether favorable. Eleven the National Cotton Seed Oil Company, with a capital of $1,000,000, more than half houses show an increase compared with the year 1884–1885. These were the of which is already paid up, which will at once begin operations in opposition to Opera, 270,158 francs; Theater Francais, 94,369 francs; Opera Comique, 736 the American company. They will work a patent process by which the seed will francs; Odeon, 297,594 francs ; Vaudeville, 328,384 francs; Gaite, 413,526 francs, be hulled in the cotton-fields, and only the kernels transported to the mills, at a Chateau d'Eau, 76,819 francs ; Renaissance,

161,374 francs; Folies Dramatiques'

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