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ever “ affairs of honor”
are thought necessary, would prove an admirable device for preventing bloodshed, and, at the same time, satisfying all the demands of the most exacting chivalry. The French duelist sometimes goes so far as to draw a drop or so of blood, but even this is beginning to be considered too “gory” and in bad taste, and in his duel on Saturday with the Baron de Lareinty, Gen. Boulanger, the French minister of war, according to one account, indicated that the correct thing in dueling is to stand at a safe distance from one's adversary, and, after he has fired and missed, to fire into the air. In other words, the French duel is becoming a harmless form for settling personal quarrels, in which all the dramatic elements are preserved, and in which the principals advance to the encounter with the comfortable assurance that they will both return home without injury, and with sharpened appetites for breakfast, after the morning's exercise. This is the way they manage duels in France, as a rule, and there is no reason why the wounded honor that demands a public and formal healing should not be cured in this fashion everywhere.-Baltimore Sun.
poet,” as well as the poor and faithful. During his course of Lenton sermons at Pisa this year the train brought hearers from Florence, Leghorn, and Lucca, and crowds waited for hours at the church doors to secure places. Two hours before the sermon all the chairs were occupied. Business was at a standstill, lawyers left their offices and the courts, professors and students deserted the university; the business of the hour was to hear Fra Agostino. The people quit their stores and workshops, and the marvelous piazza, where the Duomo, the Campanile, the Battistero, and the Camposento ordinarily raise their sculptured splendor of marble in solitary silence, is filled with noise. Thousands of heads are crowded together in the pale light beneath the painted and gilded vaults, whence still hangs the great bronze statue that taught Galileo the secret of the rotation of the earth. Fra Agostino has a keen feeling for the sufferings of the people. . He preaches aloud the duties of the rich and the powerful, derived from the Evangelical law, “ Love thy neighbor.” He sometimes so carries away his audience that the crowds are unable to restrain themselves. Frantic and repeated applause bursts out, which he strives in vain to repress. As soon as he has pronounced his last words he suddenly disappears, makes his way to a side door, and hastens to hide himself at his residence. Unfortunately, he is by no means strong. His chest suffers and he sometimes spits blood. The life of Fra Agostino seems to have been of the most romantic kind. Of well-to-do family (according to the Figaro) he was destined for the priesthood, but in 1859, before taking holy orders, he, like so many of his contemporaries, threw aside the cassock for the red shirt, and became a Garibaldian soldier, winning his medal and his captain's epaulets by his bravery in the war of independence. He married, but very soon death carried off both wise and child, and the Garibaldian soldier sought peace in the cloister, and was soon transformed into an apostle of the Word. Many other reports and rumors are current about him, some of a less flattering kind. When questioned about his life his own sole answer is, “Sir, I have been a great sinner."--The Catholic Review.
Positivist PARODIST.—The positivist parody of Christianity is one of the most amusing products of this century. The comical part of it is that the parodists faithfully reproduce a few of the externals, and even the cast-off excrescences of the old faith, in the firm belief that they are manufacturing a respectable substitute for the religion of the Nazarene. The pilgrimage of Mr. Frederick Harrison and his fellow-believers to the birthplace of Comte, and to the tombs of the prophet, and of some of the earlier Comtist saints, is duly chronicled in the press. However brilliant Mr. Frederick Harrison's intellectual powers may be (and he can wield sarcasm of no ordinary kind), he must be sadly deficient in the sense of humor, or he would decline to participate in demonstations which decidedly overstep the narrow boundary between the sublime and the ridiculous.—Methodist. Times.
Muscular Christianity.–One hears a good deal about « muscular Christi
THE BISHOPS OF BALTIMORE.—The Primatial See of Baltimore, now honored by the elevation of its archbishop to the Cardinalate, will celebrate in less than four years the centenary of its birth. Its nine successive prelates have been men of marked virtue and learning, and of strong individuality. First in this noble line stands John Carroll, 1790-1815, bishop and patriot, the friend and eulogist of Washington, and near akin to the illustrious Charles Carroll, of Carrollton. His name is as intimately identified with the beginnings of American national life as with the beginnings of the church in this country. Among the works of his episcopate were the founding of St. Mary's University, and the establishment in the United States of the Jesuits and the Sisters of Charity. Archbishop Carroll visited Boston in 1803, and laid the corner-stone of its first church, the Holy Cross. The great achievement of Archbishop Leonard Neale's episcopate, 1815-1817, was the institution in the United States of the Order of Visitation Nuns—one of the foremost of Catholic teaching orders, and now widely extended here, especially in the South and West. Archbishop Ambrose Marechai, 1817–1828, was among the pioneers of the Order of St. Sulpice (founded for the training of secular priests) in this country. During his administration the Baltimore Cathedral was completed, and the Oblate Sisterhood for the instruction of colored youth established. Archbishop James Whitfield, 1828–1834, and his immediate successor, Archbishop Samuel Eccleston, 1834-1851, were noted for their zeal in Christianizing and educating the negroes of the South. Archbishop Whitfield had the honor of assembling the first Provincial Council of the American Churchi. Archbishop Eccleston brought the Redemptionist Fathers to this country for the benefit of the large and fast-growing German element. He also founded St. Charles' College, Ellicott City, Md. It was his privilege to preside over five Provincial Councils. Archbishop Francis Patrick Kenrick, 1851-1864, theologian, orator, fearless reformer, tireless missionary, truly called one of the most distinguished ornaments of the Catholic hierachy, was a native of Dublin, Ireland. Twenty years of his episcopal lise were spent in the diocese of Philadelphia, which he enriched with many educational and benevolent institutions. Transferred to Baltimore in 1851, he held the first Plenary Council the following year. In 1854 he went to Rome by the special invitation of Pope Pius IX, to assist at the deliberations preceding the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. In the midst of the labors inseparable from his office, he found time to write “ Dogmatic and Moral Theology," seven volumns; “ Vindication of the Catholic Church,” and, his greatest work, a complete translation, with notes, of the sacred Scriptures. Archbishop Martin John Spalding, 1864–1872, convened and presided over the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1866. He, too, was a notable orator, and his voice was heard in the Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, 1869–1870. He was a polished writer, as his “ Miscellanea,” « Evidences of Catholicity,” and other works attest. We may add that his nephew, Bishop John Lancaster Spalding, of Peoria, Ill., maintains the honor of the name as orator and author, and has been the moving spirit in the institution of the American Catholic University. Archbishop James Roosevelt Bayley, who presided from 1872–1877 over the See of Baltimore, was an ardent apostle of popular education. He was promoted thither from the bishopric of Newark, N. J.
, in which he had founded Seton Hall College and instituted a model system of parochial schools. Archbishop Bayley wrote the “ Early History of the Catholic Church in the Island of New York.” He was a nephew of Mother Elizabeth Seton, founder of the Sisters of Charity in the United States. Of Cardinal Gibbons, whose life has been already sketched in these colums, we need but add that he is of Irish origin, like his illustrious predecessors, Archbishops Carroll and Kenrick, and that in religious zeal, in scholarship, and administrative genius, he has already proved himself the worthy heir of the noble traditions of the mnother diocese of the Church in free America.— The Pilot.
A New SAVONAROLA.—The European papers speak at great length of the wonderful effect produced at Pisa by the sermons of Fra Agostino da Montefeltro, which have, says the London Tablet, attracted attention far beyond the boundaries of the preacher's own country. Fra Agostino, it is said, is one of those voices to which it is impossible to close one's ears. His is a lofty spirit, a burning enthusiasm; he rises to the highest summits of human science and religious enthusiasm; then descends into the depths of the simple human soul and the transparency of innocence. He speaks in turn to the intellect and to the sentiments; he has the true gift of tongues. While the multitude follow him without effort, the most intelligent are equally under the charm of his words. Endowed with an asonishing rapidity of eloquence, he appears to enunciate his ideas under different forms, so as to continually captivate the aristocracy and democracy among his audience. The cathedral can hardly contain the crowds that flock to hear him preach. His auditors include radicals, unbelievers, the dreamer, the “satanic
anity,” but it is not often that one sees a really worthy exhibition of it, especially among parsons. The Rev. G. H. Hawkins, vicar of Holy Trinity, Stroud, has, · however, just given a practical and striking exemplification of it. While the reverend gentleman was out walking with his wife, he saw two men amusing themselves by setting a dog on to a poor old woman. He remonstated with the ruffians, who retaliated by attacting him in a most savage manner. He defended himself with his stick and his fists, and with such effect that he knocked one of his assailants down two or three times, though, while he was holding him down, the other man savagely kicked him. The Stroud magistrate thought a fine of ros. and 8s. 6d. costs was sufficient punishment for the brutal savages.-- Truth.
NOTES.—Rev. B. F. Costa, of N. Y., has been made an honorary secretary of the Evangelical Alliance. Mrs. Wm. Harrison, of Minneapolis, has given the Woman's Christian Temperance Home $30,000 for an old ladies' home. _The expense of the late Congress of Churches, held at Cleveland, amounted to $546.
A direct descendant of Martin Luther's younger brother, Jacob, is studying for the ministry at England. -Work is to be resumed on the Seney Hospital, on Seventh avenue, Brooklyn, to erect which George I. Seney gave over $200,000 before he failed. The Methodist Churches of the city have subscribed $60,000 to complete the work, and the board of managers of the hospital have fixed upon plans which they hope will furnish them $140,000 more. Mr. Ferdinand Schiveria, an evangelist, having been prevented from street preaching in Brooklyn, has procured a “Gospel wagon,” and a peddler's license for selling Bibles and distributing tracts from it. -The London Ragged School Union reports that in the 215 Sunday afternoon and evening schools connected with the Union there was an average attendance of 42,304; in the 173 day and night schools, an average of 3,538. Rev. Sam P. Jones is going to the Pacific coast next February.
-Rev. E. P. Hammond is holding a series of meetings in Christiana, Norway. — The next Pan-Presbyterian Council is to be held in London, beginning June 26, 1888.The official year-book of the Church of England shows that during the last twentyfive years the Church has raised and spent for religious and educational purposes the sum of $407,866,185. -The Waldensians, at the General Conference at Florence, Italy, have decreed that hereafter female members who have reached the age of 21 shall be allowed to vote, but not to speak, at church meetings. —- In the Italian Parliament, Isacco Pesaro Maurogonato was elected vice-president. He is not the only Jew, however, who fills such a high position. In all the ministries Jews occupy high offices. In the ministry of foreign affairs, Malvano is one of the highest officers; Senator Ascoli is a member of the Italian State Board of Education, etc. -The petition to the Reichstag, of the German Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, to prohibit the Jews from slaughtering according to their ritual, has, for want of time, not been considered in this session. An act to incorporate the First Synod in the Dominion of Canada of the Reformed Episcopal Church, and for other purposes connected therewith, received the royal assent through the governor-general on the ad inst. -A singular complaint is made by the clergymen of St. Louis, to wit, that they are delayed in the return from funerals by the carriage drivers stopping at the beer-houses to get their beer, and drawing up in procession in front of the saloons, and so near that the inmates of the carriages can hear the clink of the glasses within. A convention of representatives of the
Psalm-singing churches is to be held in Holland during the coming autumn. The last
year and the increase of the earnings of several important lines are encouragchurches in Ireland, Scotland, and America, who bear the name of Reformed ing indications. The fact that the steel rail combination have sold 1,100,000 tons Presbyterian, have appointed deputations. -Buddhism in Japan has been virtually of the 1,400,000, which is the output agreed upon for the year, indicates a good disestablished since 1874. While there were 393,087 Buddhist temples in 1714, degree of prosperity. It is estimated that the wool clip of the present year is 10 per there are now but 57,824. Few new temples are built, and many are going to cent. less than that of last year, and the indications are that the present prices will ruin. One of the most distinguished temples in the country now in such need of be sustained. The damage to the spring wheat crop in the Northwestern States repairs that a call has been made to raise a fund of $17,000 in shares of 300 yen is now estimated to be from 10 to 20 per cent. There is said to be a feeling that each for this purpose.
-Mr. Spurgeon wrole to his Tabernacle folks last month a higher range of prices for wheat is likely to prevail during the coming year than that he was just sending to the press lis nineteen hundredth sermon. has been quoted for two years. This belief is based largely upon the unfavorable
-The Methodists in the West Indies are celebrating their centennial. -Mr. wheat reports from the United Kingdom, Russia, India, Australia, and elsewhere.Spurgeon has received a legacy for his orphanage of $2,000 from a gentleman Boston Journal, July 19. who recently died in New Jersey, the first ever sent him from this country. Cardinal Guibert, Archbishop of Paris, died on July 8, aged 84. -There are
PETROLEUM EXPORTS.-As an article of export petroleum takes high rank in 10,000 Catholic Indians in Dakota. —Archbishop Alemany, who resigned the
the staple productions of the United States. There are more than 570,000,000 see of San Francisco in November, 1884, is now hard at work reviving the Domin
gallons, valued at nearly $50,000,000, annually sent to foreign countries. This ican Order in Spain. -Four hundred Scandinavian converts to Mormonism ar
vast industry depends almost exclusively on Western Pennsylvania for supply. Of rived at New York last week, en route for Utah. -On the 18th of June, Mr.
the quantity above stated by far the greatest proportion is illuminating oil. The Adolph Reichenheim, of Berlin, died childless. He distributed his large prop
exports of the latter commodity for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1886, were erty among Jewish and Christian institutions, among them 150,000 marks
463,931,634 gallons, valued at $40,050,203, and for the year endled June 30, for widows and orphans of teachers of the public schools, 15,000 marks to the
1885, they were 455,802,592 gallons, valued at $39,733,711. The balance is Catholic hospital, the society for popular education, for the home for veterans,
made up of crude oil, about 80,000,000 gallons, valued at about $5,900,000; lu90,000 marks to the Jewish community for a home for aged Israelites, 70,000
bricating oil, more than 12,000,000 gallons, valued at about $2,500,000; naphthas marks for the Jewish seminary, besides numerous bequests to persons who were
and residuum. The increase in quantity of illuminating oil exported during the past in his employ.-- Jewish gentleman in Amsterdam, desirous of commemorat
year compared with the preceding year is striking, and this has been attended with ing an auspicious family event, has purchased a plot of ground of about 1,550
very little change in the export price, that of 1885 being 8.7 cents, and in 1886, 8.6 square meters, whereupon he proposes to erect an infant school and a creche.
cents per gallon. It is estimated that 100 gallons of crude petroleum will proIn a recent address in London, Rev. Philip H. Wicksteed, at the English anni
duce 76 gallons of illuminating oil. While the export price of illuminating oil versary meetings, said : “ Religion is not consistent with love or beauty or truth;
has thus decreased but one-tenth of 1 cent per gallon, or say 4 cents per barrel, it is love, beauty, and truth.” -The Societies for Christian Endeavour have just
the price of crude oil from June, 1885, to June, 1886, decreased more than 20 held a very successful conference at Saratoga.
-The Chautauqua Assembly sea
cents per barrel. The export price of crude corresponds with the market figures son, which began in July, will continue until August 31. Dr. George P. Hays is
in this respect, that of 1885 being 7.8 cents per gallon, and that of 1886 being in charge of the department of church work. Among the lecturers are Dr. John
7.3 cents per gallon, a decrease of one-half cent per gallon, or 20 cents per barrel Hall, Dr. Willis J. Beecher, and Dr. Duryea. -The colored Methodists have
of 40 gallons. On the contrary, the price of lubricating oil has increased slightly; now the largest church in the city of Washington. It cost $116,000, of which all
that is to say, from 20.1 cents to 20.2 cents per gallon. The first question which but $40,000 have been raised, and seats 2,800 people. Three years ago the
arises is, whether this decline of 4 cents per barrel in the export price of illumiCongregationalists had no German church in any Western city of influence. To
nating oil has led to this increase of exports from 455,802,592 gallons to 463,931,day they have churches in St. Louis, Chicago, and Springfield, Mo., and promis
634 gallons, or 8,129,042 gallons in a year, or a difference of about $650,000 per ing missions in Kansas City and Omaha. - The new mayor of Shanghai is a
annum in the export trade. If so, who gains by it? Surely not the producer, native Christian.
who suffers a decline of 20 cents per barrel on his whole production of, say, 23,000,-The Young Women's Christian Association now numbers 8,000 members in Ireland. The Reformed Church received 4,719 accessions
000 barrels, or a loss of at least $4,700,000 annually to add this $650,000 to the on confession of faith during the past year. The Congregational churches of
national wealth through the hands of the refiners.- Pittsburgh Commercial GaSpringfield, Mass., have voted to ask the American board to meet with them in
zette, July 16. 1877. A French Protestant church was organized in Holyoke, Mass., July 2,
SOUTHERN INVESTMENTS.--Announcements of investments in Southern propand M. J. L. Morin was ordained as pastor.-In America there are only two
erty are of almost daily occurrence. Among the latest is one from Knoxville, monasteries maintained by the Trappist monks, and no monastic order has a more
Tenn., to the effect that an Eastern syndicate has just purchased 500,000 acres of singular history or follows more rigid customs. One of these monasteries, in which the best coal lands in East Tennessee, embracing the famous Coal Creek and Poplar the vow of perpetual silence is enjoined, is located at Dubuque, Iowa, and the Creek mines. The syndicate is said to be the same controlling the East Tennessee, second is in Nelson county, Ky., a short distance from Louisville. This second Virginia and Georgia railroad, and Brunswick, Ga., it is said, will be the leading is called the Monastery of Gethsemane. -The annual grove meeting of Uni
coaling station of the Southern coast steamers. The new coal syndicate is headed tarians at Weirs, N. H., will be held July 25 to August 1, inclusive. At the by E. R. Chapman, of New York, and has a capital of over $2,000,000. The last monthly meeting of the Board of Managers of the American Bible Society, London Trade Exchange of a recent date announces that three prominent memthe number of colporleurs reported to be now at work was 112. The receipts in
bers of the South Staffordshire iron trade-Messrs. Joseph H. Pearson, of HandsJune were $40,152.32; issues from the Bible house in June, 103,801; total re worth, the owner of Netherton and Windmill End Furnaces, near Dudley; Benjaceipts since April 1, $ 109,228.85; issues since April 1, 296,803 volumes. -The min Round, of Hange Furnaces, Tividale, and Samuel Dickinson, of WolverAmerican Sunday.School Union offers a premium of $1,000 for the best book, hampton, the local agent of the Barrow Steel Company–will shortly sail for this popular in character, on the subject, “ The Christian Obligations of Capital and country for the purpose of inspecting some extensive mineral properties in AlaLabor.” This premium is offered in accordance with the terms of the John C. bama, on behalf of a company which is being formed for the purpose of developing Green fund. -The Burmans, fearing the collapse of the Buddhist religion, have them on a large scale. Referring to this movement, the London Trade Exchange asked the Viceroy of India to appoint a Buddhist pope. -Among the coming
remarks: “Mr. Ralph Bennett, of Smethwick, another eminently practical ironevents in Nova Scotia is the celebration of the centennial of the appointment of master, went out to Alabama last year, and having brought back a good report, it the first Episcopal bishop in that province: It is proposed to commemorate the seems likely that a new black country will be built up in Alabama by capital and event by the erection of a cathedral at Halifax.--Some paragrapher has at last enterprise from the old black country.”—Baltimore Sun. discovered the meanest man.
It is he who, when he attends church, occupies NOTES.- There is a decided movement toward laying electric wires underground a pew the furthest from the pulpit to save the interest on his money while the
in all the important cities of the Union. -The total area of the Crown forests of collectors are passing the plate for contributions.
Sweden at the beginning of 1885 was 5,785,535 hectares, being a seventh part of the total forest area of the country. The revenue from the same was a little less
in 1885 than in 1884, but this is believed to be only incidental, it having risen from FINANCE AND COMMERCE. £750,000 in 1880 to £890,000 in 1882, and £120,000 in 1884. -The British
consul at Portland, Oregon, reports that direct imports of coal from Australia to the Pacific coast are increasing year by year.
-Mr. F. Seimens has perfected a proBUSINESS PROSPECTS.—Nothing has transpired the past week to interrupt the cess for casting glass as if it were a metal, and in a short time an experiment will. general feeling of confidence which has been reported in regard to the business of be made with the material to ascertain how far it will serve for railway sleepers.-the ensuing season. There are indications of a better money market, due to the Chicago has received from the Black Hills the first car-load or tin' from the first fact that large amounts of money will be necessary to move the season's crops and tin mine and from the first tin mill of America. The district from which this car. to the heavy export of gold. The export of wheat and corn during the month of load of tin comes is located around the base of Harney's Peak, the granite core of June amounted to 17,656,575 bushels, which is 7,000,000 bushels in excess of the the Hills. The veins vary in widthfrom 5 to 200 feet, and crop out in places to conexport in June for the years 1884 and 1885. The value of our exports of bread siderable height above the surface, and can be followed for from 500 to 3,000 feet stuffs, provisions, cotton, and petroleum during June was $37,521,770—almost in length. They all lie in the slates near the line of contact with the granite, a $10,000,000 in excess of the value of the export of these articles in June, 1885. geological condition siinilar to the other tin regions of the world. The Prince These figures are encouraging, because they show that, heavy as our imports of George mine at Stockton Hill, Arizona, has netted its owners a clear forty thousand merchandise are, they are not likely to be so large as to make a trade balance dollars, in addition to the purchase price of the mine, all of which has been taken against us and make a new draft upon the stock of gold. The report of the corn out in 90 days. -The manufacturers of ordnance from aluminum-bronze will incrop from the Agricultural Department is very encouraging. The breadth devoted
crease the use of copper, as a large percentage of the alloy is of that metal. The to corn July 1 was 75,689,000 acres, and the average condition is .95. Last year Anaconda mine of Montana proposes to run so as to make 36,000,000 pounds of the acreage was 73, 130,000 acres, and the condition was .94. As a much-needed
fine copper a year. -The Eureka mica mine has been sold to an English syndirain has fallen since reports were collected upon which this calculation was made, cate; consideration, $25,000. The property lies in the vicinity of Custer, Dakota. it is fair to assume that the present prospect of the corn crop is such as to warrant A meteor recently fell in Kansas weighing about five tons; an assay shows the expectation of the largest crop of corn that the country has ever harvested. iron, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, and phosphorus. -Reliable figures show that The continued excess of bank clearings over those of the corresponding period of! in coal-mining, as in all other industrial interests, progress is the order of the day
« It ap
in the South. An increase in the coal output of 100,000 tons in 1885, compared mouth where my fingers had touched it before. The water seemed syrup. It with 1884, is very gratifying, especially so when it is remembered that the decrease flashed upon me that I was the cause of the singular universal sweetness, and I acin the United States, outside of the South, during the same time, was over 4,000, cordingly tasted the end of my thumb, and found that it surpassed any confection000 tons. The largest apportionate increase in 1885 over 1884, as shown by the ery I had ever eaten. I saw the whole thing at a glance. I had discovered or Manufacturer's Record, was in Virginia, where the gain was over 100 per made some coal tar substance which outsugared sugar. I dropped my dinner, and cent., and the highest output was 3,250,000 tons in West Virginia. - Reports of ran back to the laboratory. There, in my excitement, I tasted the contents of gold discoveries are coming to the surface. The Buenos Ayres Standard states every beaker and evaporating dish on the table. Luckily for me, none contained that the reports of discoveries of gold in Patagonia have excited the greatest inter any corrosive or poisonous liquid. est. The steamers from the South continue to bring favorable accounts.
« One of them contained an impure solution of saccharine. On this I worked pears that with regard to the existence of gold in the valley of the Rio Gallegos then for weeks and months until I had determined its chemical composition, its there is no manner of doubt; bottles of samples have come up, and in the window characteristics and reactions, and the best modes of making it scientifically and of an exchange shop in Montevideo there is to be seen a large lump of Patagonian commercially. gold. We imported during the year just ended $35,000,000 worth of manu “When I first published my researches, some people laughed as if it were a factures of iron and steel, which, by the way, is 10 per cent more than the pre scientific joke; others, of a more skeptical turn, doubted the discovery and the dis
-The steel output is increasing wonderfully; Pittsburgh plants have coverer, and still others proclaimed the work as being of no practical value. increased their product about 1,900 tons daily. The Wheeling output is 1,200 “When the public first saw saccharine, however, everything changed. The entons daily, which will be incresed 300 tons shortly. - The Lake ore shipments to tire press, European and American, described me and my sugar in a way that may date are 268,203 tons in excess of last year. -By the use of natural gas for fuel have been edifying, but was simply amusing to me.
And then came letters. the consumption of coal for manufacturing purposes at Pittsburgh has decreased at My mail has run as high as sixty a day. People wanting samples of saccharine, the rate of 47,450,000 bushels a year. -The coal deposits adjacent to Great my autograph, or my opinion on chemical problems, desiring to become my partFalls, M. T., occupy an area of 375 square miles. At present there are eighty ner, to buy my discovery, to be my agent, to enter my laboratory, and the like. coal mines worked in India, of which seventy-eight are in Bengal, one in the cen. “ What have I done ? I have started a company in Germany to manufacture tral provinces, and one in Assam. The total output in 1883 was 1,315,776 tons, saccharine, with a capital of 2,000,000 marks. They are already at work, and and 23,172 persons were employed.—About 10,000 mines have been patented are now producing the new sugar. It costs, or rather we sell it, between $10 and in the United States up to January of this year. -During the month of March $12 per pound, but will reduce these figures considerably before a year has gone the following were among the exports from Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney, and past. I would rather have started in this country, which is my home, but the Queensland to Great Britain : Copper, Soo tons; copper ore, 300 tons, and tin, 500 high price of skilled labor, and the high tariff on the crude materials (fine chemi
- The carnings at Sing Sing prison for April were $6,005 above expenses. cals) of which saccharine is made, deterred me and my friends from so doing. I It is estimated that the total amont of gold money in circulation in the world will say, however, that if applied chemistry continues progressing as it has done is $3,250,000,000, and of silver money $2,800,000,000. -The world's total coin in the past decade, we shall open branch works here within the next five years." age of gold and silver in 1885, as reported by the deputy master of the English Saccharine is proving a wonderful success.
It is used already in many ways mint, was $71,896,000 gold and $77,790,000 silver. -There are about 4,000 Prof. Leyden, of Berlin, recommended it to sweeten fine wafers and other foods women on the pay-roll of the Government. -In 1830 the sum of eleven dollars for invalids, and wrote a formula for it in such cases. This is used by bakers and was deposited in the New Bedford institution for savings, and in the course of time confectioners, and more especially by Mannl & Co., the great wafer manufacturers the whereabouts of the depositor was lost. Recently, however, it was ascertained of Carlsbad, Bohemia. It is also employed by the makers of glucose and beet that the heir of the depositor was a colored man residing in Toronto, Canada, and sugar. These are inferior in sweetness to cane sugar, but superior in digestibility he has secured administrative powers, and has now withdrawn the deposit and and healthfulness. The addition of a trifling fraction of saccharine makes them accumulated interest, amounting to $272. -Reports from Cuba state that the the equals of the finest cane sugar in the market. Saccharine is so sweet that a sugar crop now about to be gathered, and which has been mostly cultivated with teaspoonful converts a barrel of water into syrup. A small wafer of it converts free labor, will probably be equal to the largest ever made on the island with slave the bitterest quinine solution or acid drink into a regular molasses. It will, there. labor, which was about 775,000 tons.
-It is stated that a shipment of 30,000 car fore, be invaluable in disguising and destroying alĩ the bitter and sour tastes in cases of mutton, the largest shipment yet made, is on the way from Falkland Island medicine without changing the character or action of the drugs. to London. -A mob of diggers have already arrived at the newly-discovered Saccharine does not decay, mould, or ferment, neither is it attacked by bacteria, gold field in Western Australia. Mr. Hardman, the government geologist, esti It has no injurious effect upon the human system. What effect has been noticed mates that there is an amperous deposit in the new fields extending over 3,500 to is rather beneficial than otherwise. This immunity from decay will render it of 4,000 square miles.
-Canadians are acting on the belief that the trade with great utility in pickling and preserving delicate vegetables and meats. Where Europe in the hard woods of their eastern provinces is susceptible of large exten sugar is used as a favor and not as a food, there, I think, it is bound to be replaced sion. -The Australian Times and Anglo-New Zealander says that the New by saccharine; where, as a food and flavor combined, it will not be. In the South Wales diamond fields bid fair to rival those of Brazil and South Africa. An future the new sugar will be used by druggists, physicians, bakers, confectioners
, extraordinary yield has been obtained from the neighborhood of Inverell, 2,400 candy-makers, preserve and pickle-makers, liquor distillers, wine-makers, and stones, weighing 625 carats, having been procured by four men in four weeks. Of dealers in bottlers' supplies. these, 302 carats were washed out of 32 loads of dirt. The Kohinoor claim is still The new coal-tar product, saccharine, which is expected to prove very useful on getting a number of diamonds, and had 700 carats ready for market in April.— account of its sweetening power—in respect of which it stands to cane sugar in the Business is reported in fairly good condition throughout the province of New ratio of 220 to 1, and with which considerable antiseptic properties are combined Brunswick. -Dr. Percy, president of the Iron and Steel Institute, says the Lon was mentioned at length by Sir Sydney Roscoe in a recent discourse at the Royal don Times, recently stated that “ before many years he looked to see Chinese iron Institution. This new substance was described by the lecturer as, perhaps, the and steel competing in the markets of the world.”. _The first train of eighty car most remarkable of all the marvelous products of the coal-tar industry. It is not loads of tea, bound from Japan to Europe, passed through Omaha July 16th. A a sugar, but contains carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen, and nitrogen, and its contest is taking place to determine whether tea can be shipped from China and chemical name is benzoyl sulphuric imide. It is neither a nutrient nor a poison. Japan to Europe quicker by the American overland route than by the Suez Canal. It is derived from the toluene of coal-tar, by a process comprising at least seven
- The report of the Imperial Bureau of Statistics says that in 1885 the German distinct steps, the whole contributing a triumph of synthetical chemistry. Toluene imports amounted in value to 2,990,000,000 marks, and the exports to 2,915,200, is first heated with sulphuric acid of 168920 Twaddell, but not above 1000 C. 000 marks. As compared with 1884, the imports last year sell 216,400,000 marks, After all the original toluene has disappeared, the mixture is run into wooden and the exports 344,000,000 marks. The decrease is attributed to the continued tanks partly filled with cold water, where it is stirred up with chalk. The mass fall of prices. The volume of imports in 1885, as compared with 1884, increased thus neutralized is filtered through a press, and the calcium salts are treated with 29,564 tons, while the exports diminished 337,733 tons. - According to official sodium carbonate, with another filtration following. The solution of the sodium statistics, it appears, says the Journal of the Society of Arts, that on the 31st of salts thus obtained is evaporated, and the solid residue dried by steam heat. This December, 1881, 382,131 persons were engaged in manufactories in Italy. Of material is then mixed with phosphorus trichloride, and treated with a current of these, 219,844 were spinners (69,447 being children); 77,779 weavers (13,628 chlorine. Certain residuals are then driven off, and the apparatus contains two children), and in printing, 15,499 (618 children) were employed. In 1876 there sulphonic chlorides—one solid and the other liquid. Only the latter is capable of were 229,538 weavers who worked at their own homes, chiefly in Sicily, Sardinia, yielding saccharine. This is now separated, mixed with solid ammonium carbon; Calabria, Apulia, and the Marche of Ancona.
ate, and steamed. After some further mechanical treatment, the liquid is oxidized by potassium permanganate; and, finally, the pure saccharine is precipitated by dilute mineral acids. It has a far sweeter taste than sugar, and a faint, delicate
flavor of bitter almonds.— The American Anylist. SCIENTIFIC.
How to COOL A CELLAR.—A great mistake is sometimes made in ventilating cellars and milk-houses.
The object of ventilation is to keep the cellars cool and
dry, but this object often fails of being accomplished by a common mistake, and SACCHARINE. -“How did I discover saccharine ?” said Dr. Fahlberg. Well, instead the cellar is made both warm and damp. A cool place should never be it was partly by accident and partly by study. I had worked a long time upon the
ventilated, unless the air admitted is cooler than the air within, or is at least as compound radicals and substitution products of coal tar, and had made a number
cool as that, or a very little warmer. The warmer the air, the more moisture it of scientific discoveries that are, so far as I know, of no commercial value. One
holds in suspension. Necessarily, the cooler the air, the more this moisture is evening I was so interested in my laboratory that í forgot about supper until quite condensed and precipitated. When a cool cellar is aired on a warm day, the late, and then rushed off for a meal without stopping to wash my hands. I sat
entering air, being in motion, appears cool; but as it fills the cellar the cooler air down, broke a piece of bread, and put it to my lips. It tasted unspeakably sweet. with which it becomes mixed chills it, the moisture is condensed, and dew is I did not ask why it was so, probably because I thought it was some cake or
deposited on the cold walls, and may often be seen running down them in streams. sweetmeat. I rinsed my mouth with water, and dried my moustache with my
Then the cellar is damp, and soon becomes mouldy. To avoid this, the windows napkin, when, to my surprise, the napkin tasted sweeter than the bread. Then i
should only be opened at night, and late--the last thing before retiring. There is was puzzled. I again raised my goblet, and, as fortune would have it, applied my no need to fear that the night air is unhealthful; it is as pure as the air of midday,
and is really drier. The cool air enters the apartment during the night, and cir finish the circle. The parchment membrane is unbroken, and the bees are simply culates through it. The windows should be closed before sunrise in the morning, laid upon it; but two magnets, connected with the clock work inside the tambouand kept closed and shaded through the day. If the air of the cellar is damp, it rine, move just under the membrane, and the insects, which are of iron, follow may be thoroughly dried by placing in it a peck of fresh lime in an open box. A them.-The botanist, De Candolle, set the age of an elm at 335 years. The peck of lime will absorb about seven pounds, or more than three quarts of water, ages of some palms have been set down at from 600 to 700 years, that of an olive and in this way a cellar or milk-room may soon be dried, even in the hottest tree at 700, that of a plane tree at 720, of a cedar at 800, of an oak at 1,500, of a weather.—Scientific American.
yew at 2,880, and of a baobab tree at 5,000 years. -A chestnut tree in GloucesAN ELECTRIC TRAVELING CRANE.-An electric traveling crane is now at work at
tershire, England, has a circumference of fity-seven feet, and it is supposed to have the warehouses of the Compagnie des Entrepots et Magasins Generaux, at Rou
been standing at the time of the Conquest, 1066. It is mentioned by Evelyn as baix, France. At these warehouses the cotton bales arrived mostly from America
having been known as the great chestnut of Tortworth, in King Stephen's reign, 1415. and La Plata are stored before being forwarded to the different cotton mills. On
-An Australasian Meteorological Society has been formed at Adelaide, South
Australia. -At the meeting of the Royal Society of Tasmania, on April 13, the account of the great fire risk no steam crane is allowed in the establishment, and the bales, which weigh about one-half ton each, had, until recently, to be hoisted
curator of the museum stated that during the past month Mr. Vimpany had cap
tured a black snake (Hoplocephalus curtus) at Longley, measuring about 4 feet and handled generally by manual labor. This work is now accomplished by a traveling crane worked electrically. The crane post is placed on a trolly which
3 inches in length. On opening it the unprecedented number of 109 young ones
were found in her. runs on rails, and a rail fixed to the ceiling of the warehouse guides the upper end of the post. The jib of the crane has a derrick motion. A small Gramme four-horse-power dynamo is fixed on the trolly. This is always kept running (900 revolutions per minute), and being connected with suitable gearing, it can be
MEDICAL. made to hoist the load, advance the crane on the rails, and operate the jib. The current of 15 amperes, with an electro-motive force of 250 volts, is conveyed to the crane by overhead sliding contacts from the generator, which is a six-horse
HEART BEATS.—The number of the pulsa tions of the heart in different animals power Gramme dynamo running at 1,200 revolutions per minute. The commer
-in fish, frog, bird, rabbit, cat, dog, sheep, horse—was described, and a few comcial efficiency of this arrangement is stated to be 60 per cent. It shows, however, ments made on the remarkable slowness of the heart—40 strokes per minute—in an economy in working, for, whereas formerly 10 men were required to handle the horse. Then the number of pulsations in man at various periods of life, and 150 bales in 18 or 20 hours, now with this electric crane 4 men can do the same
at different levels, from the level of the sea up to four thousand feet above sea amount of work in 3 hours.-Electrical Review.
level, was brought under review, and was followed by a computation of the average
work performed by the heart in healthy adult man. The work was traced out Good Rain.--The health-giving properties of rain are not appreciated by the by the minute, the hour, and the day, and was shown to equal the feat of raising 5 general public. Rain is an essential to physical vigor in localities that have any
tons 4 cwt, one foot per hour,or 125 tons in twenty-four hours. The excess of this work extensive population. Man and his occupations lade the air with countless and
under alcohol in varying quantities formed a corollary to the history of the work of unclassified impurities. The generous, kindly rain absorbs them, even as a wash the heart, Parkes calculation showing an excess of 24 foot tons from the imbibition erwoman extracts the dirt from soiled clothes. The ammoniacal exhalations, the
of eight Auid ounces of alcohol. The facts relating to the work of the heart gases resultant from combustion and decay, are all quietly absorbed by a bıisk by the weight of work accomplished were supplemented by a new calcushower. People talk about a “ dry climate,” but it is a snare and a delusion. lation, in which the course of the circulation was explained by milage. There is nothing in it. A very dry climate will never support a large population, Presuming that the blood was thrown out of the heart at each pulsation in the profor it would soon become so poisoned that it would be fatal to the human race. A
portion of 69 strokes per minute, and at the assumed force of 9 ft., the mileage of scattering few might inhabit it, but not the multitude.-Colliery Guardian. the blood through the body might be taken at 207 yds. per minute, 7 miles per NOTES.-Among the manuscripts recovered from the wreck of the Oregon was
hour, 168 miles per day, 61,320 miles per year, or 5,150,880 miles in a lifetime of one containing a valuable record of scientific research. An ingenious process
84 years. The number of beats of the heart in the same long life would reach for giving silver surface to iron is a recent Austrian invention. It consists in first the grand total of 2,869,776,000.—Dr. B. W. Richardson. covering the iron with mercury and then depositing the silver by the galvanic pro Notes.--Applicants for admission to the dental schools of Great Britain must cess. By heating to 3000 C. the mercury evaporates, and the silver layer is de
pass a satisfactory examination in English grammar and history, in Latin, algebra, posited. Experiments are being made in Germany, with a composition of cork, geometry, and physics; and, before they can receive their degree of L. D. S., they sand, and lime moulded into bricks, for the construction of light partition walls. must study for four years anatomy, chemistry, surgery, and such other branches as It is said to exclude sound better than ordinary brick-work, while being light and are taught in the medical schools, besides those which specially pertain to dentisa good non-conductor of heat. - The Bavarian Chamber of Deputies recently voted
try, as operative dentistry, the administration of anæsthetics. In London there $9,000 for the construction of an electro-technical laboratory, to be connected with are two dental hospitals in which all the operations known to that branch are the Polytechnique School at Munich.-A gentleman entered a telegraph office. practiced, and to which students have admission and opportunity to operate. In “I beg pardon, but as I was coming along this afternoon I saw myriads of flies the National Dental Hospital, during the year 1885, 9,001 fillings were inserted, settled on your wires. Can you suggest any explanation of the phenomenon?" of which 1,014 were of gold, the others being of gutta-percha or other plastic "About what time was it, sir?”. “About 4 o'clock.” “Ah! that accounts for it; material. -Consul-General Gibbs, of Bolivia, has given a very interesting acthat's the time I send the quotations of sugar and honey." —Jerome Prince, of count of the coca-plant, which is now so much employed in medical practice, and Milford, has invented an electric machine for locating articles lost overboard from which, together with opium, choral, and other drugs, is beginning to gain its vicboats or steamers in deep or shallow water. The model of the machine which
tims from the ranks of those who, having commenced its use for medicinal purMr. Prince exhibits works perfectly, locating readily iron, steel, gold, and silver. The poses, have become so enslaved by it that they can not give it up. There are in presence of the metal is indicated by rapid revolutions of a compass needle. the United States about one hundred medical colleges of good repute, at which more M. Colladon, in a paper to the Académie des Science, suggests that the electricity than ten thousand students attend annually. From these institutions go out each year so vividly illustrated by thunder-storms is generated principally by friction of air and from five to one hundred and fifty or more graduates, to swell the ranks of a proseswater vapor. During a thunder-storm the raindrops formed in the storm-cloud sion which now numbers in the United States more than seventy-seven thousand descend vertically to the earth, causing a partial vacuum, which is replaced by air members. For the additional instruction of these doctors there are published more drawn in laterally and from upper layers. The friction caused by this movement than one hundred and fifty medical journals. -Cholera is reported to have adis the principal cause of the generation of electricity, -Two French chemists, vanced as far as Venice and Trieste. A few years ago Dr. J. B. de Lacerda, of Messrs. Hembert and Henry, are stated to have discovered a process for producing Rio de Janeiro, made extensive experiments upon antidotes for snake bites, and pure hydrogen at a cheap rate. -The first city in Europe where electricity has finally settled upon the hypodermic injection of a solution of permanganate of potbeen entirely substituted for gas for street lighting is Hernosand, in Sweden. The
ash as being the most efficacious. -From the Medical News we learn that a motive power is water, which is very plentiful there, rendering the electric light | German physician was recently much puzzled by a case he was called to attend. cheaper than gas. -At the age of twenty-seven, the great Kepler describes him
The patient, a child five weeks old, was incessantly crying, and was undoubtedly self in the following language: "A body of no ample proportions, lean and scraggy; a suffering from colic, and its skin was of a bluish color. Further examination mind unaspiring—that is to say, burying itself in literary nooks and crannies, sus revealed the fact that the nurse was in the habit of using a cosmetic in which lead picious, timid, tending toward and abiding in difficulties and knotty points; man entered largely as a constituent. This gave to her face a brilliant tint, which at ners to correspond. Sour and sharp flavors, the gnawing of a bone, the devouring once attracted the attention of the physician. The use of this cosmetic was at of dry bread, form my gustatory delights; my keenest ambulatory joy is to traverse once interdicted, and in a few days the colic and the crying ceased. -Instances steep and rugged paths, to mount hills, to pierce my way across dense thorn-brakes. of extreme old age are reported from Russia. The Novosti, a Russian journal, Pleasure in life other than in study I neither have nor desire; proffered, I reject. announces the death, in the almshouse of St. Petersburg, of a man aged one hunMy fortune matches my tastes to a hair. Where others might abandon hope, I dred and twenty-two years, who had been an inmate since 1818. His mental find access to achievement and fame. Yet not over spacious, for my advance is faculties were preserved up to the time of his death, and his general health was continually checked, and my circumstances change without mending. All my excellent to the age of one hundred and eighteen, when he commenced to fail. efforts have hitherto met with strenuous resistance. It may be that social sympathy There is in the same institution a soldier's widow whose age, as shown by docuwill ever be denied me while I irritate mankind by advocating the movement of mentary evidence, is at least one hundred and ten years. In our own country, at the earth, while « tanti ponderis orbem obnixa cervice cito per sidera lapsu incito, New Holland, O., Mrs. Arnold has just celebrated the one hundred and ninth terricolâm contra nitente senatu.'” -A curious application of the magnet is de anniversary of her birth, and her two sisters are still living, aged, respectively, cne scribed in a French journal, the subject of it being a clock recently patented in hundred and six and one hundred and twelve. -Sir James Puget has been France. In appearance the clock consists of a tambourine, on the parchment head elected a foreign associate of the Paris Acadimie de Medicine. At a meeting of which is painted a circle of flowers corresponding to the hour signs of ordinary lately held at the rooms of the Argentine Medical Club, steps were taken toward dials. On examination, two bees, one large and the other small, are discovered the establishment of a Pasteur institute, in support of which it is thought that the crawling among the fowers. The small bee runs rapidly from one to the South American countries will generally contribute. A preliminary step in the other, completing the circle in an hour, while the large one takes twelve hours to undertaking is the sending of a gold medal to M. Pasteur, bearing the inscription,
"A. M. Pasteur. Los organizadores del Instituto Pasteur en Buenos Aires.” crossings. Their daily wages are from 50 to 75 pfennigs (12% to 19 cents An English writer points out the probability that a smoky atmosphere is not a
United States currency). -“ Here is the latest to beat us poor conductors out of wholly unmitigated evil, since its carbon and sulphur must absorb many germs of our fare,” said one of the fraternity the other day. "" While taking up the tickets I disease, and tend to prevent the spread of epidemics.
reached a nicely-dressed lady, who was looking, apparently preoccupied, out of the open car window and tapping her pocket-book on the window ledge. I touched her shoulder to attract her attention, when she jumped as though shot,
and dropped her pocket-book out of the car window. She began to cry, and what STATISTICAL.
could I do? Pass her, of course, which I did. I noted the place of the accident, stopped for the pockel-book the next trip, and found its contents to be a postage
stamp and a card of hooks and eyes. I felt pretty cheap then.”—The railroads THE HUMAN FAMILY.—The human family living to-day on earth consists of of Missouri are capitalized at $233,000,000. -The wooden sleepers in Mexico about 1,450,000,000 of individuals; not less, probably more. These are distributed cost $1.00 each. -The Missouri Pacific company is said to have determined on over the earth's surface, so that now there is no considerable part where man is not the construction of an important line from Memphis, Tenn., by way of Bald Knob, found. In Asia, where he was first planted, there are now approximately about Ark., northwesterly through Arkansas to a connection with its system at Carthage, 800,000,000, densely crowded; on an average, 120 to the square mile. In Europe Mo. This will require the construction of over 300 miles of road. The portion there are 320,000,000, averaging 100 to the square mile; not so crowded, but every from Bald Knob to Memphis, about 85 miles, is already under way, and it is said where dense, and at points over-populated. In Africa there are 210,000,000. In that contracts will soon be let for the remainder. The railway commission America, North and South, there are 110,000,000, relatively thinly scattered and which met at Albany July 7th announced its decision in regard to the car-coupling recent. In the islands, large and small, probably 10,000,000. The extremes of tests which came before it by awarding the first place to the Hoag coupler. the white and black are as five to three; the remaining 700,000,000 intermediate The Midland Railroad Company of England is erecting the most costly and gigantic brown and tawny. Of the race 500,000,000 are well clothed—that is, wear gar merchandise depot in the world. The iron used in its construction will weigh bements of some kind to cover their nakedness; 700,000,000 are semi-clothed, cov tween 16,000 and 17,000 tons. -President Cleveland has vetoed the Senate bill ering inferior parts of the body; 250,000,000 are practically naked. Of the race granting railroads the right of way through the Northern Montana Indian reserya500,000,000 live in houses partly furnished with the appointments of civilization; tion. The following estimate is made up by the superintendent of the Delaware 700,000,000 in huts or caves with no furnishings; 260,000,000 have nothing that Railroad of the prospective peach shipments over the Peninsular Railroad can be called at home, are barbarous and savage. The range is from the topmost lines during the season just opened : Delaware_Railroad, 873,415 baskets; round the Anglo Saxon civilization, which is the highest known-down to naked Queen Anne's and Kent Railroad, 118,100; Delaware and Chesapeake, savagery. The portion of the race lying below the line of human conditions is 125,525; Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia railroad, 61,025; Cambridge and at the very least three-fifths of the whole, or 900,000,000. As to religion, the Seaford Railroad, 57,525; Baltimore and Delaware Bay Railroad, 1,198,250; New 1,450,000,000 are divided in the order of numerical strength, as follows: 860, York, Philadelphia, and Norfolk Railroad, 84,830, making a total of 2,518,670 000,000 are pagans, comprising 600,000,000 of Brahmo. Buddhists, or Brahmans baskets. The Baltimore and Delaware Bay Railroad is the outlet sor Kent county, or Buddhists; 160,000,000 or unclassified pagans; 150,000,000 Parsees, Consucian Md., where the best bearing orchards are this year.
- The East-bound rates for ists, Shintoists, Jains, and other smaller pagan sects; 410,000,000 are Christians, passenger and freight from Chicago are to be restored, composed of 225,000,000 Roman Catholics, 75,000,000 of the Greek Church, and 110,000,000 Protestants; 180,000,000 Mohamme.lans; 8,000,000 Jews. The 860,000,000 of pagans are found chiefly in Asia and Africa, and comprise 99-100ths of the population, with scattering millions in the Americas and islands of the sea.
MUSIC. The 410,000,000 Christians constitute the body of Europe, and the nine-tenths of the Ainericans, with a few millions in Asia, Asrica, and the islands. The Mohammedans are found chiefly in Asia and Africa. The Jews are scattered in all lands, NOTES.—The New York Orchestra, which originated with the daughters of without a home or country. This is approximately a correct cast of the religious Mr. Abraham S. Hewitt, and composed entirely of young ladies, is to be reorganstatus of the world to-day. It shows two-thirds of the whole to be pagan, or, in ized next season -Paganini, the famous violinist, played exquisitely on the cluding the Mohammedans and Jews as anti-Christian components of the pagan guitar.- The daughter of Count Miranda, the betrothed of Nilsson, has long fraction, three-quarters of the whole—not less than 1,050,000,000. The remaining been known as the adopted daughter of the singer. The ladies are devoted to fraction of 410,000,000 —a little more than a quarter-Christians, of which fraction each other. -The National Opera Company of Moscow intends to make a tour more than one-half is Roman Catholic, one-quarter, nearly, Greek, and a trifle over of Europe next winter, visiting Paris, Vienna, Berlin, and London for the purpose a quarter Protestant.— New York Commercial News.
of giving Russian opera in these cities. Beethoven's music for the Consecration PROFESSIONAL STATISTICS.—The number of men in the three professions—di
of the House has been recently discovered in Vienna; also some hitherto unknown vinity, law, and medicine—was, in 1880, 254,520, of whom 64,698 were ministers,
compositions of Schubert. - Mme. Antoinette Stirling recently gave a concert in 64,137 lawyers, and 85,671 physicians and surgeons, 12,314 dentists, and 27,700
St. James Hall, London, supported by the Blue Hungarian Band and the St. pharmacists. Hence, the proportion in the learned profession (so called) is about
Cecilia choir. Among the American singers who have been achieving success one to 200 of the population. The proportion of ministers and lawyers is very nearly
in London, Mr. Eugene Oudin, late of the American Opera Company, is promiequal, and is one to 782 of the population. The proportion of physicians and sur
He has, however, abandoned the stage to study law. -Gounod, though geons is one to 584, and of dentists one to 4,000.- Journal of Education.
an aged man, is now busy in writing the music for an opera based on the romantic story of Heloise and Abelard. -The American Opera Company has issued a pamphlet, in which it describes the work done last season and its prospect and in
tention in reference to the next. -Through their European agent, the Redpath RAILROADS.
Lyceum Bureau has engaged a great novelty in a Swiss Concert Company of great merit, which will arrive October ist, and will give vocal and instrumental
concerts in costume. RAILROADS OF THE WORLD.—The aggregate length of railroads of the world in 1884, as shown by official statistics, was 290,750 miles, of which no less than 62,788 miles have been opened since 1879. At the close of 1884 Europe had 117,694 miles; America, 148,738; Asia, 12,757; Australia, 7,486, and Africa, 4,075. In
ART. 1880 America had but very few more miles of railroad than Europe ; four years later, however, it had 31,044 miles more than Europe, and of the total increase of 62,788 miles in that four years, more than two-thirds was in this country. The
Notes.-—Mr. Joseph Eichelder, a Bavarian sculptor, has submitted the model for a monument to General Grant to tlie Grant Monument Association.
-Mr. vast territory of Asia has only about as many miles of railroad as the single State of Illinois, and seven-eighths of this is in the English dependency, India. In Europe
Frank Keppel will exhibit a collection of Milleto's prints next fall at his room in nearly one-fourth of the railroads built since 1880 were in France, which has in
New York. -Mr. Geo. L. Seney is collecting pictures again, and prefers the
work of American artists. It is reported that the most generous patron of Americreased its mileage 3,121 miles, or 19.2 per cent in the four years. In America there were but 15,185 miles of railroad outside of the United States at the end of 1880,
can artists is Mr. T. B. Clarke. Though for more than ten years a steady buyer, and this had increased by the end of 1884 8,252 miles, or 54% per cent , to 23,437
he never sells on profit, except to give the surplus back to the artist. The Dutch miles. Mexico gained most, but Canada was close behind. Elsewhere in America exhibition at the Gupil galleries is exceedingly good. Mr. Ernest Hart, assisted the new construction amounted to but 3,320 miles, of which 1,818 miles were in
by Mr. T. Hayashi, has brought together such a collection of works from Japan that
it stands unrivaled for its scientific completeness. Brazil and 1,106 miles in the Argentine Republic. In South America altogether
-" The Ornamental Arts of there were but 9,515 miles of railroad at the end of 1884, 3,07 1 miles of which had
Japan" is now complete, -Mr. F. S. Church, the painter, has the distinction of been opened since 1880, an increase of nearly 50 per cent. Calculation shows that
having never studied in Europe. Col. Wright, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, of the 290,750 miles of railroad in the world, no less than 174,016, or 60 per cent.,
has endeavored to discover " whether art as an industry was ever profitable or not," are in English-speaking countries.— The Stockholder.
and therefore addressed the question to a number of artists. of the 37 artists
who have made returns of their yearly income, the least fortunate names $354, (of Notes.—The Prussian state railways have for some time past employed women which $135 is from sources other than from auction sales, studio sales, illustrating, as guards at crossings. In order to enable the main guards to give their whole at and teaching), while the five best situated return $3,000 ($2,500 from teaching, tention to the good condition of the road-bed, the service has been divided into two $500 from other than artistic sources); again, $3,000 (from illustrating), $3,500 parts, namely, in track and crossing service. While the former is only done loy (sources not given), $3,050
(of which $1,900 is from illustrating), and $3,100 (of men, the latter, consisting chiefly of closing and opening of bars and the lighting which $2,000 is from illustrating). The incomes or the other 31 range from $500 and sweeping of crossings, is done by women—in most cases either the wives or to $2,500, 10 falling below $1,000, 13 ranging from $1,000 10 $1,500, 6 from over widows of guards. On the passing of trains these women, having black and white $1,500 10 $2,000, while only 2 exceed $2,000. Of these 37 artists only 31 have scarfs round their waists and arms, and holding a flag in hand, are to stand at the reported their annual expenses, Two of them manage to live on $300 a year, carn