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were convicted and two pleaded guilty. The lightest punishment inflicted was a declares that the first principles of a practical philosophy consists in the adoption of year and a half in the State prison, the heaviest three years and eight months. a purely vegetable diet. In Ovid, (Metamorph, xv) Pythagoras, among other The penalties are not excessive, in view of the facts, for a more audacious plan of things, says the following: robbery could hardly have been put into execution. Theiss, it will be remembered,

"Touch thou no flesh, but llye on milder food, employed musicians of his own selection. The convicted boycotters demanded

As once in days of old-the age which men call golden; the discharge of these men and the substitution for them of members of the union to

Let fruits and budding plants be man's chief nourishment, which they belong, known as the Carl Sahm Club. Theiss resusing to come to

Nor any mouth be stained with blood." terms they ranged themselves outside his doors, circulated printed stories about Ovid, the delicate, ästhetic, cosmopolitan poet of the Roman Empire, was also him, warned persons against going into the place and performed the customary a vegetarian of the first water. I am reminded, on this occasion, of Homer and boycotting antics. Their victim finally succumbed and agreed to hire them. But Vigil. In the thirteenth canto of the Iliad, the Hippomolges, who lived only upon success had made them more arrogant. They demanded $1,000 in money to the fruits of the field and the milk of the herds, were called the most righteous “pay the expenses of the boycott," and got it. They were arrested, examined be men of earth. The same thing is said in the Odyssey of the Lotophages; whilst fore a police justice, and were discharged, the petty Solon on the bench having the flesh-eating Cyclops were represented as the primitive type of the savage and bicsore his eyes more fear of the boycoll lan desire to do his duty. Judge Barrett,

ferocious brutes. As we have spoken above of Pythagoras, we can not omit in sentencing them, took occasion to say some interesting things to the public at Empedocles, a sage of the Ionian school. This singular philosopher did not permit large and more especially to gentlemen who fancy that they can effect their ends the inconvenience of wearing brazen sandals to disturb him, having renounced through boycotting without risk of imprisonment.

emphatically the use of animal substances for any purpose whatever. To be sure, New York Herald, July 3.

there must have been a screw loose some where, for one day he committed, alto

gether, a decidedly original suicide-destroying himself in the crater of Ætna-in The severe sentences imposed yesterday by Judge Barrett upon five of the Theiss what manner is unknown, as the most divergent traditions are in existence conboycotters and his scathing remarks will doubtless serve to check boycotting gen cerning his death. We now come to Socrates, who, in one of his most celebrated erally in this city and to prevent entirely a repetition of that species of it for which dialogues (the one concerning the Republic), declares vegetable food to be the the prisoners in this case were tried. So true a friend of the laboring classes as most wholesome and natural diet. Seneca says in one of his letters to Lucilius Mr. Powderly has condemned the boycott even in its mildest form. The boycott (ad Lucilium epistolæ, 108) the following: “As you already know with what of which Theiss was made the victim was carried to an extreme that was simply zeal I have prosecuted the study of philosophy in my youth, I do not conceal from tyranny, and, as Judge Barrett characterized it, “ little better than robbery or black you the admiration which the precepts of Pythagoras have instilled into my mind. mail.” If it had not been treated as a crime and punished no business in the com Sotion, and, aster him, Sextus, both resolved to renounce the enjoyment of animal munity would be sase against socialistic attacks.

Sood. They did so from different but equally noble motives. Sotion believes that Chicago News (Ind.), July 3.

one may nourish himself very well without shedding the blood of other living beings.

If ever the practice of slaughtering animals should become a habit for the gratifThe conviction of five boycotters and their sentence to terms of imprisonment

cation of our appetites, brutality will also pervade our morals.” He adds that the varying from one year and six months to three years and eight months proves that

food which is not nalural to mankind can not be otherwise than prejudicial to their men acting under mistaken leadership contrary to law are still amenable to it.

healih. When I restrain you from flesh," says he, “I only withdraw from you Neither was there any of the tedious difficulty in selecting a jury to try these boy the nourishment of lions and vultures. Moved by such considerations, I have cotiers in New York that has stopped the progress of justice in the anarchist trial here.

also renounced the enjoyment of meat, and after the lapse of a year, my new mode And yet the community there had formed as definite opinions touching boycotting

of living was not only easy but excellent; and it seemed to be even that my intelas it has regarding anarchism in Chicago. The difference between the proceed

lectual faculties became more and more active." The most renowned Grecian ings in court clearly demonstrates that the machinery of justice is in a most

geographer, Strabo, and the Storic philosopher, Musonius of Volsinium in Etruria, wretched condition in Illinois,

express themselves, in like manner, in favor of the general introduction of vegetaPhiladelphia Record (Ind.), July 4.

ble diet. Plutarch says, in his celebrated essay against eating of meat, the followBOYCOTTING, with the superadded crime of extortiom, has procured for two men

ing: “With what mind, feeling, and judgment was that man endowed who, first convicted in New York eighteen months in the penitentiary, for two others two

ventured to soil his mouth with the flesh and his lips with the blood of a murdered

creature-the man who first covered his table with the dead bodies, an i took for years and ten months, and for one other three years and eight months. The

his daily nourishment the remains of living beings, that possessed intelligence, punishment was graded to the degree of guilt. Five years is the maximum punish

motion, and voice! How? Can you not feed yourselves with the products of the ment provided by law. If the dose should prove insufficient for the repression of this cowardly practice, probably the time of imprisonment will be hereafter in

soil ? Do you despise our mother, the generous earth, and the succulent, refresh

ing gifts of Dionysius ? creased,

From the above it is to be perceived with sufficient Milwaukee Wisconsin (Rep.), July 1.

clearness that vegetarianism found among the ancients zealous adherents in its

most prominent men. In the Middle Ages not one voice was raised in favor of WHETHER Schilling shall be convicted or acquitted is of comparatively slight

the introduction of a vegetable diet, and only with the resuscitation of the consequence to the general public. The information now clearly given by Judge

classics was vegetarianism once more brought upon the tapis. What is apparent Sloan's charge, that business men and communities have an adequate desense in from all this ? Nothing farther than that vegetarianism is far more a question of law against the evils of the riotous strike and the boycott, should deterinine every

æsthetic feeling than one of health. Antiquity, bright and rich in color and in business man and community lo invoke and to employ such legal defenses until

classic perfume, was called forth in the front ranks to foster vegetarianism. In strikes by violence and boycotts shall be heard of no more.

the rough, combative Middle Ages

, it was left entirely out of the game, only again Philadelphia Press (Rep.), July 3.

to be restored to honor in the Renaissance and among the elegant novelties of SOME important lessons will be learned in the result of these trials. Boycotting

modern times.— Translated for Public Opinion from the New York Staats

Zeitung: is much more damaging to those who indulge in it than 10 those who are sought to be made the victims of it. It is an injury to labor in every sense, and now that A THEORY OF CRIMINALITY.--In Italy, during the last few decades, a number it has been made dangerous there will probably be much less of it than heretofore. of scientific men, mostly physicians, have devoted themselves to a careful study With the laws and sensible working men against it there ought to be no chance of criminal types. Their point of view is a strictly scientific one: they regard a for it whatever.

crime as the expression of a dangerous trait of character. The character is more Philadelphia Times (Ind.), July 3.

important than the act. Moreover, the criminal is not a spontaneous, capricious All the convicted parties are foreigners and aliens, who doubtless supposed that product; he does not stand alone, but belongs to a class. Thus the anthropology the Uniled States was a country in which such a thing as law did not exist or, if it

of the criminal classes becomes a distinct object of study. Again: criminality is did, could not be enforced. They will be given a good long period in which to essentially a morbid phenomenon, and is a defect analogous to insanity or idiocy. reflect on their serious mistake.

In this aspect the criminal is a psychological study. To characterize the spirit of this movement in a few words, one may say that it lays stress on the criminal rather than on the crime. Foreniost among the representatives of this view is Dr. Lombroso, the editor of a journal devoted to this movement, and author of a comprehensive work on the defective classes. His theory is that, in general, one may recognize three types of causes of the outbreaks against the social order—physical,

social, and anthropological. Among the first may be mentioned climate. In the VEGETARIANISM AMONG THE ANCIENTS.—Mrs. Anna Kingsford, Doctor medicinæ Argentine Republic the sharp changes of temperature favor a revolutionary charof the Paris faculty, published recently a dissertation on “ The Nourishment of acter in the inhabitants. The season of year influences the amount of crime: Mankind by Plants," as she designates her small but attractively written volume. crime predominates in the warm months. Of one hundred and ninety-two revoMrs. Kingssord is, to-day, one of the first female scholars in France, and she has

lutions in Europe, the months of June and July' have the made quite a sensation in Paris by the production of her treatise. She belongs to vember and January, thc smallest. So, too, heat is a factor. Soulhern countries the Vegetarian Society of Manchester as vice-presiclent, and is a fanatical vegeta (Ilaly, Spain, Greece) have the largest number of revolutions; northern countries rian, not less upon aesthetic than upon scientific grounds.

In our time a great (Russia, Sweden, Norway) have the least. Geographical position and other physdeal has been said about vegetarianism, and many persons assert that it has a ical causes could be added. As social causes, Dr. Lombroso regards the struggle great future,” to which class belongs Mrs. Kingsford. I will neither express an for supremacy among the various social castes or classes, a disharmony between the opinion for nor against Mrs. Kingsford, in whom I recognize, moreover, more than existing civilization and the prevalent economic conditions, an opposition between a learned- Bluestocking; and I leave entirely untouched the strictly scientific por the political forms and the national feeling and needs. Such are the more constant tion of her work. On the other hand, I believe the bias which the judgments of occasions of revolutionary outbreaks, as shown in history.

Mere accidental cirthe renowned men of antiquity contains in favor of vegetarianism should be reck cumstances, such as the appearance of a great leader or writer, must also be cononed in the general interests of the reading public. The author begins with sidered. Finally, the following are the prominent anthropological causes: the.co; Pythagoras, the sage of Samos, who was born about 570 B. C. This great philos existence of races not readily assimilated, with, perhaps, a tendency to political opher, who had investigated the mysterious depths of the Egyptian philosophy, 'changes; hereditary anomalies of character, such as criminality and moral in

MISCELLANEOUS.

argest share; No

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anity; or acquired anomalies, as alcoholism and insanity. All these go to form “ Exhibit B," and the chocolate, “ Exhibit C.” The notary's seal of office was
hree classes of political defectives—criminals by heredity, by habit, and by mental affixed to the affidavit, and it was settled beyond a doubt in Mr. Foster's mind
isease. These have furnished the subject-matter to the new science of criminal that his wager had been accepled. He therefore went out and lavished his
hthropology. One must not suppose that, because these criminals are classed week's salary on a new spring hat. Is there a Mrs. Foster in the middle distance ?
nder the insane, they will not be active in political crimes; for though they may _The Journalist.
e men of small intellect, yet the absence of the restraining power of a well-developed
oral sense makes the bridge between thought and action shorter and smoother.
. mere fanciful conception of possible crimes will take so strong a hold on their
linds that the act itself will follow. More sensible and reflecting criminals would be

EDUCATIONAL.
pelled by the consequences and dangers of the act. Others need restless activity;
eir present condition seems the worst possible. As a rule, too, they are very fond
notoriety. They are in love with crime. The pain of others is a keen satisfac-

A VICTORY FOR WOMEN.—The victory won by women at the present season of on to them; its horror attracts them. The French revolution shows such types.

college anniversaries is nothing short of a revolution in the ideas of what is proper ejeune made a little guillotine, and used it on the chickens destined for his table.

to be done within the walls of a college. Ten years ago it was a brave man in an d'Heron wore a human ear as a cockade on his hat, and had others in his

most of the colleges who dared to say anything in favor of the admission of women ckets. Carrier confessed that the writhings of the priests whom he condemned

to the privileges of a collegiate education. The Harverd Annex began by apolotorture gave him exquisite pleasure. The modern socialists, anarchists, and

gizing for itself, and has not yet had a fair show at Harvard, and Wellesley and namiters no doubt contain an element of these hereditary criminals, who use

Smith and Bryn Mawr colleges are yet in the gristle of experiment; but public sene political object as a mask for their instinctive tendencies to lawless outbreaks.

timent has shot beyond the heads and trustees of the older and more conservative ne socialistic and the criminal types of face present strong resemblances. In some

institutions, and now there are but three colleges Yale, Amherst and Williamsses the introduction of such a criminal element transforms a purely political or

among the older institutions that are not open to women in some form. This is a nization into a band of outlaws: the Molly Maguires are an example of this. All

revolution in female education, and is destined to work a great change in the culese facts urge the study of these defective classes. Society has a right to defend

ture of the country and in professional life. Women spread culture better than elf against these enemies of all peace and progress. But the punishment must

men, because they have more time for it. If the present demand for the higher directed to the removal of the evil.—7. Jastrow, in Science,

education of women continues, and there is no reason that it should be less, it will ANARCHY FROM AN ANARCHIST's STANDPOINT.—Competition among capitalists

shortly come about that co-education will be an accomplished fact in the higher in

stitutions, as it is a reality in many of the country schools and in most schools where continually reducing the price of commodities to the cost of production. This

primary instruction is given. It would seem as if the drift at thc present moment cessitates increasingly minute subdivision of labor, destroying that technical skill

were decidedly in this direction. The revolution is one ich made the old-fashioned shoemaker or blacksmith independent; degrading

might have been an

ticipated, but it has come almost without observation in many of the older colleges. laborers into portions of the machine they operate; stimulating the competition

Brown University, for instance, is said to have yielded the point quite as a matter employment which prevails among them; increasing the frequency of those of course ; while at the West, and in many of the State colleges, the two sexes iods when they are thrown out of work and reduced from comfort to beggary,

have for some time been on substantially the same fooling. The good results of 1 of course contributing to increase the revolutionary discontent of educated

the higher education of women have vindicated the action of the leading institun, nurtured in hope and enjoyment, who see themselves hopelessly distanced by

tions which had already opened their doors to women, and the full enjoyment of se whom they can in no way regard as their superiors. The chasm which

collegiate education of women is now only a question of time everywhere. To eatens to engulf our social system is still further widened by the Jestruction of

have reached this result without special effort, and as an act of justice to the other Il capitalists in the battle of competition and the growth of great monopolies, sex, is one of the great educational victories of the age. It is also one of the signs ancing pari passu with the pauperization of the laboring class. The miser.

that the ideas of our own people are working toward great practical realities in and dangers thus engendered by the very nature of modern trade and industry

American life. There is no aristocracy in the United States but thal of the intelgreatly aggravated by the periodical gorging of the market with goods pro

lect, and the opening of our institutions to women on a large scale is to be one of ed in excess of the demand during seasons of speculation, and the consequent the sources of the sustentation of the larger culture and the wider sense of things ed migration of capital to other branches by the dreary road along which lie

that is growing up among us.

It will make itself felt in the elevation of the midkruptcy, stagnation, reduced consumption, reduced production, slow liquida

dle class to the plane of a gentler and more subdued lise. It will help powerfully and that gradual revival of business which closes a financial crisis. The crit

to create the sense of refinement that is now largely lacking where one expects to character of these periodical revulsions is greatly aggravated by the fluctua find it. The victory for women is, in fact, so wide-reaching that it is difficult to point s of that uncertain currency which speculative business has everywhere intro to a department of life or society that will not be affected by it. The change has ed. It has so far been palliated by the extension of the market into new coun come not a moment too soon, but it will be well to advance slowly enough to -- America, India, Egypt, China, etc. But when this process reaches an end and

avoid the dangers that are usual with revolutions, even when they are bloodless.commercial system extends over the world, then, if not sooner, prices will actually

Boston Herald to the cost of production, and the catastrophe of production for profit will be hed. Anarchy, therefore, according to anarchists, is the inevitable end of the pres NOTES.—Germany has eight schools of forestry, where five years' training is reIrist and tendency of things. Trimmers may devise means to put it off; Napo.

quired of those who seek positions under the government, although a course of 5 and Bismarcks may, for a time, stifle blood, but the longer it is deferred study half as long may be taken by amateurs. France supports a single school at more violent will be the reaction which brings it in at last. That only is wise Nancy. - The Boston Globe thinks that the curse of the present college course smanship which gives up moribund institutions to die. That only is reform is the prevailing extravagance, and adds that rich parents are wholly to blame. It h anticipates in a less painsul manner the work of revolution.-C. L. James fails, however, to suggest a remedy for the evil.—The Journal of Education Forth American Reviews for July.

thinks the American universities and colleges too free with their honorary degrees,

the result being to bring into contempt and suspicion our intellectual standards.SCENT CHANGES IN JAPAN.— The emperor has come out from his se

Shakespeare knew “little Latin and less Greek.” Would he have been greater if on, makes tours through the country, is seen by common people, even dines he had known more? Bunyan wrote the purest English. Could he have written his merchants, who, as a class, stood lowest in the old-time social scale. Three

purer if he had been versed in the learning of the schools? Irving's style is red miles of railway, steamship lines, a telegraph business that amounts to

better than Addison's. Would it have been improved if he had been a classical poo a day, a complete post office department embracing postal-order and bank

graduate ? These are a few cool questions for a hot summer day under the trees. ms, lighthouses, telephones, steam-mills with complicated machinery, a new

They will bear discussion, says the School Journal. Judge Widney, of Los and criminal code based on that of France, a well-equipped army and navy,

Angeles, has given $100,000 to the University of California. mint, official observance of the Sabbath, adoption of the Christian calendar, complete religious freedom-these are the striking features of New Japan. _lso has one university with affiliated colleges, and in all 30,662 schools, with -918 students—two twenty-fifths of her whole population. A society for Ro

RAILROADS. cing the language now numbers six thousand members and publishes a paper. sh is taught in some of the schools and will be in all as soon as teachers can epared for the work. December 31, 1885, only fifty-three foreigners were in nploy of various government departments, including that of education, as

SCALPERS' TICKETS.—The prevailing opinion is that the scalper secures his red with several hundred a few years since. Japan's foreign commerce

stock in trade from the traveler, who has started on a lengthy journey and sudits annually to seventeen million dollars, against less than one quarter of one

denly concluded to make it a brief one, or from the speculator who has taken adn in 1850. During the past two years four thousand laborers have emigrated

vantage of a railroad war and laid in a supply of tickets with which to annoy the waii under a contract to work on sugar-plantations. They send home their

competing companies for years to come.

The fact is that less than five per cent. s earnings.—Rev. Jas. H. Petter.

of the stock of the scalper is thus obtained, while the ninety-five per cent. is fur

nished him by the ticket agents of the various companies, to be sold at a stipuPARAGRAPHER’s Rash WAGER.-Last Tuesday Foster, the State news par lated commission, a small portion of which goes to the scalper and the remainder her of the Cleveland Press, published a paragraph to this effect: “A Marion to the ticket agent, so that, in the end, the principal party scalped is the railroad arted her graduating essay as follows: I am fairly worried out with the in company. The scalpers cannot live after commissions to ticket agents are abolt pratings of the lords of creation on the duties and sphere of woman.” ished, and the office of the passenger pool commissioner will scarcely support an aragraph closed with the somewhat dangerous assertion that the editor would extra clerk. Ticket agents receive a salary of from $100 to $125 per month. new spring hat that the author of that discourse on woman's sphere could Their commissions have amounted to $1,000 to $1,500 and as high as $2,500 per ke a loaf of bread. Two days later Mr. Foster received from Marion a large month. As a rule they are wealthy—they can not help it-and yet the general It contained sundry light loaves of bread and cake marvelously toothsome. passenger agents meet and condemn the scalper and declare war on each other companying affidavit bore the solemn oath of the sweet girl graduate (who because this or that line has been detected in selling a ticket over a scalper's es the pretty name of May Williams) that she had, unaided, baked the counter at less than tariff. It is not the ticket agent's fault that this is done, for þread marked “ Exhibit A,” the two specimens of corn bread marked when he enters into an agreement with his favorite scalper it is to the effect that

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7,486

503,568,188

the scalper must not cut the rate. He has a limit put upon him, and forfeits his class of modern naval artillery one hundred and twenty-nine guns, which will tond if he gives lower. He is given a handsome commission-$4 first class and throw a projectile ten miles and upward. The caliber of these guns varies from $3 second on New York tickets, with the same avej age on a less distance-and twelve to seventeen inches, and they throw projectiles which weigh as high as still the ticket agent must make his commission. The remedy proposed is a rule 2,000 pounds. There are also afloat in foreign navies sixty-seven gups which prohibiting connecting lines from paying commissions to ticket agents of othej throw projectiles weighing from goo to 1,250 pounds a distance of at least nine lines. St. Louis Globe-Democrat.

miles. The charge of the largest named guns, those of 17-inch caliber, is nearly THE RAILROADS OF THE WORLD.-The Archiv fur Eisenbahnwesen gives explode this huge mass of metal at any given moment

. Of foreign vessels carrying

1,000 pounds, and the projectile is charged with eighty-three pounds of powder, to statististics of the railroads of the world, prepared for the most part from official sources, making the aggregate length, at the end of 1884, 290,750 miles, of which

guns of the character described, ranging from nine to ten miles and upward, Engno less than 62,788 miles have been opened since 1879. Of this there were in the

land has 13, France has 26; Italy, 7; Germany, 15; China, 2; Russia, 3; Denseveral grand divisions of the world:

mark, 1, and Chili, 1, It is, therefore, evident that such vessels, lying way beyond 1884. 1880. Increase. P. c.

the range of any of our vessels, could destroy any ships in our navy; and, as they

are good steamers, one of them could in all probability cruise among a fleet of Europe,

117,694 104,606 13,088 12:5 Asia

American alleged men of-war and destroy it at leisure." 12,757 9,905

2,852 28.8 Africa

4,075 2,842 1,233 43:4 ENGLISH AND AMERICAN RAILROADS.—The English railroads have cost on an America

148,738 105,766 42,972 406 average more than $200,000 per mile, those Continental Europe about $100,000, Australia

4,844
2,642 54.5

and those of the United States (nominally) a little more than $60,000. The ques. Of the 290,750 miles of railroad in the world, no less than 174,016, or 60 per

tion at once arises : Have the English roads secured such advantages in comfort, cent., are in English speaking countries. The countries which have the greatest safety, speed, or economy of operation as to make up for the increased first cost?

This question Mr. Edward Baies Dorsey, of the American Society of Civil Enginmileage in proportion to population, or the smallest number of inhabitants per mile, are Australia (364 people per mile), the United States (460), and Canada

eers, answers in the negative. In the matter of comfort, the very solidity of con(486). Even the Argentine Republic has a sinaller population per mile than

struction has proved a hindrance for it has rendered it impossible for the roads to any European country, namely, 1,000; while in Europe, Sweden, which has fewest,

make improvements without great expense in the destruction and removal of solid has 1,113; Great Britian and Ireland, 1,870; Germany, 1,983; France, 1,943;

masonry. It has thus bound them down to a system of narrow cars, with all its

attendant discomforts. In the matter of safety, the absence of grade crossings is Belgium, 2,106; Austria-Hungary, 2,786.

a strong point in favor of the Euglish roads, and the universal use of the block sysNOTES.-- The Denver & Rio Grande railway is to be sold at auction July 12th. tem is worth still more. Yet the statistics of accidents do not lell in favor of Eng

It is asserted that the Pennsylvania railroad company has decided to build the land, as is shown by the following table: long-projected Storm King bridge across the Hudson river to connect the Pennsyl

Miles. vania system with New England. -The Boston & Providence R. R., and several Average number of miles / United Kingdom

194,892,255 other New England roads have commenced the system of paying their employes a passenger can travel New York.

172,965,362 weekly instead of monthly. --Southern Kansas seems to be an objective point for without being killed Massachusetts new railroads. No less than six are now being surveyed, with several other Average number of miles United Kingdom

6,992,662 schemes yet to be heard from. Tickets for $1.00 from all parts of Iowa to Chi a passenger can travel New York.

13,940,754 cago have induced an immense amount of travel during the past week or two, and without being injured . Massachusetts

23,955,630 the warring roads have had to run extra trains to accommodate it. The Railway It will not do to trust these figures too implicitly. Yet they show enough to jus Age thinks that, although one dollar for carrying a passenger 400 or 500 miles is

tisy us in thinking that railroad travel in England is at any rate not safer than in pretty small pay, it may be that the roads find it profitable on the principle that, the northeastern part of the United States. Something is probably due to the while the rate is less than cost, they are able to afford it because they do so large a

greater speed of the English freight trains, which average about twenty-five miles business. - The same excellent paper publishes a table which shows that more

an hour—much faster than in America. It is in the freight and accommodation new track has been laid in 1886 than during any corresponding period for twenty

trains that the difference of speed makes itself chiefly selt; the express trains are years excepting 1871, '80, '81, '82, and '83. The Canadian Pacific railway has found it necessary, owing to the length of its line and the 53 degrees of longitude and 300 miles their best schedule times are slightly better than ours; below 100

more frequent than curs, but not noticeably faster. For distances between 100 it covers, to adopt the “ twenty-four hour” time system.

or above 300 miles there is very little to choose.

Chicago's FOREIGN POPULATION.—Chicago's nationalities, according to the

school census, are: German, 226,000; American, 154,000; Irish, 120,000; SlaSTATISTICAL.

vonic, 55,000 ; Scandinavian, 33,000; English, 30,000; Latin, 16,000; negroes, 8,000 ; Canadian, 4,000, and all others, 9,000, making a total population of 650,000,

which is a very moderate estimate for the “City by the Lake." As will be seen, In a speech recently delivered in Congress by Hon. Joseph Wheeler, of Ala the Germans outnumber the Americans, and the latter are but little more numero bama, the following table was introduced, giving the number of available war ous than the Irish. Chicago is more Irish than any city in Ireland save Dublin ships belonging to the navies of the different countries :

and Belsast, more German than Munich, Dresden, or Cologne. Less than oneAvailable

fourth of the population of Chicago is, by its own census, of American origin. It ships.

Population. will be very difficult for this small American population to assimilate the immense

number of foreigners Chicago contains. It must always be more or less foreign in Great Britain

330

35,246,633

its ideas, a city where foreign doctrines, socialism, anarchy, etc., will hold sway.France

308

37,405,290 New Orleans Times-Democrat. Russia

185

98,356,100 United States

68

60,000,000 Italy

60

28,452,639 Germany

96
45,194,172

SCIENTIFIC.
Spain

142

16,625,860 Brazil

34

10,108,291 Austria-Hungary

44

37,741,413 THE MINNEAPOLIS ELECTRIC RAILWAY.—The Electrical Review contains an Holland

138

1,400,000 interesting account of the successful operation of the electric railway in MinneapChina

49

434,626,000 olis, in which it says: The trains consist of three or four passenger cars, each Chili

2,400,396 weighing 11 tons empty. The number of passengers carried is often as high as Turkey

25,036,480 600 at one time, so that the weight of the train is as follows: Four cars, each 11 Denmark

59

2,096,400 tons, 44 tons; 600 passengers, åt 130 pounds, 39 tons; motor car, 8 tons; total, Argentine Republic

25

2,400,000 91 lons. The steam dummy now brings the train to as far as the steam is allowed, Japan

29

36,700,118 and then the electric motor relieves it and takes the train down town with its passenPortugal

26

4,550,699 gers. The distance over which the electric motor travels is at present somewhat Sweden

57

4,465,668 near a mile, the speed being about seven miles per hour; this being the regulaGreece

25

1,979,423 tion speed within the city limits. Considering the constant stopping and starting Norway

32

1,806,900 at each block, the grades in the road, and the heavy trains, the electric motor Roumania

5,376,000 must be given the credit of doing at least as good work as could be expected or Mexico

5

9,389,461 obtained from any steam engine. During the seventeen or eighteen hours of During the course of his remarks Mr. Wheeler said: “The United States is not service not a single minute of stoppage is made, except 10 let off and take on pasonly deficient in ships, but equally so in her armament. We have mainly old sengers. This clectric road has been in operation for several weeks without a bitch smooth-bores, the largest of which throw projectiles weighing 450 pounds a dis or å breakage. The motor, which is about 40-horse power, works as perfectly tance of from 2,000 to 3,000 yards. It is true that we have completed two 8-inch under a heavy as under a light road. From the permanency and the character of breech-loading guns which will throw projectiles weighing 250 pounds a distance the work done by this electric railway, it will seen that electric railways on ele: of nearly eight statute miles, and six more similar guns are being constructed. vated, as well as on ordinary roads, must become facts in the immediate future. We are also constructing two 1o-inch guns to carry projectiles of 500 pounds and They are indeed now with us, and there is no more trouble to build two or three one 10%-inch gun, whose projectile will weigh 550 pounds. The range of these

hundred horse-power generators than to build machines of go horse-power. The guns will be about the same as that of the 10-inch guns, but even with these guns, public is losing their skepticism, and what was proclaimed as an impossibility yesfinished and mounted on wooden ships, we would be hardly in sight, for there terday has become a fact to-day. are already afloat upon vessels of foreign navies-- this includes only the larger CAN COLORS BE PHOTOGRAPHED.— In considering the recent great improvement

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n the photographic art, the question arises whether we shall ever be able to take Having no doubt myself of the true character of my disease, I feel calm, resigned,

hotographs which will produce the natural colors of objects. While it would and happier among my people. Almighty God knows what is best for my sancti-
hardly be safe to say that this can never be done, it must be admitted that our fication, and with thai conviction I say daily a good Fiat voluntas tua.The
resent knowledge of the subject gives very little hope of its accomplishment. The Medical Record.
ction of different colored lights upon the sensitive plate is one of varying intensity
ather than quality, and there is no property of light or sensitive chemicals known at

SMOKING TOBACCO.—The use of tobacco, as distinguished from its abuse, ought present which could lead to such a result. If the photographic camera ever sup

to be a matter of intelligent observation and experience. We should incline to lants the brush of the artist, it will be due to the labors of some future investi

the opinion that any particular individual who can say, “ I always know when I ator, and the discovery of some new principle of optics or chemistry.- Popular

have smoked enough-if I go beyond the just limit I lose my power of prompt Science News.

decision,” had betler not smoke at all. It is clearly unwise for a man who can

not swim to persist in dabbling in deep waters. There are currents and underNotes.- Hon. W. A. Phillips, ex-member of Congress, and a we ll-known writer draughts which may at any moment destroy his balance. The very reverse of the n political economy, has an article in the July Norih American Revicw in favor complaint made by this person is the experience of most smokers. A moderate f governınent control of the telegraphs. -All the telegraph and telephone poles

use of tobacco soothes the senses, and leaves the mental faculties free from irritation Sydney, New South Wales, have been taken down, and the wires inclosed in a and ready for calmly clear intellectual processes. When this is not the effect prouse-like frieze along the house fronts, giving the cornice of the house a more orna

duced by smoking, the “weed” had better be eschewed.Lancet. nental appearance.

- New Orleans has named its exposition grounds Audubon ark after the famed naturalist John James Audubon.

INOCULATION AND YELLOW FEVER.—Dr. Freire, who claims to have discovered

-A party under the direcon of officers of the United States Geological Survey is about to make an extended

the microbe of the disease (yellow fever), and a method of inoculation to prevent xploration of Crater Lake in National Park. It will be necessary to lower them

its ravages, is reported to have performed the operation upon seven thousand per000 feet down the stony crags in order to reach water. The Krupps have ob

sons living in localities where yellow fever is prevailing in a most malignant form. ined a gigantic contract to establish a cannon foundry at Nikolaieff, in Russia.

Of this large number, but eight have died. During the same period, some three hree telescopes are shortly to be constructed in France, at the expense of the

thousand uninoculated persons have succumbed to the sever. Should the bill to overnment, for the special purpose of obtaining photographs of ihe celestial

which reserence has been made obtain a place in the statutes, these claiins of odies. The determination to construct them is probably due to the remarkable

Freire will be subjected to rigid investigation by the best American experts, and, ccess recently attained by the Messrs. Henry in taking photographs of the stars

if substantiated, will doubtless be the means of introducing his system, or a modifithe Paris Observatory. One of the new instruments is designed for the observ

cation of it, into the United States, whenever yellow sever shall again appear in ory at Algiers.-- A Chicago jeweler has invented a self-winding watch. By an

epidemic form.--Science, arrangement something like the carefully balanced lever of a pedometer, the IMAGINARY ILLS.--A Philadelphia physician says that a great deal of what passes atch is wound by the motion of the wearer when walking. A walk of seven for heart disease is only mild dyspepsia, that nervousness commonly is bad temper, nutes will wind the watch to go for forty-two hours. Professor Lesley, of the and that two-thirds of the so-called malaria is nothing but laziness. Imagination, nnsylvania Geological Survey, estimates the amount of coal in the Pittsburgh

he says, is responsible for a multitude of ills, and he gives as an instance the case gion as 30,000,000,000 tons. About 11,000,000 tons are now taken annually

of a clergyman who after preaching a sermon would take a teaspoonful of sweetm its bed, of which two-thirds are bituminous coal and one-third anthracite.

ened water, and doze off like a babe, under the impression that it was a bona fide ofessor Lesley believes that the oil and gas supply will practically cease ten or sedative. enty years hence.

It is stated by a correspondent of the Spectator that out of the twenty-six Russian peasants inoculated by M. Pasteur, eight are already dead of hydrophobia, viz,

five who died in Paris, and three who succumbed on their return home. MEDICAL

DR. VALENTINE Mott, of New York, on Monday, inoculated his first patient for

hydrophobia. The result will be watched for with intense interest. CAN IMAGINATION Kill?”—This is, perhaps, hardly the correct form of quesa that the British and Colonial Druggist puts to itself in discussing the death the young woman at Hackney under circumstances in which Keating's insect vder largely figured. As the powder appears, by Dr. Tidy's experiment, to be FINANCE AND COMMERCE. fectly harmless, the suggestion is not unnaturally made that the deceased, who 5 possibly of a hysterical, highly-imaginative turn of mind, took the powder in full belief that by its means her death might be accomplished. The writer of THE BUSINESS OUTLOOK. The most encouraging feature in business circles at article in our contemporary, we think wrongly, brings forward two remarkable the present time is the very general hopeful feeling in regard to fall trade. Priances of what may be regarded as practical jokes with melancholy terminations. vate advices from the representatives of the boot and shoe trade who have been the case of the convict delivered up to the scientist for the purpose of a psycho traveling among their customers indicate a larger sale than has been realized for ical experiment (the man was strapped to a table and blindfolded, ostensibly to

several seasons. The wholesale clothing trade of the past season was largely in bled to death; a syphon containing water was placed near his head and the Muid excess of that of the previous year, and the promise for the fall and winter trade is allowed to trickle audibly into a vessel below it, at the same time that a trifling very flattering. The general tone of the dry-goods market is encouraging, all adtch with a needle was inflicted on the culprit's neck; it is said that death oc vances in cotton goods having been well maintained, while stocks continue light. ed at the end of six minutes), fear must have played no inconsiderable share

The advance in wool is not yet established, and will not be until manufacturers he fatal result, and we do not know whether all the vital organs were in a can ascertain if they can advance their prices for their fabrics. The iron trade is id condition, though they were presumably so. The old story of the case of somewhat affected by the low prices of English rails, but the mills are full of orders Llege porter is also one in point. The students entrapped him into a room at at the present low prices. The latest reports respecting the wheat crop are not so it, a mock inquiry was held, and the punishment of death by decapitation de

favorable as those made earlier. This is due very largely to the drouth in Minne. d for his want of consideration to the students. It is small wonder ihat, under

sota and Wisconsin. Estimates vary from 435,000,000 to 465,000,000 bushels. doininion of fear and belief in the earnestness of his tormentors, the sight of Last year the crop was 367,000,000 bushels. The Chicago Tribune says that parxe and block, with subsequent blindfolding and necessary genuflexion, a smart

ties of experience who judge for themselves do not expect that the crop will exceed with a wet towel on the back of his neck should have been followed by the 400,000,000 bushels. The crop in India and Australia is considerably below the ing up of a corpse.—Lancet,

total of last year, which will make a larger demand upon our supplies and tend to

keep up, it not to advance prices. Very little is said of the corn crop, as it is too MBALMING OR CREMATION.—Dr. Eklund, of Stockholm, has been writing on early in the season to make predictions. Heavy rains have injured the cotton ubject of the inconvenience to the living arising from the presence of the crop to some extent, causing a slight advance in the price. The one unfavorable , the picture whereof, drawn by him, is a careful blend of the melodramatic feature of the situation is the large export of gold which has been going on of late. the scientific. To remedy the evils resulting from delay in burial and subse. During the six months of 1886 which ended June 30 the export was $35,000,000, t decomposition, the doctor proposes to render some simple process of embalm and last week it was $3,624,342. The price of silver bullion has again fallen and compulsory, and suggests the creation of a corps of embalmers and embal is now lower than it has ever been. This is due to the foreign policy of dissses for that purpose. This plan rather runs counter to modern views on the criminating against it. We are now exporting gold because the balance of trade ct of burial, which tend to favor methods allowing of rapid disintegration, has been against us during the past six months. This balance has been small, s besides far inserior to cremation both from a financial and a practical point of but beyond that we have the interest on bonds and dividends on stocks to pay,

Nolwithstanding all that may be urged, and urged truly, against the prac which require large sums of gold. The only hope is that when the season opens finhumation, we fear that it is a matter wherein prejudlice, custom, and a our exports of merchandise will be increased, while our imports will not be inc of innovation will long hold scientisic arguments and methods in check, to creased. According to Bradstreet's, the total number of failures in the United ctriment of public health.-Medical Press.

States for the six months of 1886 was 5,461, against 6,106 during the correspond

ing period of 1885 and 5,444 in 1884. The total liabilities were $53,241,000 in E APOSTLE OF THE LEPERS AND THE CONTAGIOUSNESS OF LEPROSY-From

1886, against $68,570,000 in 1885 and $124, 104,000 in 1884. The assets in the ondon papers we observe that Father Damen, who has long been known as failures of this year were $25,509,000, against $32,955,000 in 1885. These fig. postle of the Lepers of Molokai, is beginning to suffer from the disease with ures indicate that the number and extent of business misfortunes have declined 1 he has been so long in contact. For years he has lived on the island upon during the last six months to an extent which seems to warrant that business geni are collected the lcpers of the Sandwich Island group. For a long time erally is again on a sound basis.—Boston Journal, July 6. r Damen continued in good health, but in a letter written recently he says: ossible for me to go any more to Honolulu, on account of the leprosy break ADVANTAGES OF PAPER MONEY.— A great many reasons have induced modern

The microbes have finally settled themselves in my left leg and cominunities to adopt the use of paper as money to so large an extent. r, and one eyebrow begins to fall. I expect to have my face soon disfigured. all be brought under the general headings of economy and convenience. Our

it on me.

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space will allow us just a few words as to the economy of paper money. It is THE PROPOSED NEW SILVER CERTIFICATES.—The wise men at Washington much cheaper to keep up a paper currency than to keep up a gold or silver cur appear to find amusement in tacking on to appropriation bills a direction that the rency, as was exemplified in the Chancellor of the Exchequer's Budget of 1884, Treasurer be required to issue silver certificates of small denominations, and with when he proposed to issue ten-shilling pieces of gold containing only nine-tenths of them pay all the year's appropriations. No one believed that such a provision the amount of gold at present in half-a-sovereign-these ten-shilling pieces to be could pass, yet this week the House has voted in its favor almost unanimously; tokens for half-a-sovereign. It appears that there are about 90,000,000 sovereigns probably the Senate will strike it out or if it does not, we cannot think it will get and 40,000,000 half-sovereigns in circulation in the country. More than half of the the approval of the President, though possibly it would be harmless with the exesovereigns (50,000,000) are not legal tender; they are light through the wear and cution of it in his hands. Still, the animus of this last effort to force silver certifitear that they are subjected to in passing from hand to hand and other causes. cates into circulation, and the uller disregard of every industrial interest which The half-sovereigns are in the same predicament, 22,000,000 of them being light. such an effort shows, makes the public sick at heart and hopless of anything but Altogether, our gold coinage, it is computed, has been worn to the extent of about evil coming out of Washington. Of course the purpose of the proposed law is £800,000 worth; in other words, that amount of gold has been lost. This loss is, inflation, the originator probably assuming that these small bills could be got into of course, avoided the more paper is used instead of gold to make payments with. the hands of the people who will not lake the silver dollars and have to call for the There is another advantage on the ground of economy derived from the use of larger certificates. He forgets that the public knows the article he has to offer as paper as money. We can not do better than describe this advantage in Adam thoroughly as it does wooden nutmegs, and that an attempt to make the issue Smith's words: “The judicious operations of banking, by substituting paper in the would, through fear of its results, only paralyze business, while the notes would find room of a great part of this gold and silver, enable the country to convert a great their

way

back into the Treasury as fast as put out. We see that in the same bill part of this dead stock (the gold and silver circulating in a country) into active is a provision directing the reissue of one and two-dollar greenbacks, which Treasand productive stock-into stock which produces something to the country. The urer Jordan had withdrawn to make room for the circulation of silver dollars. gold and silver money which circulates in any country may very properly be com The putting of these two measures into one law by silver advocates could be made pared to a highway, which, while it circulates and carries to market all the grass a capital basis for a jest by a troop of darkey minstrels.The Commercial and and corn of the country, produces itself not a single pile of either. The judicious Financial Chronicle. operations of banking, by providing, if I may be allowed so violent a metaphor, a sort of wagon-way through the air, enable the country to convert, as it were, a

A COMPARISON OF FAILURES.—The failures during the first half of the present great part of its highways into good pasture and corn-field, and thereby to increase year are not merely less than for any year since 1881, but they are less on a devery considerably the annual produce of its land and labor.” This is effected by scending scale as compared with '82, '83, '84 and '85, which strongly points to a the silver and gold that is released by the introduction of paper moneys being sent permanent change for the better. These figures, giving the number of failures and abroad, and thereby invested in productive undertakings. The cost per annum of

the assests and liabilities in millions of dollars for the first six months of each year the metallic currency in this country is shown in the following table, which we

are eloquent of improvement. take from Jevon's book on “ Money":

'81

'82 83 '84
Loss of interest

£4,262,000
Failures

3,256 3,649 5,296 5,444 6,106 5,461 Wear of coin

48,000
Assets

$19 $27

$70

$25 Mint establishment

Liabilities

39 42,000

52 73

68 124

53 Total

£4,352,000

At the same time there is no such advance in price as accompanied a like re

duction in 1879 in commercial disasters. Weak firms were saved then by a " From this amount,” Mr. Jevons adds, “ought to be subtracted the profit which “boom” which made men dizzy. If failures fall off now it is because business is the Mint makes out of the seigniorage upon silver and bronze coins; but we may steadier and sounder, not because goods are marked up over night.-Philadelphia set off this profit against the wholly unknown amount which the public looses by Press. the accidental dropping of coins.”—W. B. R., in Cassell's Family Magazine for July.

SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT OWN THE TELEGRAPII LINES?_That the Govern

ment should own and control telegraphy in the public interests is undoubtedly THE RECORD OF FAILURES.—Evidence of the improvement in trade is afforded The Postoffice has been one of the most beneficent Departments of the in the statement of failures for the half year just closed issued last week by Messrs. Government. The money annually appropriated for it does the people more good R. G. Dunn & Co. A record of mercantile disasters is, of course, a sort of barom than any other public money that is expended. In spite of all that has been writeter to the condition of our industries. It is gratifying to note that both in the first ten about the expense and extravagance of any business managed by the Govand second quarter of the year there has been a material falling off in the number ernment, it is extremely doubtful if there is another branch of business, public or of the failures, and the aggregate extent of the liabilities. The following is a rec private, that is more economically administered. Every word applied to the postal ord of the failures during the last eleven years, from which it will be seen that in system applies to telegraphy. Government can best extend and protect it. Govsome respects the showing is the best since 1882.

ernment alone can make and enforce laws for its complete sanctity. Telegraph

offices should be isolated, and none but sworn officers be allowed to hear the FIRST QUARTER.

SECOND QUARTER. “tickers.” The most severe penalties should guard its secrets, not only from par:

ties outside of sender and receiver, but from Government officers. News should Years. Number Amount of Average Number Amount of Average be carried at a uniform low rate to all who choose to collect and send it. There Failures. Liabilities. Liabilities. Failures. Liabilities Liabilities.

should be a perfect equality of telegraphic as of postal privilege. William A. 1876. 2,806 $64,644,156 $23,038 1,794 $43,771,273 $24,398

Phillips in North American Review (July). 1877 2,869 54,538,074 19,010 1,880 45,068,097 23,972

THE SCARCITY OF SALMON THIS SEASON. — The packing of salmon on the Sac1878. 3,355 82,078,826 24,464 2,470 45,753,940 19,738

ramento river aggregated in June less than 2,000 cases, against 75,000 cases spring 1879 2,524 43,112,665 17,081

1,534 22,666,725 14,776 18ão.

pack for the season of 1884 and 18,054 cases for 1885. The latter season was 1,432 12,777,074 8,922 1,065 20,111,689 18,884

regarded as a failure on this river. The pack on the Rogue this year, up to the 1,761 24,447,250 13,900 1,105 16,499,395 14,931 latest advices, is less than one-third that of last season at corresponding date, and 1882.

2,127 33,338,271 15,670 1,470 17,242,649 11,722 1883 2,821 38,372,643

there are no indications of an improvement there. Hence, the possible supply 13,602 1,816 27,816,391 15,317 1884

from the Columbia is a very important factor in the salmon market

. Late mail 3,296 40,686,978 12,192 2,214

84,204,304 38,033 1885

46,121,051
12,608

and telegraphic advices say that the catch is steadily falling off, and is behind that
2,346
28,601,304

12,091 1886. 29,681,726

of last year, and very short of that of 1884. Predictions are made that unless the 1,953 20,752,734 15,746

run improves very materially at an early date the pack of the season on thal river THE DEPRECIATION OF CAPITAL.--A few days since a man earning a moderate

will not exceed 350,000 cases. Grocer and Country Merchant. salary in this city said to a friend that he had concluded to buy a house. He had half enough money to pay for it and borrowed the rest from a savings bank, which

Scotcu Pig IRON.—The future of Scotch pig iron in America is critical

. For he was able to get at 472 per cent. Twelve years ago a house as good as that

a year past sales of these brands have resulted in but little profit to the inanufacturer which he purchased would have cost a quarter more, and if he had borrowed the

or the importer

. There is little evidence that the future will see any material immoney from a savings bank he would have been obliged to pay 8 or 9 per cent.

provement. Southern brands are likely in the future, more than in the past, to interest. Meantime his salary has continued the same. That is, he can earn as

take the place of Scotch iron. It is simply one of the natural outcomes of the de much money as he could twelve years ago, but the money he earns will hire twice

velopments of the latent industries of the United States, and the protective policy

of the Government.-American Niachinist, as much capital as it would at that time, and would purchase for him at least 20 per cent. more of the particular property which he desired. If he was using his Notes.- Hon. Alexander R. Shepherd, formerly Governor of the District of money to purchase the necessaries of life he would find that a dollar now will purchase as much as a dollar and a thịrd in 1872. As a rule, it is next to impos American can pursue his avocation with as much security and protection in

Columbia and at present engaged in mining at Balopilas, Mexico, thinks that an sible to invest money so that it will bring half the income it would a dozen or fif

Mexico as in any locality in the United States. The fiscal year 1886 has ended teen years ago. Thus, it appears that those who had $50,000 or any other sum with a reduction of $50,136,850 in the interest-bearing debt. The decrease in net invested in interest-bearing securities fifteen years ago have practically lost half debt was over $9,000,000 in the month of June. There is now in the U. S. their income by the depreciation in the capacity of money pure and simple to earn Treasury $181,253,566 in standard silver, about $16,000,000 more than it held last interest. In the mean time, on the specie basis, wages are quite up to the stand

year. ard of 1872 in all the leading industries of the country, and in some even higher. dall’s tariff bill on the revenue.

The Congressional doctors differ as to the probable effect of Mr. RanThe wages of to-day will, as before stated, purchase a third more of the necessaries revenue, while Mr. Morrison estimates that there would be an increase on the

Mr. Randall says it would reduce the customs of life. With such facts, one fails to see that capital, as the years pass, is getting basis of last year's imports of some $5,000,000. On the other hand, the loss of the advantage of labor. In fact, the earning capacity of money is constantly de internal revenue he estimates at $36,000,000 in place of $20,000,000, as announced preciațing, while the purchasing power of wages is increasing.–Boston Journal. by Mr. Randall, the repeal of the tax on tobacco alone cutting off $26,000,000.

.

1881 .

3,658 3,208

9,266

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