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for once the chaplain is made a positive quantity in Congress. Eventually he may

Kate Foote, in The Independent, April 8. compose his prayers in pithy paragraphs, so that they may readily be adopted in

The Rev. Mr. Milburn has been regarded with interest for a week or so sections by the House, and added to future party platforms. Certainly there is a because of the prayers he has been addressing to—the House, some say. He is ludicrous side to this sudden and graphic recital before the Deity of the evils that

the chaplain of the House, and some of the members think he is making it are so intensely typified in Congress; but is there not a sad reproach to our Con unpleasant by a sort of “offensive partisanship” in his prayers. Regarded critgressmen that the only sharp references to the distresses of the country, and the ically, and from that point alone, his sentences are too long; he should not specify only aspirations for their speedy cure should be expressed by their chaplain ?” so many things; but he is right in his main idea, which is to ask for the things Washington Telegram, April 10.

which the country and its public men need ; and I think there is among the In his prayer this morning the chaplain of the House drew a deplorable picture

members a feeling of this, so that they forgive him, while they condemn much of the times; when the masses of men were drifting farther and farther from the churches; when educated men were asking : “ Is life worth living ?” when men

Fudge. in the market places and other centers of resort were teaching, with tongue and The Democratic press cries out that Congress is doing nothing and insists that pen, the doctrines of despair, pessimism, agnosticism, and atheism; when lotteries, there shall be action-action. Very well. There can be action and safety too. gambling-houses, and grog-shops were sapping the health and prosperity of great For instance, let the sessions of the House be devoted to continuous prayer by the bodies of the people; when scarcely a day passed but brought to light some new chaplain. evil to crimson the face of the patriots; when leaders in great cities were putting

Kansas City Times, April 13. up their votes for sale to the highest bidder and bartering the franchise of the people; when obscene books and pictures were corrupting the imagination and de

If we mistake not there will be a good deal of bustling among the clergy when bauching the character of children and youth; when boys were becoming hoodlums

they read the local columns of the Times this morning. Not quite eight years ago and girls were bought and sold like dumb, driven cattle in the shambles; when

Rev. David Walk bought a piece of Kansas City property " for a little home for people were building churches to vie with club houses in cost, show, and luxury,

$1,500. Last Saturday he sold it for $66,500. That shows what a little economy where the poor were never expected to enter; when Divine charity took the form and patience can accomplish in Kansas City. Able ministers desiring calls to this of a machine and was administered by proxy, and when our boasted civilization pleasant and profitable vineyard should consult the real estate advertisements in was stained with blots as dark as death.

the Times.
Philadelphia Record, April 11.
CHAPLAIN MILBURN is becoming the foremost orator of the House of Repre-
sentatives. Leonidas C. Houk, of Tennessee, Captain Boutelle, of Maine, and

Major Ben Butterworth, of Ohio, will have to look to their laurels.
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Paper, April 17.

Cassell's Magazine, April.
It has long been the custom to open the session of our legislative bodies with

« WILL IT RAIN TO-MORROW?" devotional services. Such services are appropriate. They are a recognition that the United States and its Commonwealths represent a Christian nation. They are “I reckon we'll have to stop hay-carting to morrow,” said a laborer to me one usually so conducted as not to give offense to the adherents of any faith. They are splendid cloudless July day. based upon the fundamental principles of the being of a God, of the truth of the Bible, and of the individual responsibility—truths upon which the great majority “'Cause I leerd one o' them old woodpeckers hallerin' fit to bust hisself while of all citizens are agreed.

I was a gettin' my dinner.” In recent years, however, these services have in not a few instances been con

Next morning the daily paper spoke of settled fine weather, but the rustic was ducted in a manner far removed from that simplicity and reverence which should right-it rained heavily. He was a man utterly uneducated, who, without referbelong to them. The prayers have too often been orations addressed to the ence to any scientific instrument, could forecast the morrow's weather with accuracy, auditors, rather than petitions to the Supreme Being. A recent prayer, made by when the Meteorological Office, with all its appliances, was at fault.

“ Hinery the chaplain of the House at Washington, illustrates the evils to which we was only a specimen of hundreds of his fellows who can predict tomorrow's (and allude. As reported :

often longer) weather with unerring accuracy,

erely from

sticing common de“ He besought the Lord to enable the educated and intelligent men and women tails of natural phenomena open to every one. The newspaper forecasts are genof the land to comprehend thai in this republican country there could be no privileged erally correct as applying to large areas, several hundred miles square; but, as a class, and in this democratic age no aristocracy could he founded and built on the rule, at fault with respect to localities. Take, for instance, to day's newspaper fore. fabled blood of Norman, Guelph, or Ghibelline; on title to gold or land or cast, “ N.W. winds, moderate or fresh." Fair as a whole." The direction of the stock; on power of public office or private corporation; but that our best society wind is correct, but it is now, and has been since midnight, raining heavily and conmust be the growth of sound brains, informed by wide instruction; on good hearts, tinuously. Any observant countryman could have foretold by three o'clock yester. and living servently, bending with reverence toward God and love to man, and day there was not the faintest prospect of “fair” weather. To ninety nine in every with supreme devotion to noble uses; sweet and generous behavior, learned not hundred the barometer is of but little value,

Its proper use requires long and from the dancing-master, nor in the courts of princes, but in the school of self careful training-merely noting the fall and rise being comparatively valueless. reliance; wills braced to heroic endeavor and endurance, capable of sacrifice of But, with a little practice, any cne living inland can, from the following signs, corself for the common weal, the wants and the woes of others. He also prayed that rectly prognosticate for his own neighborhood : God might forbid the rich and prosperous from attempting to import and reproduce The man who is out of doors at sunrise can form a pretty accurate opinion of on our new soil the pomps and shows, the folly and fashions, the luxury and pride, what the day will be. If just before sunrise the sky—especially in the west—is of other climes, Jest the Giant Anarchy, blind through ignorance and rage, like suffused with red, rain generally follows in the course of the day. In winter, often sightless Samson, be goaded to madness by oppression.”

If, however, it be frosty weather, the downfall is sometimes delayed. On If this prayer be a fair example of the daily petitions of the House claplain, he the other hand, if the sky be a dull gray, and the sun rises clear, gradually dispersis doing more to destroy a fitting sentiment of reverence and of worship than all ing the vapors, it will be fine. If he retires behind the clouds, and there are redthe Washington preachers can do to build it up. Brevity, simplicity in language dish streaks about, it will rain. Should the sun, later in the day, shine through a and thought, sincerity and general appropriateness, should characterize all public

gray watery haze, it will probably be a rainy night. prayers, and especially those of the legislative bodies of the nation and its com

The sunset is very unreliable. Often a beautiful sunset will be followed by a bad monwealths.

day. After a rainy day, suddenly at sunset, in the far west, will appear a magnifiToledo Evening Blade, April 9.

cent streak of crimson (not copper colored)—this generally foretells a fine day. A THE recent prayers of the blind chaplain of the House of Representatives, the tinted halo round the sun at setting occurs in long-continued rainy weather. A Rev. W. H. Milburn, have provoked much discussion. That the country at large halo round the moon, especially if some distance from it, is a sure indication of accepts these prayers with less remonstrance than the members of the House is, downfall at hand. evident from the fact that when, after the prayer of March 27, Mr. Grosvenor, of Rainbows are unreliable, except they occur in the morning, when rain may be Ohio, asked unanimous consent to have the prayer printed in the Congressional expected. Sun-dogs and fragments of prismatic colors during the day, show conRecord. Mr. James, of New York, objected, remarking that he resused to con tinued unsettled weather. A dazzling metallic luster on foliage, during a cloudless sent because the prayer was an incendiary speech. Although the prayers received day in summer, precedes a change. the sanction of many of the public prints, others were outspoken in their condem Huge piled-up masses of white cloud in a blue sky, during winter, indicate nation. One of the prominent New York journals calls it an abuse of prayer. snow or hail

. If small, dark clouds float below the upper ones, moving faster than The prayer in question was directed against the stock brokers and others of that they, rain will follow, as it will if, in the morning, low.hanging, pale brown, smoke. ilk. " Deliver us,” the chaplain prayed, “ from the influence and power of rob like clouds are floating about. Red tinged clouds, high up, at evening, are folbers, who, enticing their victims to boards of trade and stock exchanges and lowed by wind; occasionally by rain. bucket shops, name their practice of plunder “shearing the lambs.””

The chap

Mists at evening over low-lying ground or near a river, precede fine and warm lain's prayer against the brokers was so telling that he next treated the labor ques days. If a mist in the morning clears off as the sun gets higher, it will be fine; lion in the same way. He said: “But now the many have learned the secret of but if it settles down again after listing a little, rain is at hand. No dew in the organization, of drill and dynamite. Rouse the rich of the world to understand morning is mostly followed by rain; and a heavy dew in the evening by a fine day. that the time has come for the grinding, selfish monopoly to cease. Teach the Rain follows two or three consecutive hoar frosts. A shower of hail in the dayrich men of this country that the great fortunes are lent them by Thee for time is usually followed by frost at night. If, after a rain, drops of water still hang other purposes than to build and decorate palaces, to found private collections of on the branches and twigs and to window-frames, the rain will return; but if they art, to stock wine cellars, to keep racing studs and yachts, and find better com fall and the woodwork dries, fine weather is at hand. pany than hostlers, grooms and jockeys, poolsellers and bookmakers,” etc. In Stones turn damp before wet; at the same time it must be observed that the fact. accordance with the views of many members of the House, Mr. Milburn has, of their doing so does not invariably indicate rain, for they will do so occasionally however, moderated his transports.

before heat

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Smoke descending heavily to the ground is a sign of very doubtful weather. MR. JOHN A. Martin, in the North American Review for this month, thinks

Objects at great distances, which are generally indistinctly seen, or even not seen thatat all, sometimes loon out clear and distinct. When this happens bad weather or changes of wind ensues. A well-known instance of this is the Isle of Wight, as · The most assuring prophecy of the future of Kansas is the character of her seen from Southsea. If the opposite shore is clearly seen, there is rain about. If, population. From the date of her territorial organization to the present time at night, after being blown out and exposed to the outer air, the wick of a candle

Kansas has attracted the best blood and brain of the civilized world. Hitler, continues to smoulder a long time, the next day will be fine. Green-colored sky

thirty years ago, came throngirg a host of bright and generous men, to oppose the betokens unsettled bad weather, often long continued.

aggression of slavery; and when the Civil War was over, a hundred thousand solIf, on a fine day, the dust suddenly rises in a revolving, spiral column, rain is near. diers of the Union established homes on our broad prairies. No State in the Union The howling of the wind indicates in most houses, but not invariably, that clown

can boast of a braver or more intelligent, enterprising, sober, and law-respecting fall is near. In some houses, owing to their construction, the wind always moans. population; and no country in the world can point to achievements or results rivalWherever the wind is at the time of the vernal equinox (March 21 and there

ing those wrought by the citizens of Kansas. These people have wiped a desert abouts), that will be the prevailing wind throughout the next three months.

from the map of the continent, and replaced it with a garden; they have pushed If the stars appear unusually numerous and the “ milky way

very clearly de.

the plains to the foot-hills of the mountains; they have dotted the treeless prairies fined, with the surrounding sky dark, or if there be a misty appearance over the

with forests; and they are harvesting, each year, crops exceeding in value the prostars, rain is coming; while if there be but few stars and those very bright and

ducts of all the gold and silver mines of the United States. The limits that bound sparkling, in a pale steely sky, it will be fine.

the progress and development of a State having such a citizenship and such Swine, before rain, are unusually noisy and restless. Swallows, in fine weather,

resources cannot now be defined; but it is certain that, for at least a quarter of a will Ay high, and at the approach of rain, close to the ground; but the latter cloes century, the growth of Kansas will equal, if it does not excel, that of the past.” not apply if the day is cold, in which case they hawk very low. Common sparrows washing vigorously in a puddle on the road or at the edge

Prof. DAVID SWING says, in The Forum, for April, that of running water, is a sure sign of rain. A baker, who kept a parrot in the dry “ He is of opinion that the ideal Church will be one in which piety shall outrank atmosphere of the bake-offices, noticed that a few hours before rain the bird took an doctrine; in which the words of Christ shall outrank all the words of the law-giver, imaginary bath, fluttering as if splashing water, and preening her feathers.

prophet and psalmist; in which the spirit of Christ shall be the overwhelming The woodpecker before rain becomes uneasy, uttering its cry, “ Yoo, yoo-yoo, proof of the presence of a Christian; in which the infinite variety of thought, yoo, yoo,” although at other times the most silent of birds. Rain generally follows interpretation, belief and dream shall be forgotten by hearts full of toleration and within the twenty-four hours, often very soon. This may be accepted as an infallible full of a friendship which shall make a brotherhood out of sentiment, character sign. On no occasion, except in the dry summer of 1884, did I ever hear the and duty rather than out of doctrines and definitions." woodpecker call without downfall following. Then one called on two separate oc. casions, and no rain followed, although in a few hours threatening clouds rose from

MR. GEORGE GUNTER advocates the eight-hour system in The Forum, for April, the west, but dispersed without rain ; still in that year heavy rains fell in one parish, and shows what, in his opinion, must be done to make it effectual: while the adjoining one was left dry, so that after all there may have been rain within a very short distance. If domestic fowls keep out feeding in rain, it will

“For an eight-hour law to be economically and morally effectual, however, it

must be national; international would he even better. continue ; but if they run under shelter directly it comes on, there will probably

There is nothing that is be only a shower. Rooks, before stormy weather or gales, tumble and pitch in the

susceptible to governmental influence, with which local or State legislation is so air, and if they croak as they ily, “ Kerk, ke-rack, kerk," instead of their usually

inadequate to deal, as econoinic and moral interests. Under our present system long-drawn “ Karr-r," stormy weather is coming.

of industry, with the division of labor and the extensive use of machinery, producif Aocks of fieldfare and redwing suddenly appear on the ploughed land, sharp,

tion has to be conducted on such a large scale that no industry of any importance hard weather follows. Robins singing at night on the topmost branches of trees,

can be sustained by the consumption of its own locality. Indeed, it is too well or on the tops of tall buildings, is a pretty sure sign of a fine day on the morrow.

known to need stating, that there is no important industry in the country that does If they keep low, the contrary may be expected.

not depend for its success mainly upon the consumption of many and distant localBefore rain or thunder flies are unusually troublesome in stinging. Sometimes on

ities. New York and California, South Carolina and New England, Pennsylvania a summer day, without warning, all the cock pheasants in a wood will start crow

and Texas, are all inseparable parts of the same industrial confederacy, and therefore ing-very often because they hear thunder too far distant to be perceptible to the

any legislation upon the subject, to be effectual, must be general. Some good bystander.

result will follow the local adoption of this measure, as in Massachusetts; but its Should moles, after dry weather commence throwing up their mounds and work

advantage will be proportionally greater in each locality, according as the area of ing briskly, rain will follow. In a frost this foretells a thaw.

its application is extended. Accordingly, we find that the economic and inoral Gnats flying in columns in the setting sun portends a fine morrow; but sometimes

influence of the eight-hour law, as applied to the isolated navy-yards, is almost imthe winter gnat will do so if the rain only ceases for an hour or two.

perceptible; while that of the ten-hour law, when applied to a whole State, as in

Massachusetts, is very marked and general; and in England, where it has been The opening of the pimpernel has been given as a sign of a fine day, and its keeping closed the reverse.

applied to a whole country, the results are still more striking and permanent. Thus, No reliance can be placed on it. Sunshine causes it

while the good influence of the general adoption of an eight-hour system upon the to open, while in cloudy weather it keeps closed, even if it be dry. Besides the foregoing, there are numerous weather signs; but among those men

prosperity of the community is a scientific certainty, its local or partial adoption tioned will always be found one or more hy which a coming change can be pre

would not produce the same proportional benefits. The question therefore is, how dicted.

can its general adoption be most effectually accomplished ?" In an article, entitled “English Rule in India,” which appears in the North

JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL, in the March number of the New Princeton Review, American Review for April, Amrita Lal-Roy asserts that English rule in India— gives his opinion of Gray thus : "Is a tale of ruffianism, of sorrow and of shame. Civilization has brought back

“In spite of unjust depreciation and misapplied criticism, he holds his own and to us, in the nineteenth century, the darkest days of human suffering. Wherever

bids fair to last as long as the language which he knew how to write so well and you go through the vast dominions of the • Empress of India’you see a population

of which he is one of the glories. Wordsworth is justified in saying that he helped starved, luckless, cowed, crest-fallen, brooding thoughts of darkness or despair;

himself from everybody and everywhere—and yet he made such admirable use of while stalks hither and thither the Anglo-Saxon, riding over their breasts, spitting

what he stole (if theft there was) that we should as soon think of finding fauli with in their faces, spreading desolation and and leaving a nightmare wherever he has

a man for pillaging the dictionary. He mixed himself with whatever he took-an passed. The peasant slowly stoops to pick the food that allays no hunger, wonder

incalculable increment. In the editions of his poems, the thin line of text stands ing wearily if death is as bad as life, while the wounded ego of the awakened

at the top of the page like cream, and below it is the skim-milk drawn from many mind mournfully asks if indeed it is for a trumpery British prestige' that it must

milky mothers of the heril out of which it has risen. But the thing to be consid. put up with a condition in which life is one long suffering, and to be born a shame."

ered is that, no matter where the material came from, the result is Gray's owni.

Whether original or not, he knew how to make a poein, a very rare knowledge The opinion of Prof Noah K. Davis on · The Future of the Negro,” in the

among men.

The thought in Gray is neither uncommon nor profound, and you April number of The Forum, is given in the following words :

may call it beatified commonplace if you choose. I shall not contraclict you. I

have lived long enough to know that there is a vast deal of commonplace in the “When his growing intelligence has set him free from demagogues, we may

world of no particular use to anybody, and am thankful to the man who has the expect him to take a responsible and creditable place in public affairs. The gross

divine gist to idealize it for me. Nor am I offended with this odor of the library and injurious blunder of the war party in giving suffrage to the indigent and igno

that hangs about Gray, for it recalls none but delightsul associations. It was in the rant negro has happily resulted in its overthrow. But for many years to come this

very best literature that Gray was steeped and I am glad that both he and we should must still be a disturbing and dangerous factor in our politics, and our only hope is to it. If he appropriated a fine phrase wherever he found it, it was by right bring the negro up to a fair understanding of their privilege. The existence of

of eminent domain, for surely he was one of the masters of language. Ilis praise two socially incompatible races in a common government is certainly to be is that what he touched was idealized, and kindled with some virtue that was not lamented, but Jews and Gentiles have found it possible to harmonize their inter

there before, but came from him.” ests, and we may expect a like result. All mere prejudice must give way. What should we care whether the laws, so they be good laws, be made by white or Mr. E. S. Natal, in the New Princelon Review, combats the opinion “ black? We want in Congress men of capacity, honesty, strengh. Color is non

the office of the diplomat throughout the world will in time Lecome olssolete," and essential; a man's a man for a' that. Time and talent made Disraeli the Lord Premier. The time may come when a negro shall be our Secretary of State ; and

says: who will be foolish enough to object? with a sublime faith in the vigor of Anglo 6. Time and space may be abolished, as the phrase is, by inventions like the teleSaxon blood, we do not apprehend the dominance of any other race, but hopefully graph, but it must always remain true that a person in a foreign country will underlook forward to the day when the best men, regardless of their origin, shall be our sland the affairs of that country better than persons who are not there. A foreign public servants."

office cannot skip about the world like Aladdin's Palace, and, if it might, it could

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not be in a hundred places at the same time and know them all intimately. Gov. ernments will always need agents in foreign countries. Does not a business man who is corresponding with persons in a foreign country feel the need of some correspondent to whom he may say things which he does not wish to say to others, and from whom he may obtain information which he could not expect to obtain from others? As soon as his business is large enough, does he not get a correspondent? If a business man needs such an agent, why should not a great government ? To send a special agent, as has been proposed, when occasion required, would not meet the necessities of the government. The government needs some one with whom it may communicate instantaneously; it is in constant need of communication upon matters too important to be slighted, and yet not great enough to justify the sending of a special agent to take care of them. The government needs an agent to personally influence the members of the foreign government, and the agent can do this to the inore advantage for having the good position which custom has prepared for diplomats, and which is retained by the agents of other countries with whom he would be, to some extent, in competition."

MR, DAVID DUDLEY FIELD discusses the - The Child and the State" in The Forum, for April, and is of opinion

“1. That there should be a public guardian of homeless children under twelve years of age, whose duty it should be to find out the condition and treatment of those brought before him, and when he sees that they require it, to place them in some institution incorporated for the care of such children, to be kept there or sent by them to homes here or in other States. In the category of homeless children may be included not only orphans without homes, but all children under twelve years of age, who are abandoned by their parents or so neglected or abused as to require that they should be taken in charge.

“II. That every police officer should be required and every citizen should be permitted to bring a homeless child before this guardian.

“III. That a child under seven years of age should never under any circumstances be treated as a criminal, and a child between seven and twelve should not be so treated until he has been examined by the guardian and by him sent to the criminal magistrate. No child under twelve should ever be left in the society of criminals under any circumstances whatever.”

MR. HENRY GEORCE, in his Essay on American Landlordism, in the North American, says :

“Since man is a land animal that can only live on land and from land; since land is is to him the store house of all material, the necessary basis of all production, the place and the thing on which alone his power to labor can be put to any use, wherever one part of the people are made owners of the land and another part of the people are denied all legal rights to its use save as they buy or rent it, a fundamental tendency to inequality is set up, which as population increases and inventions are made and the arts develop, operates with increasing force. In the necessary relation between man and the planet; in the simple truth, obvious 10 the veriest savage or the most unlettered child, that it is beyond man's power to make some. thing out of nothing, and that men who are denied all right to the bounty of nature cannot avail themselves of their own power to labor, and hence must be forced into a cut-throat competition to sell their labor to those who alone can provide opportunity for its use, lies the explanation of all those social paradoxes that are so perplexing 10 men who search for explanations where they cannot be found. Why labor saving invention is turning into a curse, and the opportunity to toil is consid. ered a boon; why, with millions of acres of virgin soil, our roads are filled with tramps; why, with unsatisfied desires for wealth, thousands of willing workers stand idle; wliy biling want and actual starvation co-exist with what is called production;" why, in the shadow of church and library and museum, are growing up those fiercer Huns and Vandals of whom Macaulay prophesied; why great armies are marshaling in what is blindly termed 'the conflict between labor and capital,' and a war is in its incipient stages that may soon give cities to the flames all this is clear to any one who will regard first principles. Given a world tenanted by human beings like ourselves, with its surface made the property of some of its inhabitants as we are making this continent, and though invention went to the length of enabling all possible wealth to be producer without labor, it would only be to make paupers of those who owned nothing but their labor. Given such a world, and though wealth rained down from the lieavens as manna did upon the ancient Israelites, it would all become the property of a class, and, amid mountainous “ overproduction," those who had no rights in the land which intercepted the gifts of heaven could only be saved from starvation by degrading charity.

“At the root of all our social difficulties lies a social crime-the crime of denying to the children born among us their equal right 10 the use of the material universe into which their Creator brings them.”

In the current number of the North American Review, Mr. Abraham Payne, in an argument on“ The Constitutional Reform in Rhode Island,” says:

“I think that the power to vote should be imposed upon the citizen to be exer. cised for the welfare of the State, and that every resident citizen, without distinction of sex or race or place of nativity, should be clothed with this power and made to feel its responsibility. I think the danger to the institutions of the State lies not in the direction of the extension of political power to the people, but in its limita. tion to special classes of the citizens. A government of the people by the people for the people, if it means anything, means a government by the permanent will of the majority of the whole people lawfully expressed. Abraham Lincoln, as was his wont, siated the case in concise and accurate language when he said that “ government by a minority is either anarchy or despotism.” MR. W. P. SHEFFIELD, his opponent, is of opinion that-

Every man ought to be entrusted with the privilege of voting who has intelligence enough to know what is for the public benefit, and the integrity to use this

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privilege for the benefit of the public; but, unhappily, the State has no standard by which it can ascertain the exact intelligence and integrity of all its citizens. The possession of real property affords evidence of intention to remain in the locality of the property, and, inasmuch as the property will be affected by the action of the government, the holder of the property will become interested in the government so as to protect his property. Then, generally, the possession of property affords some evidence of the industry, economy and prudence of its owner. At any rate, it has a tendency to bind the naturalized citizen to its locality. Property ought not to be a qualification to vote, but it affords evidence that its owner may have the proper qualifications. Under any rules yet devised, many men will be allowed to vote who are unfit repositories for the trust, and many others will be denied the privilege who would faithfully execute the trust. In this country there is more danger of extending the privilege of voting too broadly for the public good than there is to be apprehended from restricting it within too narrow limits.”

In the current number of the Popular Science Monthly, David A. Wells says:

“ The popular opinion concerning Mexico is that it is a country of marvelous and unbounded natural resources. Every geography invites attention to the admirable location of its territory, between and in close proximity to the two great oceans; to the great variety, abundance and richness of its tropical fruits—sugar, coffee, tobacco, dye and ornamental woods, vanilla, indigo, cacao, cochineal, fruits, fibers and the like; and to the numbers of its mines, which for more than two centuries have furnished the world with its chief supply of silver, and are still productive. The result is, that with a majority of well-informed people, and more especially with those who have read about Mexico in those charming romances of Prescott, and who, in flying visits to its capital, have found so much to interest them in the way of the picturesque, and have brought to their eyes little capacity for seeing anything else, the tendency has been to confound the possible with the actual, and to encourage the idea that Mexico is a rich prize, unappreciated by its present possessors, and only waiting for the enterprising and audacious Yankees to possess and make much of, by simply coming down and appropriating.

“Now, with these current beliefs and impressions the writer has little sympathy; but, on the contrary, his study and observations lead him to the conclusion that the Mexico os to-day, through conjoined natural and artificial (or human) influences, is one of the very poorest and most wretched of all countries; and, while undoubtedly capable of very great improvement over her present condition, is not speedily or even uitimately likely, under any circumstances, to develop into a great (in the sense of higlily civilized), rich and powerful nation.”

THE Popular Science Monthly, for April, contains an essay by Mr. Lewis Hochheimer against the revival of the whipping-post for wise-beating in the State of Maryland. In it he expresses opinions that

Crime is inherent in our defective civilization, and you can't hurry up the march of civilization in any such patent way as lashing men. Criminal law is not a panacea to soften the human heart. Civilization has reached a certain height or state of development, and sin and crime are concomilants of that stale. While crime must be punished, it cannot be wiped out. Human nature is so constituted that men revost at the deliberate infiction of pain upon a fellow-being, more so, indeed, than at any violence or brutality committed by the offender in the heat of passion. Any punishment that shocks the moral sense of a community, as all cruel punishments are calculated to do, falls short of its mark and fails signally to produce the general satisfaction always arising from the administration of wise punish

Wise-bearing is the outcome of a state of society that produces numerous evils of equal degree of which the general public, not acquainted with reformatory work among criminals, are entirely ignorant. Brutal as the offense is, brutally will not be suppressed, civilization will not be advanced one shade nor society benefited or proiected by resort to retaliatory punishments. That kind of proceeding always deseats its own object.”

THE Nation has its « Opinions on the Scientist in Politics.” Referring to Professor Huxley's manisesto on the Irish question, it says:

“ It is extremely interesting as showing what kind of government the modern world would get were the Comiist scheme of having councils of scientific men set to rule over the nations, carried out. He expresses in thorough Carlylese his contempt for “government by average opinion, which he says is merely a circuitous method of going to the devil,' and demands instead of it one real statesman' of

the caliber of Pitt or Burke, to say nothing of Strafford and Pym.' The only mark of such a statesman that Mr. Huxley furnishes to the English people is, that he (the statesinan) would • stand up and tell his countrymen that the proposed disruption of the Union (with Ireland) is cowardly wickedness,' (an act base in itself and fraught with immeasurable evil.' But is this performance is all that is necessary for statesmanship, England swarms to-day with real statesmen. Hundreds of politicians, and particularly Lord Randolph Churchill, have stood up and told Englishmen this very thing, and yet Mr. Huxley says, a little further on, that at the last election he would have voted for the Conservatives for the first time in his lise had it not been for Lord Randolph Churchill.'

“ In Parnell he recognizes a genuine leader of men of the Carlylese sort. of him: Mr. Parnell has great qualities. For the first time the Irish malcontents have a leader who is not eloquent and who is honest, who knows what he wants and faces the risks involved in getting it. Our poor right honorable rhetoricians are no match for this man, who understands realities. I believe that he will succeed, and that success will destroy him, and I am very sorry for him. I respect him. I believe also that his success will destroy English politicians who permit themselves to be his instruments, as soon as a bitter experience of the consequence has brought Englishmen and Scotchimen, and I will add Irislımen, to their senses.'

“ Nevertheless, instead of rejoicing that the Irish liave got a genuine leader who understands realities,' and encouraging the English, who have not got one, to listen to him and heed him, he dismisses him with the pleasant remark that “success will destroy him.'

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“Carlylese philosophers discoursing on politics have always been a little obscure. They have never yet furnished the world with a good working plan of government, but we doubt if any of them have been more barren in their utterances than Mr. Huxley. What encouragement is there for public men to understand realities,'

WHEN SHALL OUR YOUNG WOMEN MARRY? and become genuine leaders of men, when success will only ruin them? Surely, if the Carlylese gospel had real salvation in it, it would be the duty of the English

Brooklyn Magazine for April. public now to throw their own statesmen overboard and buckle to Parnell with all! their might In fact, it seems to us painfully apparent, that there is no use in being My reply to the important question, “When Shall our Young Women Marry?" a real statesman, or grasping the verities, if one does not agree with Professor is from twenty three to twenty-five, as few girls are ready for the duties of married Huxley on the leading question of the day.

life before then, either physically or mentally. Many are never fit, owing to the “ The manifesto also gives no reason for despising the average opinion,' except serious defects in our modern education and inherited ills.-LOUISA M. ALCOTT. that on a particular question Professor Huxley does not share it. If it agreed with his own, touching Gladstone's effort to settle the long quarrel with Ireland, it is It seems to be as impossible to lay down any general rule with regard to the plain it would be much more respectable. The appearance of Sir John Lubbock proper age for a woman to marry, as to prescribe a universal diet which shall agree at the furious Jingo meeting at Guildhall, at which Gladstone and Parnell were with all stomachs. Of course, the orthodox conventional theory is that a woman hissed, makes the scientific opposition to Gladstone now very complete. Tyndall should not become a wife and mother until she is fully developed in mind and is as furious a Jingo and anti-Gladstonian as anybody, and we suppose there are body. But the time of this development varies with the individual. I have known other scientists of less note also boiling over with indignation against him more pri women in the country homes of Virginia and Kentucky who married at sixteen, vately.

reared twelve and thirteen sturdy children, controlled with intelligence and ability “The phenomenon is most regretable because it will help to increase the grow large households and estates, and lived to ninety years, hale, wholesome and ing popular contempt and dislike for the scholar in politics. The occasional ap healthful. And I know many women in New England at thirty whose bodies are pearances of scientists like Tyndall and Huxley in the political arena are mischiev weak and flaccid from insufficient food, and whose brains are diseased from morbid ous, because they do not bring with them a scrap or vestige of their scientific introspection, who will never be fit to marry at all. equipment. When they get inside politics,' they rant and roar just like any stump I am old-fashioned enough to believe that marriage, provided it to be based on orator. This is not all. They go much further in the direction of non-science than pure, strong affection, is better for a woman, even under the worst circumstances, any politician, for they demand, before they begin their experiments, not the facts than a single life under the best; and I think, therefore, that the time for a girl to as they are, but facts as they would like them to be. Mr. Gladstone did not make marry is when she meets a man who heartily loves her and whom she heartily modern England or modern Ireland. He found them as they are—that is, what six loves, if she is old enough to be a helpmeet to him and not a dead-weight.-REcenturies of causation have made them; and the problem he has to solve is to make BECCA HARDING DAVIS. the actual Englishman and Irishman, and not the ideal Huxleyan Englishman and Irishman, stop quarreling. The “average opinion,' which Huxley abuses him for

With regard to the mooted point presented as to when our young women shall regarding, is also one of the great facts of the problem. There is no more use in

marry, it seems to me that in a question so largely dependent upon extraneous concalling him names for taking it into account than abusing a chemist because alkalis

ditions, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to indicate any fixed rules. In an are alkalis instead of being acids, or an artillerist for allowing for the resistance of expression of opinion, however, some things may be noted, although climate, temthe air. In truth, the scientists rarely open their lips about politics except when

perament, education and surrounding influences must all tend largely, not only to

form the character, but also to create positive adaptations to modes of living. they are much excited about it, and they then almost invariably reveal their inca

An early marriage would be safer, for instance, and more likely to conduce to pacity for political thinking. The difficulty of collecting and arranging the facts of all political problems, and the noise and confusion through which average opinion happiness, where the young girl had been trained in habits of obedience and self

control. expresses itself, shock their sense of honor and disturb their julgment. If they were ever to succeed to the government of the wrld, they would never be satis

As to any particular age, it seems to me that a young woman of twenty must

have seen enough of the social atmosphere in which she lives to be able to disfied with anything short of a drilled society, from which opinion would issue in prescribed lengths with official labels of soundness."

criminate wisely, and if she will only let her tastes and inclinations be measurably

guided by parents or guardians who are disinterested, she will not be likely to The Courier des Etats Unis, New York, April 15, says:

make any serious mistake. Yet, at an earlier period than twenty, total inexperiThe House of Commons of England has just ended the first phase of the dis

ence of the world makes any choice dangerous.—MADELEINE VINTON DAHLcussion of the project presented by Mr. Gladstone for the political reorganization of Ireland. It has authorized without a division, the taking into consideration of the I do not believe in early marriages. The most suitable age seems to me from bill, which will reach a second reading the roth of May next. It is well to note that twenty-five to thirty years. The grave responsibilities which attach to the marriage taking into consideration on a second reading neither prejudges nor engages to relation require enough of age to enable one to discriminate and judge of the anything. It coincides with the abandonment of the project by the Daily News, character of a possible married partner, and also to rear and guide children wisely. which is the only daily journal in London that supported it. It is worthy of There are, of course, many cases where earlier maturity warr.ints earlier marriage. remark that in the whole of this discussion, in which so many impassioned orators But the divorces which come from the want of age to give ability to judge of charhave opposed a redress of the grievances of Ireland, not a voice has been raised, acter, and the death rate among children of inexperienced mothers, are danger not a solitary one, to contest the legitimacy of these grievances and vindicate signals” warning against the losses which come by too early marriages.- LUCY England from the charges of injustice and oppression which have been brought STONE. against her. Meanwhile, the separation demanded is treated almost as a mon

No fixed and iminutable law is to be discovered. No man nor woman is to be strosity or treason, and it seems that minds, the most elevated even, see no other issue than that of coercion, without mercy and without end. But coercion can be

measured by one standard. The law most fit for one would be death to all progress an expedient only; it is not an issue. One might believe in it if it had not

in the other. So far as my private opinions are concerned, I have said for many already been tried; but nothing else has ever come of coercion, while it has served

years that one remedy for the chaos of married unhappiness, with its tragedies of only to envenom hatred. “ The policy of coercion,” says Sir William Harcourt, separation, divorce and general incompatibility, would lie in educating our boys is like strong liquors—the need of them increases with their use.” What, then,

and girls to realize that, as a rule, no man is fit for marriage before thirty, and no is to be done, for it is necessary to do something? This is the only point upon

woman before twenty-live. The girl who has dreamed of lovers since she could which there is agreement, and it is at this question that the first period of this great

walk alone, and who marrics at seventeen or eighteen, bas had no discipline to debate has arrived. The adjournment of the second reading to the roth of May

form character, or make her in the faintest degree ready for the ordeal of marriage. leaves three weeks of reflection; and public opinion, which is a great power, will

-HELEN CAMPBELL. have time to make itself felt. The impression which appears to prevail is that the It seems to me that there can be but one answer to the marriage question, and that measures proposed by the government will gain ground, and that they will repre is this, “ Circumstances alter cases." Maturity is a matter of temperament and sent themselves before Parliament with chances of success sufficiently augmented condition rather than of years. One girl is older at twenty, or even at eighteen, to reach a solution; if not, it can be foreseen that the Irish question will issue that is, wiser, more patient, and with more of the "sweet reasonableness” that will from this discussion more imperious and more difficult of solution than ever. fit her to rule a little kingdom well and wisely, than another at thirty. One flower The following is the belief of Eastern Jews in very queer remedies :

blossoms in May, another in August. Strawberries ripen in June, and pears in For hoarseness and complaints of the throat and air passages an approved pre

September. Probably, as a rule, between twenty and twenty five is the best age

for a girl's marriage. But there can be no positive statements as to such a matter. scription is to take a new plate, write on it with ink the three mystic names, compounded of the Hebrew letters, “Ain, Yod, Aleph,” “ Vau, Teth,” and “ Teth,

- JULIA C. R. DORR. Yod, Koph;” then wash them out with wine, and after adding three grains of a Who knows, or who shall venture to decide, what is the most suitable age for citron used at the Tabernacle festival, drink the beverage. Fits, epileptic, and girls to marry? There are no two cases alike. In disposition, taste and character ordinary, are treated after the following fashion : The patient's head is covered great dissiniilarities will always be found. No rule can meet the peculiar condiand a pious neighbor stands by the bedside while the practitioner” called in re tion of all. We might as well attempt to number the stars in the heavens or count cites this invocation :

In the name of the Lord of Israel, in the name of the angel the sands on the seashore. Raphael, and in the name of the Hosts of Heaven, and in the name of the One There are many reasons why marriage of girls from eighteen to twenty-one hidden and concealed, I adjure you to quit the body of So-and-So, the son of So would seem to promise the happiest union, always provided that true love was the and So, to quit him at once and without doing him hurt: and if you do not go, I

foundation, and the right one made his appearance, in due season, and was not curse you with the curse of the tribunal above and of the tribunal below, and with himself much older. At that age, if the character is above reproach, there should the curse of Joshua the son of Nun.” In cases of severe prostration and debility, be every promise of their developing into pure and noble maturity. Habits and pounded mummy and human bones are administered, but this is considered a very peculiarities have not becoine so fixed that it might be a hard struggle for either dangerous medicine, and great precautions are taken to prevent evil spirits inter to yield gracefully their own wishes for the occasional gratification of the other. fering with the patient, or hindering his recovery.

In early marriages there would seem to be a brighter promise of a perfect union,


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They learn more readily to bear one another's burdens, until it becomes a second

1 he Liverpool Review. nature, and neither is conscious of practicing any self-denial.

The MANCHESTER SHIP CANAL.-After a prolonged contest, carried through Those who delay marriage until their habits become too firmly fixed to yield

many sessions, the expenditure of thousands of pounds, and the examination of kindly to another's wishes, or peculiarities, have not, we think, so sure a prospect hundreds of witnesses, the promoters of the Manchester Ship Canal obtained their of a pleasant and harmonious life. We would sooner trust an early union to carry

bill upon certain conditions, the principal and most important of these being that the wedded pair down to a peaceful old age, not only without decreasing the love interest was not to be paid out of capital during construction. This condition has that first drew them together, but with full assurance that it will grow purer and just been canceled by a vote of the House of Commons, where Liverpool appears brighter, until that perfect day when both, having passed over the dark river, shall

to have very few friends, and but lukewarm representatives. People, therefore, stand with clearer vision and purified love before the throne of God.—EUNICE who are inclined to throw their money into Mr. Adamson's big ditch may now deWHITE BEECHER.

pend upon getting some of it back again, but how much it will be depends, of Without favoring very late marriages, I regard immature marriages as a fruitsul

course, upon how long it will be before the bubble bursts. source of unhappiness . Circumstances being equal, no girl should marry until she

The Railway Age. is fully mature in body and mind, with tastes sufficiently formed to enable her to

REPUDIATION REPUDIATED.—A majority of the authorities of Columbus, Miss., make an intelligent choice of the companion of her future life. Furthermore, it is

recently undertook to disgrace their town by voting to repudiate bonds to the desirable that before marriage she should have an opportunity to see something of the world and to partake of the amusements of her age, that she may not alter

amount of $100,000, issued by it in aid of the construction of a road now forming

part of the Georgia Pacific railroad. The excuse for this dishonest project was that ward be pursued with regret for having been defrauded of the enjoyment of her

the railroad had discriminated against the town in rates on coal—a flimsy pretext youth. To fix a precise limit of age is impossible in a case which varies with each

for repudiation, even if the charge were true, although it is now admitted that it individual.- Mary L.. Booth,

A firm of lawyers was, of course, found willing to declare the bonds Among the happy marriages I have known intimately, there have been some of invalid, but the honest portion of the community refused to countenance this disthe happiest where the contracting parties were both in middle life, or even past honorable trick, and at a large meeting of citizens a committee was appointed to induce it; and I have known some where they were so young that under the inspiration the board to rescind its action and to pay the interest on the bonds, the money for of first love and generous youth, the two became one so completely as to realize which is already on hand. It is gratifying to observe that this southern town has Swedenborg's dictum that a truly married pair appears in the spiritual world, at a refused to be guilty of the dishonesty which marked so many western communities distance, as one angel, and on nearer approach two free contrasted individualities during the disgraceful era of repudiation of railway bonds which prevailed some tenderly disciplining each other into a divine harmony; while in the case of the years ago. elderly couples, it was the harmonious coming together of two self-sufficing worlds. You will say that I am rather stating the question than answering it. Practically,

The Railway Age. my advice would always be that the girl should never marry till she meets with

SUPPLIES FOR RAILROAD MEN.—A correspondent suggests, in an interesting letsome one whom she feels to be the satisfaction of her ideal, in the spirit if not en ter in this issue, that one of the ways in which railroad companies can keep the so in the form of his character; nor ever sacrifice to circumstances or per

affection and confidenc: of their men is by furnishing the latter with certain supsonal influence her absolute freedom to choose for herself.— ELIZABETH P. PEA plies at cost, and also by paying them their wages more frequently than once a

month. We believe that these suggestions are entitled to consideration in connec

tion with the matter of better relations between employers and employes. It is a I sear, should I undertake to answer the question under discussion, I should fair question for discussion whether or not railway employes should not receive speak from a grandmotherly realization of responsibilities, and of the full sense of their pay every week, as nearly all classes of wage laborers do. True, such a them to which I seem but just arrived, and say: Don't marry till sixty! But course would entail increased labor and expenses upon the railway companies, but seriously, I hardly think the answer is one to be put in figures; it is a matter of if it would promote the comfort of the men, remove from them the embarrassment circumstance and qualification—of heart, mind and conscience-and must vary with and expense of buying their household goods on credit, and the accompanying all varying condition and development. It should be a question of what makes a temptation of running up larger bills than they can afford, on account of the ease woman fit for married lise, not of when she shall be pronounced so.

I have given

of getting trusted, it will be well worth extra cost and trouble to the railways. At my views briefly. I could not come nearer my decision on such a point, though I this time, when everything that can properly be done to make the relations of railmight dissect to any extent upon the heads involved.—ADELINE D. T. WHITNEY. way employes more satisfactory and more permanent is under consideration, this The three questions, whether it is more conducive to woman's happiness and use

matter certainly deserves thought and discussion. fulness to marry young, to marry at whatever age seems preferable, or not to marry

Railway World. at all, appear to be about as equally balanced as the three sides of an equilateral

A GROWING IMPRESSION.—The London Railway Times says that “The custriangle. One might as well attempt to square the circle as to settle the matter definitely. And, let us shake our sagacious heads as we may, young folks will still

tom seems to have gained ground of late regarding the railways, not as commer

cial concerns, as they really are, struggling for a return upon the capital invested, do as they please. ---LUCY LARCOY.

but as national institutions existing merely for the benefit of the public; and it is First show me your girl," for there can be no doubt that some girls are ment this which renders it almost impossible to arbitrate between two interests so diaally, morally and physically better fitted to marry at twenty than others at twenty metrically opposed.” The fact that railways are commercial concerns, “strugfive.---LOUISE CHANDLER MOULTON.

gling for a return upon the capital invested,” is so generally ignored by the agita-
tors of anti-railway measures in this country, that it is refreshing to notice a repeti-
tion of this fundamental truth. Horatio Seymour indirectly reiterated it, in a dis-

cussion of transportation questions published a short time before his death, when

he said, in substance, that the efforts of railway managers to secure a reasonable
return for the capital invested in railway property were commendable. But this

vital consideration is usually treated with contemptuous indifference by the average
Scranton Truth,

advocate of important changes in existing railway legislation. CAR WHEELS BY MACHINERY.-On Saturday last at Wilkes-Barre the first car

National Car Builder. wheel ever made in this country by machinery was turned out at the works of the Dickson Manufacturing Company. The wheel, complete in all respects, was made

HANDLING COAL.—They have a very economical system of handling coal at in less than one minute. The machine by which the work was done is the inven. the coaling stations of the Pan-Handle railroad shops at Indianapolis. The road tion of James J. Carr, of Wilkes-Barre, and it seems destined to revolutionize the

coal-cars are placed for unloading on a raised track, under which the coal dumpbusiness of moulding car wheels. By this machine more than 600 wheels can be

cars can be run on short tracks set at right angles to the main tract. When a completed in ten hours. By the old process it requires two men one day to make

dump-car is not in under the road-car, the coal is dropped by gravity through a

hatch in the bottom of the latter car. 18 wheels, and then they are not complete, as the axle holes have to be bored

The dump-car, now loaded, is run out to a when the wheels leave the moulders' hands. A number of interested gentlemen, simple elevator and hoisted 10 the coaling platform, where it is weighed on scales among them capitalists, attorneys, and machinists, witnessed the production of the

provided for the purpose. A large quantity of coal is handled in this way by a first wheel. A company lias been formed in Wilkes-Barre under the name of the

couple of men. The system is well worth looking into by companies desirous of Carr Wheel Manufacturing Company, a large amount of capital subscribed, and a

handling their coal with the least possible expense. We have no doubt but Mr. site is now being selected on which to erect a factory for the manufacture of Swanston, the master mechanic, would supply details of the system to any one wheels.

desirous of adopting it. Railway Worlu.

The Railway Age. Steel Rails.-At a meeting of the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia, held on THE NORTHERN PACIFIC LAND GRANT.—After observing the haste of many March 20th, Mr. Frederick H. Lewis read a paper on the steel rail discussion, in members of Congress to keep in the supposed popular current by attacking railwhich, after reviewing the recent comment on the wear of rails, he proceeded to way land grants it is gratifying to observe that a minority of the Committee on answer the question how steel can be chemically hard and mechanically soft. This is Public Lands has dared to take a stand in opposition to the proposed forfeiture of due to the amount of work put into it, the strength or cohesion of steel being shown all the land grants to the Northern Pacific Railway Company west of the Missouri to depend directly upon this. The strength of rails of hard chemical constitution river. The minority, Messrs. Strait of Minnesota and Van Eaton of Mississippi, was quoted to show that in rail making but a moderate degree of strength is devel seem to think that railway companies ought to be treated with the same quality of oped. Consequently while there were good reasons for believing that soft steel would justice and the same degree of liberality that is given to individuals, and they evisuffer the least from wear or attrition, yet it was probable that the ordinary man dently cannot sympathize with the clamor for depriving those companies which ufacture of rails would not give it sufficient strength to resist crushing under heavy have built great national highways through the wilderness of the land which was traffic, nor was it likely that the process of manufacture could be materially im voted them as a partial consideration therefor. After reviewing the law and the facts proved. The conclusion was, that Mr. Sandberg's recommendation of harder steel the minority report says that under all the circumstances the company has done would afford the best remedy for the trouble from crushed rails.

all that the Government could reasonably expect or require,

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