Report of the United States Board Appointed to Test Iron, Steel and Other Metals: In Two Volumes, Volume 1
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1881 - Government publications
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action alloys amount annealing appearance average balance bismuth blow breaking broke bronze cable cast cause cent composition compression containing COPPER AND TIN curve decrease deflection density determine Diagrams Diameter ductility effect elastic limit elevation Elongation experiments fiber filter fracture give given gray greater heat impact increase indicate iron Length less Load material maximum Mean measured MECHANICAL melted metal method minutes mixture Modulus nearly noted observed obtained Original mark pieces pile Plate portion pounds pounds per square probably produced properties proportion record reduced Remarks resistance rolled rupture sample showed shown specific specimen square inch steel strain strength stress studded surface TABLE temperature tempering Tenacity per square tensile tensile limit tensile strength tension test-pieces tests Thro tion torsional transverse turned varying weight welding zinc
Page 11 - To make a special investigation of the physical phenomena accompanying the distortion and rupture of materials. (M) On Re-heating and Re-rolling. — Instructions : To observe and to experiment upon the effects of reheating, re-rolling, or otherwise re-working ; of hammering, as compared with rolling, and of annealing the metals.
Page 122 - ... would have been with less work, the welds not proving reliable. CRYSTALLIZATION. The question as to whether crystallization can be produced in iron by stress, or by repetition of stress with alternations of rest, or by vibration, has been very much discussed, and very opposite views are entertained by experts; therefore it was considered that any data which might be gathered during our tests, bearing upon this point, would possess a value.
Page 480 - The same fact has been observed by Matthiessen and Von Bose || in regard to the alloys of gold and tin, namely, that well-defined crystals are not limited to one definite proportion of the constituents of an alloy, but are common to all gold-tin alloys containing from 43 to 27.4 per cent, of gold.
Page 223 - Why wrought-iron should differ from steel in respect of the effects of Si., we have not so far been able to determine, if, indeed, it does so differ. It can only be said, with reference to this series of experiments, that there is an apparent decrease of strength due to an excess of this element, while the effects of medium amounts of it are overshadowed by larger causes. The extremes of Si. were 0.028 and 0.321. In the best irons it averaged about 0.15. It ran as follows, with a regularly decreasing...
Page 232 - Phosphorus up to 0.10 per cent, does not harm and probably improves irous containing silicon not alx>ve 0.15 and carbon not above 0.03. None of the ingredients, except carbon, in the proportions present, seem to very notably affect welding by ordinary methods. II. The strength of wrought iron and its welding power by ordinary methods are varied more by the amount of its reduction in rolling than by its ordinary differences in composition. Uniform strength may be promoted by uniform reduction, but...
Page 365 - It will be seen that the order of ductility differs widely from that given by Mallet. The figures of relative hardness, on the authority of Calvert and Johnson (Plate XV), are those obtained by them by means of an indenting tool. The figures are on a scale in which cast iron is rated at 1,000. The word
Page 220 - Iron 0.— P. 0.07, Si. 0.07, C. 0.04. Slag medium. Chemical impurities, all very low. The iron had been thoroughly worked. Tenacity as bar and as link very low. Ductility as bar and as link very high. Welds very good. Low phosphorus does not alone account for these qualities. Iron F, with P.
Page 229 - L (C. 0.35), when treated by the uniform method usually adopted for chain-cable irons, made the worst welds. Iron K, with carbon so low as 0.07, made bad welds, although it was otherwise a good average chainiron, with a medium amount of impurity. Carbon, in a greater degree than phosphorus, promotes fluidity : hence the iron is " burned " at the ordinary welding temperatures of low-carbon irons.