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Annual report of the survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes for
the year ending June 30, 1869; Brevet Brigadier General W. F. Raynolds, United States Army, lieutenant colonel of engineers, in charge.
OFFICE UNITED STATES LAKE SURVEY,
Detroit, Michigan, September 25, 1869. GENERAL: I have the honor to submit this, my annual report of the operations on the survey of the Northern and 'Northwestern Lakes, for the year ending June 30, 1869.
During the season of 1867 the field parties were engaged in the survey of Lake Superior. At the end of that season the portions of the lake unsurveyed were as follows:
1. The eastern side of the large bay south of Whitefish Point.
2. All that part of Isle Royale lying west of Rock Harbor on the south side and McCargoe's Cove on the north side.
3. All that portion of the west end of the lake west of a line drawn from Ontonagon to the mouth of Pigeon River, (excepting about twentyfive miles from the head of the lake which was surveyed in 1861.)
This last named field included the entire Apostle Island group, and, as the three districts combined were a larger field than could be covered by the force of the survey in a single season, it was determined to occupy only the most favorable months for work in Lake Superior, and then transfer the parties to the more genial climate and accessible locality of Lake St. Clair.
On the 1st of July, 1868, the date from which this report begins, the following parties were actively engaged in the field operations of the survey in Lake Superior, viz:
The steamer Ada, in charge of Captain F. U. Farquhar, Corps of Engineers, brevet lieutenant colonel United States Army, was engaged making a hydrographical survey of that portion of the south shore of Lake Superior between Eagle River and the Apostle Islands, and of the north shore of the same lake west of Isle Royale. Colonel Farquhar's instructions were, to follow the method heretofore adopted and make a thorough examination of the portions of the lake specified, from the limits of the work done by the shore parties, as far outward as it was practicable to have the position of the steamer accurately located by theodolites on shore.
He was also charged with the duty of selecting points on both sides of the lake for the primary triangulation, and directed to build the requisite stations for that purpose. This latter duty involved the careful examination of the heights near the shore, and, as they are all covered by a dense forest, the amount of labor required was far greater than would have been the case in a settled region.
The reconnoissance was carried so far as to leave but very little doubt that a system of triangles can be obtained that will cover the entire lake.
The off-shore hydrography of the northern coast of the lake was completed, and on the south coast the work was carried as far west as the mouth of the Montreal River.
First Lieutenant James F. Gregory, Corps of Engineers, with the party on board the steamer Search, was engaged in making a hydrographical survey around Isle Royale, including the channel between the north shore and that island, as well as the small islands and distant dangerous shoals lying to the northeast of the same.
Lieutenant Gregory was also charged with a general supervision of the topographical and hydrographical parties on Isle Royale, with instructions to keep them supplied with provisions, move their camps when required, carry their mails, &c.
The work done by this party was as follows: Number of primary triangulation stations built
1 Number of sounding stations built..
15 Number of sextant angles read..
659 Number of theodolite pointings.. Number of theodolite readings.
3, 762 Number of lines sounded with steamer.
108 Number of miles sounded with steamer. Number of cast of lead from steamer..
802 Number of square miles of off-shore hydrography Number of observations for local time..
5 Number of compass readings..
86 Number of buoys put out for shore parties.
9 Number of shore parties moved.
6 Number of angles measured for triangulation.
7 Number of miles run by steamer on general duty.
First Lieutenant Benj. D. Greene and First Lieutenant John C. Mallery, Corps of Engineers, were in charge of topographical and hydrographical parties stationed on Isle Royale, the former on the southern and the latter on the northern side, with instructions to make a minute survey of their respective portions of the island, continuing their surveys until their work met and the survey of the island was completed. This island, though less than fifty miles in length, contains numerous indentations, bays, &c., and there are so many small detached islands adjacent to it that the survey was intricate and difficult and involved the survey of a shore line which, developed, is over three hundred miles in length. The water on all sides is of great depth and the bottom very irregular, the soundings frequently changing from many fathoms to a few feet between consecutive casts of the lead, which involved a very minute hydrographical examination in every part.
It is believed that the survey will prove of essential benefit to navi. gation, as dangers, before unknown, were discovered and numerous harbors and anchoring grounds, which have never been used, were shown to exist.
I therefore propose to have a chart made of the district on a scale that will show clearly all the features of the locality.
The work done by the above parties on Isle Royale was as follows:
LIEUTENANT GREENE'S PARTY.
Number of triangulation stations built...
Number of triangles measured.
56 40 29
LIEUTENANT MALLERY'S PARTY.
Number of stations built....
268 Number of sounding stations built.
215 Number of buoys placed and located.
179 Number of theodolite pointings..
4, 843 Number of theodolite readings.
9,500 Number of lines sounded...
1, 227 Number of casts of the lead.
12,928 Number of miles sounded.
545 Number of square miles of hydrography.
30 Number of miles stadia run.
40 Number of miles shore-line run.
80 Second Lieutenant Joseph E. Griffith, Corps of Engineers, aided by Assistant Henry Gillman, was in charge of topographical and hydrographical party on the south shore of Lake Superior charged with the duty of continuing the survey westward from near Ontonagon, Michigan, as far as possible. During the season's operations it was found necessary to transfer this party to the north side of the lake in order to secure the completion of the survey of that region.
The transfer was made after Lieutenant Griffith had been granted a leave of absence on account of his health, the party being left in charge of Assistant Gillman.
On the south shore the survey was carried as far as a point about four miles west of the mouth of Montreal River, (the dividing line between the States of Michigan and Wisconsin,) and on the north shore a survey of nineteen miles was made, which, with the surveys of Lieutenant Rogers and Assistant Mayers, completed the survey of the entire north shore of the lake from the mouth of Pigeon River, the boundary between the United States and the British possessions, and the head of the lake.
The total amount of work done by this party for the season was as follows: Number of stations built...
128 Number of buoys placed and located.
115 Number of lines of soundings.
679 Number of casts of the lead.
20, 525 Number of buoys made ..
39 Number of theodolite pointings.
3, 499 Number of theodolite readings. Number of miles stadia run
91 Number of compass readings.
54 Number of miles shore line run and sketched
78 Number of miles topography run and sketched.
14 Number of observations on Polaris...
4 Second Lieutenant W. E. Rogers, Corps of Engineers, aided by Assisttant Albert Molitor, was in charge of a topographical and hydrographical party on the north shore of Lake Superior working from the mouth of Pigeon River westward. Lieutenant Rogers's field covered that portion of Lake Superior where the national boundary leaves the lake and passes up Pigeon River toward the 49th parallel. He extended his survey
several miles into the British possessions north of the line, and then continued to the southwest along the lake shore through an exceedingly rough and inhospitable region, for the most part presenting a bold rocky shore almost destitute of inhabitants, until his work closed with that of the party of Lieutenant Griffith, which, as has been said, was transferred from the south shore to that locality.
The work done by this party was as follows: Number of stations built ...,
368 Number of buoys placed and located
170 Number of casts of the lead ...
13, 491 Number of pointings of theodolites.
3,687 Number of readings of theodolites.
5, 829 Number of readings of vertical angles.
367 Number of readings of sextant angles
219 Number of base lines measured..
4 Number of observations on Polaris.
1 Number of miles measured by stadia.
47 Number of miles shore-line run
89 Number of lines of soundings.
690 Number of miles of soundings
624 Assistants J. R. Mayer and J. P. Mayer were in charge of a shore party on the north shore of Lake Superior, commencing at the most eastern point reached by the survey in 1861, and working to the eastward.
The whole survey of this portion of the lake, extending from near Duluth to opposite the western end of Isle Royale, was attended with privations and difficulties not met with in more favored localities; the almost entire want of communication, the absence of harbors, and to a great extent of even boat landings, the rough mountainous country covered by a dense forest, all combined to render the operations of the survey not only difficult, but dangerous, and I cannot but rejoice that the work has been finished successfully without an accident.
I do not think that as difficult and dangerous a coast line will be found on the entire chain of lakes.
The amount of work done by this party was as follows:
382 Number of buoys placed and located
208 Number of theodolite pointings.
4, 859 Number of theodolite readings. Number of miles soundings run.
728 Number of lines sounded..
1, 306 Number of casts of the lead
18, 277 Number of square miles of hydrography
67 Number of miles shore lipe run
116 Number of miles run with stadia for topography
58 Number of square miles of topography sketched
138 Number of miles lines of sight cut
31 Number of meridian lines determined
4 Number of base lines measured...
2 Assistant O. N. Chaffee, aided by Assistant A. F. Chaffee, was in charge of a party on board the steamer Surveyor, with instructions to commence work on the left bank of the St. Mary's River at the point above the falls where previous surveys ended, and work to the north ward, passing the numerous bays and headlands ab. head of that stream, and going
as far into the open lake as practicable, and at the same time to complete the triangulation of the large bay south and west of White-fish Point.
This party completed the survey in this point of the lake, having carried their work into British territory as far as the Mamaisue, a prominent headland about twenty miles northeast of White-fish Point.
The amount of work done was as follows: Number of stations for triangulation built
21 Number of theodolite pointings. Number of theodolite readings
8, 310 Number of miles shore-line run
14 Number of angles measured .
59 Number of miles of shore-line run with stadia.
91 Number of lines of soundings run with steamer
88 Number of miles of lines run with steamer.
354 Number of casts of the lead from steamer
1, 349 Number of sextant angles...
168 Number of readings of compass.
133 Number of lines of soundings run with small boats
30 Number of casts of the lead from small boats
633 Number of miles run by steamer on general duty.
LAKE ST. CLAIR.
On the 8th of September, all the parties in Lake Superior, with the exception of that under Assistant O. N. Chaffee, having returned to this city, they were reorganized for the purpose of continuing the survey of Lake St. Clair.
The following were the assignments made:
Brevet Lieutenant F. U. Farquhar, in charge of the party on board the steamer Ada, was directed to make a survey of the delta, commencing at Point au Trembles and extending from thence to the southward and eastward as far as practicable.
Lieutenants Mally and Rogers, and Assistant Lamson and E. S. Wheeler were assigned to this party.
Colonel Farquhar was directed to make a minute survey of the old dredged channel, as well as of the locality of the new channel now being cut through the flats.
The party remained in the field until the 24th of October, having nearly completed the survey of the delta.
First Lieutenant James F. Gregory was assigned to the charge of the party on board the steamer Search, and directed to make a minute topographical and hydrographical survey of the east shore of the lake, commencing at the head of the Detroit River. He was aided by Lieutenants Griffith and Haupt, and Assistant Marr. The party closed their field operations on the 31st of October, having done the following work: Number of primary triangulation stations built
2 Number of sounding stations.
25 Number of theodolite pointings.
1, 064 Number of theodolite readings. Number of square miles of off-shore hydrography
4 Number of compass readings
13 Number of buoys placed out and located.
39 Number of base lines measured....