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potash, or enough to produce 251 crops. We see then what must be done. We must apply to this land the needed phosphoric acid, or we cannot get the benefit of the large reserve of potash. Mr. Schilling said that in view of these facts he did not agree with others in regard to the importance attached to the use of potash as a fertilizer.
He said the time would come when not only potash, but other elements will have to be supplied to many of our lands, but it will not be in our time, and therefore we need not take notice of potash further than to see that the potash of our barnyard manure is saved.
If, then, phosphoric acid is the great need of our soils, it becomes us to know what the sources of phosphoric acid are, or rather what is the cheapest source.
The bones of animals, if not burned nor steamed, contain a good per. centage of ammonia, which is one of the three important elements named. They are a far better fertilizer than is the bone of extinct marine ani. mals, known as phosphatic rock.
Mr. Schilling further remarks: “When I began the manufacture of my Premium Bone, I met with this fallacy both among agricultural chemists, and farmers who were following their advice. They claimed that bone to be available for a fertilizer must be dissolved with sulphuric acid, and by that means made into a superphosphate. They wanted the phosphoric acid to be soluble in order to be immediately available. I call this theory of using bone a fallacy because, first, the buyer even in the best superphosphates made, pays for a ton in weight and gets only half a ton of bone, the thing he needs, and, second, because it is not true that the bone must be dissolved or made soluble in order to be speedily available.
If the bone is finely ground, it is in the best possible condition to produce crops, and also give a durable effect on after crops for years. The fallacy of the superphosphate theory has been so successfully exploded by the grand results of the use of simple ground raw bone, that it is only a question of time when farmers and gardeners will use nothing else.
(By Secretary Bateham.) The article by Prof. Caldwell, of Cornell University, given below, contains a virtual admission on the part of the chemists, that their teaching, on the subject of superphosphates have been erroneous. When the facts contained in that article and others which will soon follow, become generally known, there will be no foundation left for the trade in superphosphates, dissolved bone, etc., by which our farmers have been so much bewildered and defrauded.
[This paper may be considered the last legacy of our late Secretary to the agricultuists of Ohio. It was almost his dying request, in giving up the material for this report, that a place might be found on its pages for this article.-- Note by the Editor.]
EVAPORATION OF FRUITS. The following was read at the late meeting of the Ohio Horticultural Society, by J. Edgerton, of Clermont county:
When we take into consideration the tendency of our orchards to produce fruit in alternate years, making such a glut in the market that we can not dispose of the produce at a profit, or indeed hardly at any price at all, and in the “off years" causing such a ecarcity as almost to produce a fruit famine, it would appear that any contrivance which will enable us to convert this excess into a product we may stow away until the season of scarcity appears, should be considered a great and valuable achievement. The season of 1878 was one of those abundant seasons, when all orchards were overburdened and the markets overstocked. As a consequence, a vast amount of apples lay and rotted on the ground. In the early autumn of tbat year our horticultural society appointed a committee to investigate the subject of evaporated fruits and evaporators, with a view of recommending that which would most nearly moet our wants. In our investigations we learned that in the largo establisbments in Chicago, where they make vast numbers of pies, they prefor the use of evaporated apples, even when they might get fresh fruit, claiming that it is cheaper than to prepare the lat'er.
Also in our inquiry we fonnd tbat the Alden process makes a good article of fruit, but it is so expensive that it is not adapted to the wants of the p'ople, and is only eligible for largo establishments. The Zimmerman, as well as most others of the processes which have been introduced to public potice, consists of a series of trays or racks, arrange. one above another. These must be drawn out by band and removed to the succeeding higher tier as each tray of fresh fruit is ready to take its place next the heat. This keeps the door open so much that an even heat in the drying house can not be preserved. The honeo which impressed 06 most favorably, and which on trial has proved eminently satisfactory, is the American Drier. It consists of a beater so arranged that all the heated air passes through an irclined flue or trunk, into which the fruit is put on trays, 80 arranged that when a tray of green fruit is put over the furnace, the one just before is pushed up, allowing no escape of heat and no cooling of the house. A rapid evaporation is secured. The fruit, kept clean of dirt and insects, is put immediately into tight packages, and can await a market. When the market opens and the fruit is wanted for
soaking restores the water, and for culinary purposes the article is just as good as fresh. When soaked for a few hours they are put directly into pies and baked,
We also find this an admirable method of putting up pumkins, tomatoes, and indeed all kinds of perishable vegetables. So we can enjoy “ye pumpkin pie of ye olden time" at any season, and have fresh tomatoes the year around. Canning is at once expensive, cumbersome and unsatisfactory, while evaporating is applicable to almost all kinds of fruits, vegetables, etc., and is certainly destined to supersede canning at no distant day.
Now a word about cost and profit. There are so many modifications of this house that the most fastidious can be accommodated, as the cost may vary with size, style, and finish, from $20 up to $500, which adapts it to universal use. Perhaps a little item from onr own experience will well illustrate a moderately successful experiment with it. We dried about 600 pounds of fruit in twenty of the short days of winter, running only in the daytime, and on a No. 2 drier, costing $v0. This was a factory and portable apparatus house, and one of equal capacity, stationary, can be put up for about $20. A man, woman, or child can dry upon it from 33 to 35 pounds of raspberries in a single day, thus securing 100 quarts per day. The present market price of these dried berries is 30 to 35 cents a pound.
First-class ovaporated apples are worth from 124 to 15 cents a pound on the same counter where ordinary dried apples are selling at 5 or 6 cents. Sweet corn also is destined ero long to become an important article for evaporation; also tomatoes, pumpkins, etc., for which, as yot, no market has been established. The correct principles of fruit-drying are to do the work rapidly, thus driving off the watery particles before decomposition takes place; and to avoid scorching, which produces caramel, or burnt sugar, the ingredient which gives to ordinary dried apples the dark color and the strong flavor which always accompany them in a greater or less degree. By rapidly expelling the water, we retain the fruit sagar in the product.
REPORT ON FRUITS AT CANTON.
The following is the substance of the report of the committee on fruit exhibited at the meeting of the Ohio Horticultural Society, at Canton, the past month :
W. B. Storer, of Akron, exhibited pine plates of apples, all handsome specimens; two of the varioties not known to the committee. A. Pontius, of Canton, 16 plates of apples, all good samples and correctly labeled, moriting the compliments of the committee. Wm. Neisz, Canton, 18 plates of apples, five of them not known to the committee, the rest approved varieties. M. Betzer, Stark county, eight plates of apples, four varieties not recognized by committee, others first-rate, and one plate pears, Lawrence. B. T. Berlien, Louisville, Stark county, six plates of apples, including a variety named Hyde's King of the West, which was new to the committee, and said to be valuable as a long keeper. It is of good size and appearance, and of fair quality. Said to have originated in Columbiana county.
J.J. Harrison, of Painesville, presented two plates of apples for dame, both one variety, pronounced the same as the last preceding ; one plate was of the growth of 1878, and the other 1879, showing its remarkably long keeping quality. The samples were of large size, resembling in form and color the White Pippin, but more yellowish and not tine in texture; flavor pleasant, sweet, the old specimens being a little wilted, but still in sound condition. Further information respecting this variety is desired. S. Myers, Canton, eight varieties of apples, only two of which the committee were able to recog. nize-Pennock and Grannissinkle. W. Firestone, Stark county, three plates of apples, and one of pears—Columbia, very five specimens. G. W. Dean, Portage county, three plates of apples, and one plate of pears, Lawrence, handsomely colored and very good. A. S. Kelton had a fine plate of pears for name, pronounced Josephine Malines, one of the finest winter varieties. C. Brombach, Stark county, five plates apples, all good specimens. J. J. Fahl, Stark county, 18 plates of apples a good assortment, the Roxbury Russets and Red Canadas especially fine specimens. J. K. Neisz, Canton, eight plates of apples, all approved varieties. W. W. Reed, Canton, 25 plates of apples, several of them without names, but mostly very good specimens, Yellow Bellflower and Fallawater, especially large and fair. G. Ebersole, Canton, six plates of fine apples. Martin Wale, a fine plate of Fallawater. J. K. McDowell, Canton, six plates of apples, approven sorts. M. Clay, Massillon, a plate of fine Ewalt applos.
A. M. Dillahint, Clarko county, apple for dame, thought to be a seedling; full medium size, color pale yellow, form oblong conic, flesh yellowish white, tender, jaicy and good, resembling the Ortley, but not deemed that variety. E. C. Hathaway, Ottawa, Illinois,
sent samples of an apple said to be a seedling of that vicinity, and thought to possess desirable qualities, especially as a market fruit, but the committee did not deem it sufficiently good to be deserving of commendation. The list of good apples is now 80 great that new varieties must have peculiar merit to render them worthy of propagation. Mr. H. claims for the Salome, early and abundant bearing, fair appearance and quality, and long keeping. If all these are borne out by experience it may prove valuable for sections of the west.
J. F. Tillinghouse, La Plume, Pa., samples of the Clark apple of his neighborhood, and deemed of much value there. Resembles the Belmont in appearance, but not so rich and sprightly in flavor; flesh tonder and breaking; tree said to be an abundant bearer. G. M. High, Middle Bass Island, presented five plates of grapes, two of Catawba, and one each of Iona, Diana, and Shraidt's seedling; the last of dark color and smallish berry, said to have some value as a wine grape. All were well grown and finely kept, the Catawbas especially. T. S. Hubbard, Fredonia, N. Y., sent specimens of the white grape named Prentise, of which he is the chief propagator. The banch and berry are of medium size, flesh juicy and melting, flavor sweet and good. It is said to be a seedling of Isabella, originating at Putneyville, N. Y., and in that vicinity doing very well. It is deserving of trial with the other new white grapes.
Comment.—Of all the apples exhibited, the Canada Red was the best, next came Baldwin, Grimes' Golden, Belmont, Greening, Northern Spy, Roxbury Russet, and Rambo; then the sorts from a little further south, as Western Beauty, Smith's Cider, Ohio Nonpareil, Dominie, Fallawater, Ortley, etc. Of the new sorts I think the one from Clarke county the best in quality, and deserving further notice. Hyde's King of the West has quite too long a name, and is not royal in quality, but may be valuable for storing away in the years of superabundance, to relieve the seasons of scarcity that intervene. The Salmon will gain favor in the market for its good looks, as is the case with Ben. Davis.
CINCINNATI FRUIT MARKETS.
The following is a summary of a very full article prepared for the Cincinnati Commercial by our late fellow-member, Mr. W. Corbly, who has long been largely engaged in the fruit trade. Since the annual meeting he has been taken from his field of worldly usefulness :
In 1835 it was considered a most wonderful thing that one hundred bushels of strawberries could be disposed of on the Cincinnati market in one day, and was commented on as a great event. A close estimate shows that during the past season eighty thousand to eighty-five thousand bushels of strawberries were sold in Cincinnati. Of course a large part of these berries were shipped away, but it is estimated that nearly one-half were consumed here. Formerly the season lasted for only about three weeks, but of later years it lasts from about April 1, when the berries from the South arrive, till the last of June, when the berries from the North are gone-a period of almost three months. The price last season, averaged about $2.25 per bushel. Cleveland, Detroit, Toledo, Dayton, Springfield, Indianapolis, Richmond, and many other interior cities and towns in Ohio and Indiana are large buyers from Cincinnati. The crop this year was an average one, both in quantity and quality.
It is estimated that the crop of this year handled in Cincinnati amounted to from seventy-five to eighty thousand bushels, the crop being a fairly good one, selling at an average of about two dollars per bushel. Of this vast quantity of black raspberries handled in Cincinnati, thousands of bushels are shipped to Northern cities, and the great packing houses of Cincinnati—Fischer, Colter, Denham, and Elstun-can twelve to fifteen thousand bushels.
This berry is grown in considerable quantity in this vicinity, but being much more delicate than the black raspberry, does not bear shipment, and is not so extensively grown, but is very popular and commands good prices. It is estimated that three to four thousand bushels are sold annually in Cincinnati, at an average of from $4.00 to $4.50 per bushel.
The cultivated blackberry is grown for this market in large quantities. This year the crop was almost an entire failure. The failure has been attributed to John Sherman's financial policy, but we do not vouch for this being the cause. From twenty thousand to thirty-five thousand bushels of the cultivated blackberry are, in good season, sold in Cincinnati, at an average price of $2,50 per bushel.
The crop of this berry was also a failure this year, but whether from the same cause as the failure of the blackberry crop we cannot say. Eight thousand bushels is estimated as the quantity handled in Cincinnati in a fairly good year.
One hundred and seventy-five to two hundred thousand bushels is the estimate of the quantity of tomatoes that will be sold in this market this year. Of this quantity one hundred thousand bushels will be canned by the packing houses of Fischer, Colter, Denham, and Elstun. In former years the reputation of tomatoes and small fruits canned by the packing houses of Cincinnati was in such low esteem that the packers were almost driven from the markets, and were in some cases forced to label their goods with fictitious brands from Baltimore, but of late years Cincinnati packers have become most popular, and the label on their goods is a guarantee of good quality, and the product of their packing houses is sought for with such earnestness that it is no uncommon thing to have the product of a season all sold before the canning operations have commenced. Just at this time all tho canning establishments in the city and vicinity are running full force on tomatoes, and before the season closes over two million cans will be packed and ready for shipment. The raising of early or hot-bed tomatoes for table use is a business in which many persons are engaged, and great efforts are made to get the benefit of the good prices at the opening of the season. Growers in Anderson township, Hamilton county, are putting tomatoes into the Cincinnati market ahead of Nashville, or even Northern Alabama growers. The only growers who beat our home growers are those on the Gulf or in the West Indies.