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(except the last one planted), have passed from my care, and are the monuments of peg. lect.

Location and Soil.—When we contemplate planting an orohard the first thing to be considored is the situation and soil. In doing this we cannot always get one that is quite to onr liking, it may not by on the farm Many persons might make better selections than they do. If possible the site should be an elevated one, and the land rich and dry. If not dry it should be under-drained. Neither healthy trees por choice apples can be grown on wet, sour land. A light caloareous clay soil, with a porous sub-soil, usually produces the best apples. This, howevăr, is not always the case, some varieties do best on a rich, sandy loam. The Rome Beauty is notiood for its peculiar adaptation to a warm gravelly soil. Land on whioh the sugar and yellow poplar trees grew while in the forest, is alway suitable for an apple orchard.

In a hilly country, a north, or a northeastern slope is preferable; a southwestern one the most objectionable. In all cases seloot, if possible, so that the trees will be sheltered from the western winds. This may be done by a hill or belt of timber left standing. Where there is neither hill nor wood-land on the west side of the orchard site, plant a row of trees closely together on that side to break the wind. To give strength and room, plant these trees a little in and out as we lay the worm for the rail fence. For a wind break, overgreens are preferable to deciduous trees. Whilo ibey make the best shelter, insects injurious to frnits seldom breed among them. If evergreens are plan led, Norway Spruce, or Arbor Vitae are the best. When planting trees for protection, let them extend a little distance around the northwest and southwest corners of the orchard. A wind brake of this kind is of great value. It not only provonts much of the pollen from blowing away during frutification, but also the blowing off of the fruit during storms, and sometimes the destruction of trees. Do not be discouraged because it takes a little extra work and expense in planting the wiad-brake trees. They will pay well in after years for the trouble and expense of planting them.

All farmers cannot have an eleration, or a northern slope for the orchard site, and are compelled to plant the trees on low land-perhaps near the banks of stieams of water. Although such locations are not recommended, on them we sometimes get the largest crop, as was the case this year. Fruit grown in orchards thus situated, is subjuct to rings and splashes of dark mould over the surface, wbich make it objectionable for market.

Preparation of the Land.—Trees are too frequently planted with jut any preparation of the soil. Often holes are dag in sod land, scarcely large enough to hold the roots when crowded together. After being planted in this manner, they receive no further atten. tion. Not upfrequently is the orchard plot used for a calf pasture, a hog lot, or convenient place to turn horses for a short time. With such treatment, is it surprising that the orchard is a failure It is desirable that the orchard be pear the dwelling, and, to have it so situated, we are sometimes compelled to plant on spouty land. Under such circumstances, the land should be thoroughly underdrained before the trees are planted, and the drains laid at least three feet below the surface. Fruit trees may grow, but they never do well on wet, sour soil. Should the land naturally be poor, or become su by severe cropping, it must be well manured before plowing, both of which should be done in the fall of the year. Plow as deep as possible, and in lands the exact width for the rows of trees, and wbich are to be planted on the elevated portions, where the farrows come together in backing up. This leaves a low place in the oonter between the rows of trees to draw off the water from the roots. As soon as the plowing is finished run cross furrows at right angles with the first plowing, and at exact distances apar, for the rows of trees, boing careful to make the cross furrows straight. It is necessary that they bo straight for convenience in the after culture. Now, with a shovel and mattock, clean out the holes for the trees, keeping them straight both ways. The holes should be about two foot square, and one deep. When the holes for the trees are dug in the fall, the rains and frosts of winter soften the ground in the bottom and sides of them, and is advantageous to the growth of the tree. While making the holos, lay the surface soil at one side, and the subsoil at the other.

The distance that trees should be set apart depends somewhat on the soil and the varieties to be planted. In a very rich, fertile soil, the trees should be set forther apart than when the land is thin. Some persons, for the want of a knowledge of the habits of growth of varieties, get their trees too close together, and sometimes unnecessarily far apart. Wide-spreading trees, such as Fall Pippin, Rhode Island Greenivg, and King of Tompkins county, should be set thirty-three feet apart. Trees of upright or more delicate growth, like Wagener, Red Canada, or Early Harvest, will do at twenty-eight feet apart; but, as the rows in the orchard must be at equal distances, I think it better to plant all the trees at the first-mentioned distance.

Selection of Varieties — There is not a more inportant matter connected with the apple orchard than the selection of varieties, and none in which so many mistakes are made. The selection generally depends upon some peculiar fancy of the proprietor, wbile it ehonld be m de to suit the soil and climate. I know of po definite role that can be given in all cases; much dopeuds u on the object for which the orchard is planted. If for home use, quality should hive much to do with the selection ; if for market, size, beanty, and productiveness shonld be taken into consideration. In either case, their keeping qualities, the length of time they are in season and their adaptation to the soil and climate are matters paramount to all others. For instance, if, on a light sandy soil, the fall Pippin or Baldwin is planted, we need not expect superior quality of fruit, and to plant Romo Beanty or Jersey Sweet on a stift cold clay, the product will bo unfavorable; while Red Astrachan and Rawle's Janet adapt themselves to either soils. In my neighborhood, the Belmont, Esopus Spitzenberg, King of Tompkins oounty, and Smokehouse, all very good apples, some seasons rot a little on the trees, and the Northern Spy go badly as to be worthless.

I am not one of those who believe that six to ten varieties of apples are sufficient for an orchard of a thousand troos. Experience has taught me that some of the best varieties, after bearing choice fruit a number of years, the apples become interior; then, in a few years, return to their former habit of bearing. Sometimes the seasons aff-ct one variety and not another, then vice versa. If thirty varieties are planted, the leading sorts should, of course, predominata. In my orchard there are three distinct qualities of soil: one is a stiff lime clay above the gray limestone; another, a lighter clay, strongly impregnated with iron; the third, a calcareous gravelly loam, over a white sand-stone rock, and the subsoil under euch is a rich porous csay. This enablos me to grow a greater number of varieties than I could if contined to one kind of soil.

I will now give a list of thirty varieties that usually do the best in my orchard, about one-half of which are extensively cultivated.

Summer and Fall.-Early Harvest, Red Astrachan, Sweet Bongh, Chenango Strawberry, Jersey Sweet, Lowell, Maiden's Blush, Porter, Gravenstein, and Fall Pippin,

Winter (Early and Late).--Belmont, Hubbardston Nonsach, King of Tompkins county, Rhode Island Greening, Cayuga Red Streak, Red Winter Pearmain, Grimes' Gold in, Baldwin, Calp, Golden Russet, Fallawater, Pock's Pleasant, Rome Beauty, Red Canada, Nickajack, Roxbory Rusvet, Smith's Cider, Newtown Pippin, and Rawlo's Janet.

With me these are all good market applos, heavy bearers; the fruit nsually smooth, and of good size. They are all lato keepers, excepting tbe first five montioned. Perhaps the one-half of the above varieties will be sufficient for an orohard for bome use. If required to select the best apple in tho summer list, I could not do s0; they all ripen 60 appropriately throughout the season. If required to select the best in the winter list, I would take the Grimes' Goldon, after which I would not be able to make a second choice, there being five or six 80 nearly equal.

Purchasing and Planting the Tr008.—Thore is a differonco of opinion among apple growOTB, as to the best season of the yoar for planting troos. Some prefer the fall, others the spring. If the soil is warm and the sito a favorablo one, troos planted in the fall gonerally do well. I havo found it more convoniont and advantageon. to parchase the troos in the fall and plant them in the spring. If this mothod is adopted, select an elo vated pieco of ground in the gardon or elsewhere, that is dry, and where the trees will be socore from destruction by mice or stock. As soon as the trees are received, with a eharp knife cut off all diseased and broken roots, catting them sloping on tho underside, and bury tho troos in trenches, dog sufficiently deep to allow tbe roots to be below the action of the frost. By spring the cat roots will be healed over and ready for throwiog out now fibers immediately after planting. When trees are thus parchased and kopt, they may be sot out in tho spring before the rush of work comes on. A very important advantage gained by porchasiog the trees in the fell and burying thom, is that they may be taken from the tropches a fow at a time and set out without injury to tho roots. Trees purchased in the fall should not be dng from the nursery rows until the roots bave gono to rest, which is usually about the last of October. Root-grafted troos are preferable to top-grafted; they are more easily formed into low, roond heads, and are frequently better growers. Whon seloctivg troes reject all thet are not stucky with branches near the ground, also, all that have grown in forks.

As early in the spring as the ground becomes settled and the woathor a little warm, the trees should bo takon from the trenches and transplanted in the orchard. Early spring planting of deciduous trees enables them to get a good start bofore the hot, dry weather of Jane sets in. A cloudy day with a warm, damp atmosphere is preferable for doing the work, to a clear ono. In all cases, it is well to soonro tbe roots from exposure, by wrapping thom with a piece of old cloth or carpet while planting. To facilitate the basiness of transplanting the trous and keeping the rows straight, set a white stako close by the side of each tree in the first row; also, a similar stake at the side of each tree in the first ontsido cross row. Those stakes are to sight by. Be careful that the troos in each of these outside rows are not at oxact distances apart; to do this, a rod pole will be found more accurate than a cord. Now, 860 a troo, at exact dis'ances from the second tree in each of the outside rowe, making the four trous in the corners form a porfect square. Bo carefal that the troos in the second row are set at exaot distancos apart, as in the first row ; after which the trees may be planted rapidly, and in straight rows, by sighting back and across to the outside trees. Should the holes be too deop, fill up with the surface mould, so that the trees when transplantod will stand about one inch deeper in tho ground than whon growing in the nursery. Trees soldom do well if planted too doop. In setting the tree, the hoaviest portion of the top and branches should front toward the sonth and west, leaning the top a little in that direction. By so doing the trunk is shaded while yondg, from the bright sun in winter, and is less liable to become swayed to the east by the western winde. Spread out th roots

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and fill in about them the fine surface mould with the hand, ooossionally shaking the treo a little and drawing it apwards; this places the roots in their original position. Press down the earth gently with the foot, leaving a slight basin around tho treo, and the top leaning to the south west. Cut back a littlo all tho main branches, but do not cut off tho under onos; they are of much importanco in drawing on the sap and encouraging the troe to make an early start. No foroiga substanco, such ao woods-mould or mangro shonld be pat in the hole with the tree; thos do not readily Quito with the Datural soil, and should tho weather bo dry aftor planting, tho air passes down the crevices to the roots and the tree dies.

Care and Cultivation – Tho cuccess of the orchard dopondo opon the treatmont it roceives, and it is within the powor of the owner to make it healtby and productivo by atteution to ito wants, or by neglect, cans: it to become diseased and worthless. The most important period in the managemont of the orchard is the first ten yoaro of its existence. Some persons, from their greed to get frait, permit the trees while young to overbear, which brings on promatare old age. Others, for tho want of correct knowledge of naturo, continuo to cultivato and stimulato the troes in the orchard until thoy have grown large, crowding each othor without producing much fruit. The object in planting fruit trees is to produce fruit, and to bo successfal, we must be govorned in our operations by the laws of naturo. It is an indisputable fact that a tree cannot possono great vigor of growth, and at tho same time be correspondiogly fruitful. The two processes being antagonistic, tho first ten years should be devoted to the growing and proper training of the trees. During this period they should not be kept in so high a state of cultivation as to produce over-growth, nor should thoy, for the want of cultivation, be allowed to become scrubby.

As soon as the trees are planted for the orchard the land should bo cultivated in sonie hoed crop-potatoes are preferable. They do not smother the young trees, causing thom to grow spindling; and they loave tho land in excellent condition for the growth of the trees. If corn is grown in the orchard while the trees are small, it is well to omit a hill on each side of the tree. While caltivating the growing crop, be careful that the trees are not damaged by rabbing the bark, for tho sake of saving a hill of corn or potatoes ; every treo that grows is worth a hundred bills of eithor of them. The land should be well manured every year during its cultivation, to keep up its fertility. After four or five years cnltivation the land should rest a few yoars in clover; during which time the trees may be allowed to bear a little. After resting two or three years the land in the orchard should again be caltivated and manured for a few years, and again rest in clover. By this time the trees will be getting large, and, if properly managed, the clover will keep the land rich and loose and the trees in a healthy condition. At the usual season of mowing for hay, mow the clover in the orchard with a machine, bat do not take it off the land. The next crop will como forward through the mown grass and seed the land, and in this way it may be continued to an indefinite period. I never allow timothy or blue grass to remain in my orchards. All coltivation of the land in the orchard should cease by the first of July, otherwise, late growths of the wood are encouraged, which frequently becomes winter-killed.

Training and Pruning the Trees. The corroct praning and early training of the tree has much inflaence over its futore productiveness and length of life; therefore we should proceed with great care. Pruning should be done a littlo at a time, and commence with the cultivation of the tree. Whenever a branch is out of place, or too long for the others, shorten or remove it, as circumstances may require. Prune the trees so as to form low, round heads. Troes of this shape are not only more convenient for gatherivg the fruit, but they are in better shape and condition to resist severe storms. Keep the leader (center branch) straight, pinching off the top occasionally to retard its growth. When it attains the height of 12 to 15 feet, cut it away; this gives the tree a spreading habit Lot all the under branches remain on the tree a few years to protect the truuk; they also cause it to grow stocky, and thereby able to resist the force of the winds. When the trunk is about as thick as a man's wrist, cut away the under branches to the height of four or five feet (per haps four feet will be sufficient at first) and commence to form the head of the tree. Proue so that the branches on each side of the tree aro nearly opposite each other and between one and two feet apart on the truuk. This is easily done by retaining such twigs as desired, removing all others while little. The pinching back of the leader encourages the growth of numerous side branches. Keep the tree ovenly balanced, and should the branches bo persistent in growing upright, preos a bunch of grass between them and the leader, to give them an outward position. When bearing fruit they will learn to grow horizontally. Keep the center of the tree open to let in air and light. The branches should not rub nor be allowed to grow acrorg each other. A sbarp knife is all that is necessary for praning young trees, which should be done wbile the tree is in a growing condition-generally in May or June. As the tree growe older it will be necessary to use a fine, sharp saw, and in removing the larger branches they should be cut twice, the first ono a foot or more from the point of its final separation. The two cuttings prevent the wood becoming checked at the point of sparation by the weight of the branch. I am not in favor of removing large branches, but sometimes it cannot be avoided. When such branches are removed the wound should be covered with shellac. Paint, or any other substance mixed with fat, when applied is injurious to the wood. The pruning of bearing trees should be done before the opening of the blossoms—just as the buds are beginning to swell.

I have already said trees should not be allowed to over-bear, especially while young. It not only produces premature old age, but also a tendency to become contirmed biennial bearers. The over bearicg of young trees may be prevented by pruning and knocking off the fruit. Varieties that bear their fruit on short spars along the branches, are usually biennial bearers. In favorable seasons more fruit is set than the tree is able to mature, and at the same time pr pare the froit buds for the next year's crop. I have to some extent been able to prevent trees continuing in the habit of biennial bearing by the following process: I prepare a light, adjustable ladder and place it at one of the main branches of the tree. Now, with a pair of sheep obears, remove every bunch of apples by cutting through each cyme, leaving a part of the stem of the litile apple to the wood, to fall off of its own accord. Continue the operation on each alternate branch until you have gone over the tree. The branches from which the fruit has been removed will in due time prepare fruit buds for the next season, and in this way a part of the tree will bear apples every year apless interfered with by climatic causes, When this occurs the operation must be gone over again. It is not so tedious a job as some may suppose. A smart, active man can go over öfteen or twenty moderate sized trees in a day. This operation should be performed soon after the blossoms have fallen--when the apples are about the size of red haws.

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PRUNING.

BY G. H. MILLER.

Io presenting a few thoughts on the subject of pruning, we would not forget the great diversity of opinion among practical men in regard to the manner and time of pruning; nor do we flatter ourselves that we may be able to decide any of the contro

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