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act in sympathy and in interest with the law officer, or he is powerless. Legislation on moral sentiments may make a book of most becoming and improving reading, but the body of the people must be made willing to be the executive, or no principle on our statute books can ever be satisfactorily enforced. Bearing upon this point, we may cite the historical fact that the State of Massachusetts had three hundred and fifty-nine acts for the protection of fish; but with all this protection the fish each year grew scarcer, until the decrease was arrested by artificial propagation. This was commenced in 1857, and it is claimed that in four years the fish were made plentier than they had been at any time in the preceding fifty years.

Complaints are made from various sections of the State of the destruction of fish and depopulation of small streams by saw.dust thrown into the streams; and petitions for the enactment of laws to prevent it, we believe, are now before the Legislature. Some law or regulation, covering the piscatory interests of the State, would greatly curtail an unnecessary evil. If a few men of intelligence living along the streams where these destructive agencies to fish are at loose rein, will inform themselves of what has been done in other States and countries for the propagation and preservation of fish, they will create a public opinion that will cause the enactment of proper laws, and compel their enforcement. The Dominion of Canada, which is in advance of most of our States in her laws for the preservation of her fisheries, forbids, under severe penalties, all saw-mills from running saw-dust into streams of water.

Notwithstanding the statutory prohibitions, many of our rivers near the larger towns and cities continue to be polluted, and the fish therein killed or driven away by the offal of sewers, the filth of oil refineries and gas works, the washings of breweries, the refuse of starch factories, and such like destructive agencies. It does seem that some further legislation to more surely prevent the pollution and poisoning of rivers and ponds by greedy and law-defying manufacturers, who are unwilling to go to the expense of properly disposing of poisonous wastes of stills and mills, should be enacted.

If the Legislature should see fit to make an appropriation sufficient to allow the Commissioners to employ, at designated times and places, proper persons to specially look after the violation of the fish laws by poaching and polluting streams in their manifold ways, many of these evils complained of might be suppressed, as the people at large show a commendable interest in having the law enforced; but few or none are willing to make themselves obnoxious by being informers. This evil is cured in some of the Eastern States by the appointment of fish wardens. The services of these wardens would necessitate a considerable expenditure of money. The General Assembly can judge whether or not this system of fish protection would be worth in Ohio what it would cost.

Since the organization of this Commission not less than twenty-eight millions of the fry of the white fish and salmon have been hatched and replaced in Lake Erie and the inland lakes, ponds, and rivers of the State. In addition to this, the United States Commission bave planted in Ohio waters of the shad and salmon fry hundreds of thousands, aggregating perhaps into the millions, hatched by the general government, and costing us only the expense of shipping to the place of planting.

We greatly desired, through the medium of this report, to lay before the public full and reliable statistics touching the extent of the fish interest in Ohio, but have not been able to obtain such responses and data from the pound fishermen and fish packers and dealers of the cities and towns largely interested in the fish product of Lake Erie, as enables us to give anything like a reliable total. Had we specific returns of the amount of fish caught in the waters of this State, they would enable us to show not only the present value of our fisheries, but from year to year indicate the increase that is inevitable under a wise system of artificial propagation and after protection. Our citizens would thereby readily perceive the value of aqua-culture, and thus be made to realize the im. portance of providing ample means to foster it.

In the single city of Sandusky, a capital valued at over $250,000 is invested, and giving employment to more than one thousand men, who derive their support from catching, freezing, preparing, and packing the fish for the markets. The average daily shipments during the last year, from this point, were not below one hundred and seventy-five barrels of fresh fish; and for the season upwards of three hundred tons of frozen fish, and fifty-five thousand half-barrels of herring alone. The total sales for the seaeon are estimated at $350,000.

Michigan, our sister State on the north, and our partner in the ownership of much of the fishing shores of Lake Erie, now makes liberal annual appropriations for fish culture, and is doing her share of the work of replenishing the lake. Pennsylvania and West Virginia, on the east, are also alive to the importance of this industry, and are proceeding systematically and vigorously in pisciculture.

Inquiries about and calls for brook trout are pouring in upon us. We are encouraged to further efforts to introduce this fish into many more of our small and rapid running streams. A lively interest is awakened toward a more general propagation of this beautiful and valuable fish. Castalia Creek, in Erie county, now swarms with them—the result of artificial propagation. Some spawn for our hatching-boxes were last fall obtained from trout planted there by our predecessors.

In October last, a meeting of a number of men prominent in fish culture was held in Chicago, and at which we had a representative in the person of Mr. E. D. Potter, our Superintendent of Hatchery. Fish cul. turists from twelve or more States attended this meeting, and after two days' session organized the “Central Fishcultural Society.” It now has a membership of over fifty intelligent and energetic pisciculturists, and gives reasonable hope of materially fostering fish culture in the western and south-western States.

The report of the superintendent of the hatchery at Toledo, and the Treasurer's financial statement, made to this Commission, are here. with submitted, and will disclose sufficiently in detail the expenditures, operations, and results of the past year.

Respectfully submitted,


Commissioners. JANUARY 20, 1880.



To Messrs. JOHN C. FISHER, ROBERT CUMMINGS, and LEN. A. HARRIS, Commissioners:

GENTLEMEN : Since the date of my last annual report there have been hatched at the State hatchery in Toledo 6,500,000 white fish, planted as follows: In Lake Erie, Ottawa county

5,000,000 at Huron....


6,500,000 California salmon

50,000 March 10, 1879, planted in Miami River, at Dayton...

15,000 April 28, Newberry pond, Geauga county

1,000 May 5,

delivered to Abel Hart, Esq., at Mt. Vernon, Knox
county ...

3,000 May 6, planted in Licking Reservoir, Licking county. 15,000 Castalia, Erie county.


44,000 Land-locked salmon, hatched and planted in Maumee Rapids, Lucas county.. 6,000

This comprises all the fish hatched and distributed in 1879.

On the 15th of October, 1879, received at the hatchery from the United States salmon breeding establishment on McCloud River, California, 200,000 California salmon eggs, which were not in good condition, and from which were hatched, in November, about 100,000 young fish, now in the hatchery in fine condition, and ready for distribution.

The introduction of California salmon into the tributaries and waters of Lake Erie does not seem to meet with much favor from the fishermen along the shore, on account of their predaceous habits. They express a fear that they may ultimately prove destructive to the white fish. There is plenty of room, however, in the lake for them all, and my greatest fear has been the want of success in their acclimatization in the waters of the lake and its tributaries. It is now six years since their first introduction into the tributaries of the lake, amounting in all to 234,000, and none have yet shown themselves upon spawning grounds, and none have been taken with fully developed spawn. Now and then a stray salmon has been taken in pound nets, along the shores of the lake, but none weighing over four pounds. A majority of the number above stated was placed in these waters in January, 1874, and it seems to me that if they were ever going to reproduce themselves, it is time we bad some evidence of it.

We have planted in the waters tributary to the Ohio River 225,000 young California salmon, with no better results. As I stated in my last report, I think enough has already been done to test the practicability of the experiment; and if no benefit is to result from it, I would spend no more money on them. For the 100,000 now in the hatchery, there is very little call.

LAND LOCKED SALMON. Of this spawn, I received from the United States breeding establishment at Grand Lake Stream, in Maine, in March, 1879, 50,000, but they were all spoiled by being overheated while in the hands of the American Express Company. Another consignment of 10,000 eggs from the same source was soon after received in good condition, from which I hatched and planted in Maumee Rapids 6,000.


There are now in the hatchery over 6,000,000 of white fish eggs in good condition Owing to the unusually warm winter, the thermometer averaging 38° against 34° last winter, they will probably be out two weeks earlier than usual; but whilst the lake is open there is no danger of loss, for I can deposit them at any time with safety. The keepingtroughs, added last year to the hatchery, enables us to keep them in good healthy condition until ready to deposit them. That the white fish, at maturity, return to the waters where first deposited, has been proven beyond a doubt, by the great increase of the catch in the head waters of the lake, where most of the fry has been de posited. The season for taking white fish in the lake has been unpropitiuous, for about the time of the best run a terrible storm, accompanied by a sharp crust of ice, came on and broke up the nets, and it was with much difficulty that fishermen were able to save their nets, in a damaged condition, and fishing ceased. But for the time the fishing lasted, the catch was very satisfactory. One party lifted in one day, before the storm, over seven tons of white fish from one string of pound nets. This was at the head of the lake.

A hatchery at Sandusky would, in my opinion, be advisable. Whilst the one at Toledo would supply that portion of the lake above Put-inBay Islands, as being most acceptable for planting the young fry, one at Sandusky would supply that portion of the lake below and adjacent to the islands, thus accommodating from the two batcheries all interests. The dangers of transporting the young and tender fish for a great distance would be avoided; and it would cost no more to build and equip &

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