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even without treatment elowly soluble by atmospheric influences. And when gradually disolving the lime, is found in tne bone powder, and in this gradual change with acids, all those phosphates become converted into phosphates which are readily soluble, and, of course, very much more available.

With regard to potash, it is usually, soluble in almost any form in which it occurs, except silicia, wbich does not often occur in commercial fertilizers. So much in regard to the essential characteristics of the fertilizing priuciples of commercial fertilizers.

In regard to the difference between different sertilizers, it becomes only a difference in the proportion in the first place. In the second place, a difference in the absolute value of the fertilizers. As the value of the fertilizers depends upon the phosphoric acid, nitrogen, and počash they contain, the value of two ferli izers, as compared wi:h each other, evidently depends wholly, in the first place, upon the amount of the different ingredients contained. If there are two fertilizers, the one containing twice as much phosphoric acid as the other would evidently have twice as much value in that respeot.

In the second place, fertilizers becomg valuable in regard to the relation between these ingredients, this variation determining the character of the fertilizer in its action upon the soil. Pure phosphate only supplies a certain mineral, and bone phosphate contains a certain amount of ammonia, and supplies nitrogen to the coil which does not exist in the mineral, but which the plant gets from the atmospbere to a large extent. More generally the character of fertilizers vary in this way, in proportion to the different ingredients. This point should be well understood. The importance in regard to using fertilizers and understanding the com position of fertilizers used, I view as merely the difference between a person taking a patent medicine and well known chemicals. A patent medicine used witbout the knowledge of materials of which it is composed may be the very thing the peison wants. The farmer often knows no more in reference to fertilizers; be merely knows that a certain brand is the fertilizer needtd by his soil. In case the brand is lost or goes out of use, of course he does not know what his soil may need if he does not know its com po . ition. But in case he knows the chemical analyses of a fertilizer he can by watching its effect upon his soil see what is needed, thus showing the importance of understanding the different compositions of the fertilizers in use. So much, then, for the scientific uses of fertilizers and the benefit of analyses, so far as understanding the action of the fertilizers is concerned.

In another point of view, the analyses of fertilizers is important; that is, in an economic point of view. Two fertilizers may be offered for salo at the same price, one containing a much larger amount of fertilizing ingredients, and, of course, more valuable. There again it is important, of course, to know the composition. During the last year I have had frequently sent to the State laboratory agricultural fertilizers for analyses, and have made a good many analyses showing the variations in the value of these fertilizers. The variations in regard to phosphoric acid in a soluble form was about fifteen or sixteen per cent., varying from three or four per cent. up to twenty. There was nothing about any of these different fertilizers indicating the difference in their compositions. Of course, it is impossible in the laboratory connected with the institutionespecially such a laboratory as ours--and especially, I being the chemist in charge, and my time so employed that I can hardly spare an hour from other duties—to make a complete analyses of the fertilizers of all the forms which farmers may want to use. But it seems to me, that in some way the different brands which are sold could be furnished with labels showing the brand and its composition. Then by an occasional analysis of these different brands made by any party, or made by a chemist, appointed by the State, the question could be settled as to whether the manufacturers maintained that composition, which their brand represented. In that way fertilizers would be furnished with a definite composition, so that farmers could know what they were using in regard to the chemicals applied to the soil, and would also know whether it would be cheapor to buy these fertilizers, or to buy chemicals in some cases and apply them to the soil. Ammonia can be applied to the soil in the form of sulphate of ammonia at the rate of not more than from twenty to twenty-two cents a pound. A fertilizer sold at fifteen dollars a ton, in which ammonia is present in so smalla proportion as to make it worth more than from twenty to twenty-two cents a pound, is a dearer fertilizer than sulphate of ammonia at a hundred dollars per ton, as the waste matter in the fertilizer has, of course, no more value than merely applying so much dirt would have upon the soil. I desired to call the attention of the Convention to those two points mrre particularly, because I have been called upon to make analyses of fertilizers in the last two years, and I would like to see the analyses made of some permanent value to the community. It seems to me that analyses covering only the fertilizers sent in by private parties-perhaps only where their own interest is at stake, or, as I have known it to be, simply as an experient for the manufactures, is of little consequence, and persons purchasing, have no guaranty of the pureness of the article they buy; whereas, if the manufacturers of these various fertilizers were required to maintain the standard of the article they manufacture, then an oceasional analysis made of the same brand would show whether they were fulfilling their contract-whether the article they were selling was what it was originally intended to be.

A member requested that the paper to be furnished by Major Millikin be now read:

J. M. MILLIKIN: I hope that my motion in regard to this matter will be carried. I have no paper prepared. And the few words I might say would not, perhaps, provoke a discussion that would be profitable. I thing, probably, I could bring out my friend McClung, though I do not know what his favorite breed of hogs is, if he has any. I really think the time could be better employed by taking up some of the other questions passed. There are many matters of great importance to the public; Mr. Pope wants to be heard in reference to horses and in reference to the management of fairs, and I think that one of the most important questions and it is a practical question--and we may arrive at some good results by discussion on these matters, and may have some things fixed in our minds. A paper from me, or a talk in reference to certain breeds of hogs, would simply be giving you the opinions of the various men who breed them, and which would be of no more value to you than the opinions of persons in regard to sewing machines or various other articles. I move, therefore, that this question be dispensed with, and that we take up other subjects.

The motion was agreed to.
A paper was then read on the



In your annual deliberations time is too short to admit of discussions and calculations upon the multifarious topics which come under the head of agriculture, and it seems but right to accept the services and researches of those who may be specialists upon different interests. As such, I desire, very briefly, to call your attention to the flax industry in its past and present condition.

Fifteen years ago there was but little information collated upon this subject in this State, except what your Secretary bad collected in regard to the growth of the crop as imperfectly reported from the different counties. Manufacturing statistical matter was collected and presented in your annual report of 1869, by a manufacturer's association of the northwestern States.

The demand which sprang up after the war for rope, bagging, etc., induced investments in machinery and facilities for manufacturing, and closer attention was given to the possible production of staple, not only in Obio, but throughout the west. Flax and bagging mills were pretty generally started all over the west, until in 1869 there were about 90 mills in operation, 14 of them bagging mills, running about 140 looms, with 36 in Ohio, distributed throughout almost as many counties, giving employment at each from 50 to 200 hands, aggregating, perhaps, 4,000 hands, who received about $200,000 per annum in wages, consuming nearly 30,000 tons of raw material, for which the farmers received about one and one-half millions of dollars, the whole operation for 1869 aggregating near two millions of dollars, quite all of which was direct production.

All that time your Board was asked to extend your premium list to include articles of their production, and very commendable displays were made at the State Fair for one or two years, failing only with the destruction of the industry.

Investigation into the possible uses of the product showed that the annual cotton crop, which required bagging for covering 11.16, was covered with foreign product; that the increased cotton production required increased bagging, and from 1866, when less than 3-16 of the cotton crop was covered with flax bagging, until 1869-70, when, by increased facilities, the American manufacturer had covered quite three fourths of the cotton crops of those seasons.

At the same time the flax crop had increased, according to your statistics, from 52,546 acres, and 12,000,000 million pounds of fibre in 1863, to 90,000 acres and 80 millions, nearly, of fibre in 1869, showing an increased manufacture of fibre of quite 400 per cent., and, with proper encouragement and protection, there is no question, but this ratio of increase would have been maintained for years to follow.

At this time the special commissioner of the revenue, in his report for the year 1869, recommended a reduction of the duty upon gunny-cloththe foreign product coming directly in competition with flax to such an extent as to preclude the possibility of manufacture in this country, though earnest protests upon the part of Western manufacturers and farmers was made to Congress, and special appeals, showing the error of his position, were made to the special commissioner to change his recommendations, all to no effect, and as a result, in Ohio, in 1871, every flaxmill engaged in that interest was closed, when privileges, machinery, and expensive machinery went down.

No sooner had the flax industry of Ohio and the whole North-west been destroyed, than it became necessary for the Department of Agriculture at Washington to encourage the production of fiber producing plants, and in 1871-2 considerable sums of money were appropriated by

Congress, and the department imported jute and raimie seeds to distribute throughout the South, where it was probable to flourish in a genial clime. Years of expensive experimenting has quite clearly demonstrated that, though the climate was willing, the people were not, and even though they could be successful in raising good crops, machinery to manipulate the product could not be procured.

From the annual report for 1877 I quote the remarks on the jute industry in Bengal : “ The manufacture of gunny bags employs all classes, and penetrates into every household. Men, women, and children find occupation therein. Boatmen in their spare moments, husbandmen, palankeen carriers, and domestic servants—averybody in fact, being Hindoos, pass their leisure moments, distaff in hand, spinning gunny twist. Its preparation, together with weaving into lengths, form the never failing resource of that most humble, patient, and despised of created beings--the Hindoo widow; this manufacture spares her from being a charge on her family." From this description it would be easy to predict that any employment which required such sweeping, persistent industry, could never flourish in our Southern soil.

To illustrate the watchful effort to secure a suitable material for bag. ging and paper stock, I clip from a daily paper of recent issue, an item, such as may be met every few days from different parts of the country:

" Satisfactory experiments have been made on a plantation below New Orleans, in the conversion of bagasse into fiber and paper stock. The New Orleans Picayune says: 'It is now proposed to go further and obtain raw material for the manufacture of bagging. As it can be manufactured very cheaply, there are sufficient inducements to warrant capitalists to establish a bagging factory here, and a portion of the capital stock bas already been taken. Inasmuch as bagasse is to a large extent a refase upon the engar plantations, or used as fuel because it has no value, ehould this enterprise be carried to a successful result it will add largely to the income of the sugar districts.'

During this period of great industry upon the part of the Agricultural Department at Washington, to increase the growth of fiber producing plants for the country's good, the flax crop of Ohio had declined from 89,000 acres in 1869 to 49,000 acres in 1878; while there was more than a corresponding increase in the imports of bagging, jute, flax-seed, and oil for domestic uses. In 1877, the import of jute, hemp, and flax-seed amounted to eight and one-half millions of dollars, and for twenty years past the imports were, ofRaw flax...

314,422,695 Hemp

48,766,585 Jate

26,287,247 Manufactures of flax, hemp, and jato.

335,490,370 Flax-seed ..

48,822,393 Total....


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