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tents of the glanders and farcy ulcers. It is present also in all the secretions and excretions of the affected animals, as has been proved by numerous direct experiments. Professor Gerlach, in order to ascertain if the contagiou is contained not only in the fluid animal humors and excretions, and in the fluid and solid products of the morbid process, but also in the pulmonal exhalation and in the perspiration, has made several interesting experiments, and has found that an inoculation of a healthy horse with artificially condensed exhalation and perspiration of a glandered animal produces the disease. He has, however, not succeeded in communicating glanders by injecting defibrinated blood of glandered horses (100 and 200 grains respectively) into the veins of healthy animals. Still, the contagiousness of the blood has been established long ago by Abildgardt and Viboeg in Copenhagen.

The experiments of Gerlach and of others, and numerous clinical observations, too, have proved beyond a doubt that the contagion contained in the exhalation and perspiration clings, though only in small quantities, to the aqueous vapors exhaled by the respiratory organs and per: spired by the skin. The contagious principle, therefore, is volatile only in a limited degree, and to produce an infection by means of the exhalation and perspiration at a distance of several feet requires usually some length of time. So it happens very often that a horse occupying with a glandered horse the same stable, but not the same stall, remains exempted. The more forcible and accelerated the breathing and the more abundant the perspiration of the horse affected with glanders, the greater, it seems, is the danger of an infection of healthy horses that are near, or occupy the same stable.

Another question not easily answered, and yet an object for investigation, may be asked ; that is, Do organic forms constitute the contagion; is the contagious principle bound on, or inseparable from, organic forms; or is its action merely a chemical one? On this question the opinions of the best authorities differ. Professor Gerlach, in his successful experiments with condensed exhalation and perspiration, found no organic forms whatever in the perfectly limpid drops; further, he found no organic forms in the very infectious caseous substances taken from the mucous membrane of a horse affected with diphtheritic gland. ers. He therefore has come to the conclusion that the glanders-conta. gion does not consist in, nor is bound on, organic forms, and that the action of the contagious principle must be a chemical one. On the other hand Hallier and others have found organic growth (microscocci) in the humors of glandered horses and in the products of the morbid process of glanders, and are inclined to consider those microscocci as the agency which causes the disease, produces the morbid changes, and effects a communication of the glandered process to other healthy animals. If Hallier and others are right, a great many mysterious phenomena observed in glanders find an explanation, but if Gerlach's observations are correct, Hallier's theories necessarily fall to the ground. Gerlach says: “Hallier finds everywhere fungi," and Chauveau finds everywhere cells. Still, notwithstanding my high regard for Gerlach and the thoroughness of his investigations, I think the finds of Hallier and of other investiga. tors cannot be discarded; positive evidence is always of more value than negative proof. Haeckel (History of Creation, vol. 1, Protista.) and Klebs (Archiv. fuer experimental-Pathologie, 1873), separate the microscopic organisms found in glanders and in other contagious diseases from the class “fungus," and consider them as a separate class, beloning neither to the animal nor to the vegetable kingdom. Whatever may be the truth as to the real nature of the contagious principle, future investiga. tions must reveal. I myself have had no opportunity to make thorough microscopical investigations of the morbid products of glanders, and can, therefore, not advance any definite opinion of my own. Mere specu. lation cannot bring any facts to light; thorough and patient observations are necessary.

The glanders-contagion, whatever its nature may be, communicates glanders and farcy not only to the animals belonging to the genus equus, but also to other animals and to man. Numerous cases are reported every year in the periodical veterinary literature. The only domestica. ted animal that seems to be exempted or to be destitute of any predisposition is the ox.

"Glandered horses, as soon as the disease has been diagnosticated, are usually removed to the cow-stable, or to pens or places where cattle are kept, and still no case, as far as I have been able to learn, is on record in which an ox or a cow has contracted the disease. Sheep are easily infected. Goats, too, possess sufficient predisposition. Ercolani described a case in “Il medico veterinaria,” 1861. and Wirth succeeded in communicating glanders to a male goat by means of inoculation (Archiv fuer Thierheilkunde, Bd. 6, Heft 1, 1814). Hogs seem to possess but little predisposition, and cases of dogs becoming infected and dying of glanders have been communicated by Nordstroem (Tidskrift for Veterinairer, etc., 1862) and Langeron(Revue vétérinaire, etc., Toulouse, érie 1, 1876) Several cases are on record in which wild animals, lions, especially, have become infected with glanders by being fed with meat of glundered horses. According to the experiments of Viborg and Bingheim, the

flesh of a horse affected with glanders can be eaten without danger of infection if properly cooked or fried.

One important phenomenon must be mentioned, and that is, that glanders always becomes a frequent disease after any great war. Such was the case in our own country after the great civil war, as I have mentioned before, and also in Germany and France, but especially in the latter country, after the war of 1870–71. Cases of glanders will also be frequent during the next few years in the Turkish Empire, and in those Turkish provinces which have become independent, when separated from the Ottoman territories. The cause of this frequency is an obvious one. It consists in the abundant opportunity of infection. One horse affected with (occult) glanders in either of the hostile armies can, for obvious reasons, communicate the disease with the greatest facility to a large number of animals. The fact of glanders becoming frequent after each large war has been used very frequently as an argument in favor of a protoph:tic development, but if it is looked upon in a proper light it proves, if anything, the exclusive spreading of the disease by means of the contagion.

Prevention and treatment.--As to a medical treatment, there is scarcely a remedy known in the whole materia medica that has not been used against glanders, but, so far at least, with very poor success. It is true a great many pretended cures are on record. But if the slow or chronic progress of the morbid process, its frequent remissions in warm and dry weather, exacerbations in rough, cold, and inclement weather and in a foul atmosphere, and the great confusion that has prevailed in regard to the true nature of glanders are taken into consideration, it is no wonder that mistakes and deceptions have occurred. Some of the cases that are said to have been cured have been no glanders at all, and in others the pretended cures have been only temporary-a mere remission. Confirmed glanders must be considered as incurable; and it would, therefore, be for the benefit of every one if our general government (Congress) would enact a law which should make it a criminal offense to keep and use a horse, or any other animal, known to be affected with glanders. Any attempt to cure should also be strictly forbidden, because a prompt and immediate destruction of every animal affected with glanders, a disease which speads only by means of its contagion, constitutes the best, surest, and cheapest, and in fact the only prevention.

A case of recent occurrence will serve to illustrate how glanders spreads, and how much cheaper it is to destroy a glandered horse at once than to permit the same to communicate the disease to healthy animals. It will also show the necessity of a stringent law making the sale of an animal known to be affected with a contagious disease a criminal offense.

Last fall Mr. George T, Pottawatomie county, Kansas, bought a horse of a Mr. Ch—, Manhattan, Riley county, Kansas, and pastured and stabled the same with his other horses, about twenty-four or twentyfive in number. The horse in question, when bought had some discharge from the nose, which, of course, was pronounced to be nothing but the product of catarrh-in common parlance, a cold. In the course of the winter several of Mr. T—'s horses commenced to have discharges from the nose. Mr. T- became alarmed, and brought the new horse, whose nasal discharges had increased, and who showed other symptoms of disease, such as a staring coat, emaciation, etc , to me for examination. I found the symptoms to be those of an advanced stage of glanders. Subsequent inquiries revealed some of the previous history of the animal. Mr. Ch—had bought the horse from another man, whose name I do not remember, only a few days before he sold the same to Mr. T-, and had kept the animal, while in his possession, strictly separated from his other horses, because he knew that the same had & chronic discharge from the nose, and bad had it for about two years. Is not such a transaction criminal ? And still, in the case mentioned, there is no redress to be had. Mr. T is a comparatively poor man; his farm is mortgaged, and all the property he may call his own consists in his stock, but especially in his horses. As I moved away from Kansas early in the spring, I have not learned how many of his horses have become affected, but several bad contracted the disease before I left. Besides that, his horses had been together quite often with those of his neighbors, on the prairie, before he knew them to be affected with glanders. It is poşsible that he has lost, or will lose, nearly every animal he has. Mr. C— does not own anything; all his property is in his wife's name; consequently Mr. T- if he sues for damages, will have to pay lawyers' fees and costs, but can not recover anything. If there were a United States law which made it a criminal offense to sell animals affected with contagious diseases, or to own and to keep animals which exhibit symptoms of contagious disease, and to neglect to advise the proper authorities of the fact, such cases as the one related would not

If Mr. T— were not an honest man, he would undoubtedly have kept still, and would have sold his glandered horses to other innocent parties, and contributed in that way in spreading the disease. I could relate numerous similar cases, but think this one will suffice, especially as this article is already too long.

A successful prevention of glanders is possible only if the contagion


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which, even if it should not constitute the sole and only cause of the disease, causes at least nine hundred and ninety-nine cases of one thousand, is thoroughly destroyed wherever it may exist, or wherever it may be found. Consequently every animal affected with glanders should be killed as soon as the nature of the disease becomes known, and be buried sufficiently deep or be cremated. But as the contagion adheres frequently also to the stables-manger, floor, partition, etc.--that have been occupied, the stable utensils-brush, carry-comb, etc., and the harness, blankets, halters, bridles, saddles, etc.--that have been used or been in contact with glandered horses, it is of great importance to know what will best and most effectually destroy the contagion. Professor Gerlach has made very interesting and valuable experiments, to relate which, however, would lead too far. I will therefore only state the results arrived at. The discharges from tho nose, glanders-matter, etc., lose their infectiousness if perfectly dried by being exposed to currents of air or to the rays of the sun; but kept moist, for instance in a damp cellar, wrapped up in a moist rag, or adhering to the corners of the manger, to a damp wall or floor, or to the bedding or the manure, etc., the contagion seems to possess great vitality, and may remain effective for half a year or longer. Putrefacation does not destroy the contagious principle. Chlorine destroys the contagion, and is therefore a very efficient disinfectant, provided the chlorides used come in actual contact with the contagion. A brief exposure of the infectious substances, nasal discharges, glandersmatter, etc., to the influence of chlorine in a gaseous state, mixed with the atmosphere, is ineffective. As a remedy to be given internally, chlorine, in shape of chlorine-water, for obvious reasons can not be used; chemical combinations will be effected before an absorption can take place. The best and surest destroyer of the glanders contagion is carbolic acid. It may be used not only as a disinfectant or for the purpose of destroying the contagion clinging to the wood work of the stable, etc., but also in incipient cases of farcy, and in cases in which an infection with glanders matter has just taken place in a wound, for instance, as a local remedy. If applied to the glanders-ulcers on the septum, or to farcy-ulcers, a tendency to heal will make its appearance. As a disinfectant, a solution of carbolic acid in glycerine or alcohol and water (1:2 or 2:20) is perfectly strong enough to be effective. Old straw, hay, and bedding must be burned, and blankets, etc., are best disinfected by exposing the same for some time to a temperature of 212° F., or higher, either in an oven or in boiling hot water.

As to a therapeutic treatment, only a few words will be necessary. Some of the most heroic medicines have been used with very doubtful

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