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many years at least), procure thoroughbreds, and must commence with half boods, and by degrees get to higher grades. Crosses, that have come under my consideration, are not so proportionately desirable as the thoroughbred, being generally coarse, raw, and bony animals; consequently, steers would not make first-class beef. All classes of cows are apt to produce some bull calves, as well as heifers, and unless there is a good demand for grade bulls (which is undesirable), these calves must be castrated for steers. Would they meet with a ready sale? I presume they would not. Unless this breed, and their grades, vastly exceed in their milking qualities (which they do not) the old and established Shorthorn, they have no claim for the future cow for dairying purposes in

The Sborthorns, and their grades, have every quality to make them profitable for the general dairymen. The dairymen of Ohio cannot afford to use a class of cows just for what they are worth for milk. The sacrifice is too great, to discard a cow when she ceases to give milk, to sell her in a lean state, when barren, in the fall, unless she can be sold for the purpose of being fatted for berf. The Shorthorn is adapted for this purpose. This breed bas been teeted for many generations, not only on their native soil, but in every country where cattle have been imported, and, to a great extent, on this continent-Ohio having patronized the breed quite largely for dairy purposes. This cow is a sure breeder,when not pampered, many commencing to supply the dairy at two years old, and continues 10 or 12 years. The cows of this breed bave succeeded in getting the awards offered by the Ohio State Board of Agriculture whenever they have been on exhibition. Proof of this can be obtained by looking over the State Board reports for many years past. Many individual cows have given large yields, both of milk and butter. Having looked up, from the reports on “Dairy Stock," at our State Fairs, commencing with 1862, up to 1874, I will give the results. Probably many members of the Convention, as well as myself, have kept track of these awards, but no doubt it will be news to many: 1862.-Harriet 2d, a 1817 Shorthorn, gave in ten days 434 pounds of milk and 214 pounds of butter. A three-quarter Shorthon, 422 pounds of milk and 204 pounds of butter. 1st and 2d premium. 1863.-The above three-quarter cow took 1st premium on 485 pounds of milk and 21 pounds 6 ounces of butter, and a seven-eighth 2d premium, on 416 pounds of milk and 20 6-16 pounds of butter. 1864.The above seven-eighth cow took 2d premium on 426 pounds of milk and 203 pounds of butter. A three-year old thoroughbred was awarded 1st premium, the same year, on 368 pounds of milk and 184 pounds of butter. 1865.- A seven eighth Shorthorn, 1st premium on 421 pounds of milk and 208 pounds of butter; 2d premium on a 15-16 cow, 410 pounds of milk and 18pounds of butter. 1866 and 1867.-State Fair at Dayton. No entries in this class. 1868.—No test was required. Thoroughbred Shorthorns won four of the six premiums offered. 1869 -Fuur premiums offered. Thoroughbred Shorthorns won them. 1870.-Shorthorns won the four premiums offered. 1871.-Entries made, but no award till 1872. 1872.-Two Shorthorns tested the whole season, both descendants of Imp. Lady Day, by Armitage. 1st premium on 10,4521 pounds of milk and 4454 pounds of butter; 2d premium on 9,428 pounds of milk and 405 pounds of butter. 1873.--1-t and 2d premiums of Shorthorns on 11,705 pounds of milk and 471 pounds of butter, and 10,298 pounds of milk and 443 pounds of butter. 1874.-1st premium on “Maid of Athol," of "Nannie Williams'" sort. She gave 12,875 pounds of miik and 513 pounds of butter; she gave, one day, 641 pounds of milk. 2d premium to “Rose," of Imp. Caroline Teike, for 12,145 pounds of milk and 4971 pounds of butter.

When cows of this breed have not been pampered, and when a proper selection of bulls have been made, this breed bas succeeded in giving more profit to the dairymen than any other breed in Ohio, and, doubtless, will continue to do so. Too many men condemn Shorthorns because they do not know what a Shorthorn is. All cows having the color and size of the breed are, in their eye, Shorthorns—a mixed-up lot indeed, made from low grade bulls and scrub cows. These-many of them-are coarse, bony animals, consuming a large amount of feed, and neither apply it to the production of milk or flesh. We do not claim these things to be Shorthorns, or their grades. Let the full-bred cow be judiciously crossed with a bull, the offspring of a good milker, and no bulls used on the grade cows but these selected thoroughbreds, and we will find the result to be a class of milkers far superior to' ny other breed, and we claim them to be the best breed for dairy purposes, either for Ohio or any other State, for the reason that they give as much or more milk, of as gcod a quality, as any milking breed, and that, when they cease to breed, can be made into a better and larger carcass of beef.

This second question, "Does long.continued grazing exhaust the land for dairy purposes ?" for me to answer in the affirmative would be contrary to the early teachings received from men who were not only practi. cal, but considered successful, graziers and also from my own observations, extending over a period of forty years. If long continued pasturage exbaust the land, how is it that land that bas been in grass one hundred and fifty years or more continue to produce an increased amount of feed, and supplying such a quality as increases the amount of milk and butter, and also of beef. The very best pastures of the old world are those that have not been disturbed by the plow for generations, and that have never been mowed. Why should a continual grazing exhaust the land here on this continent--especially in Ohio? There are s many things to be considered bearing on this question, “long continued grazing.Grazing on what? A surfaee saturated with water and covered with wild grass! Is this called pasture land? Cattle, to be kept year after year on such a surface in a wet time, would tread what little grass there might be into mud, which would effectually exhaust the land, not only for dairying purposes, but to such an extent that it would scarcely be a fit pasture for a donkey or a goat. Also, there is so much of our improved land, when put into grass, 60 scantily seeded, that it never forms a turf of dense grass, and the longer it is grazed the worse it will become. Let land that has been improved by well plowing, or in any way to secure a level surface, and not exhausted with grain crops, he well seeded, with proper mixed grasses, and stock kept off it in the winter and early spring, and we will have a stock of grass capable of producing a large amount of feed, and if the cattle and sheep are allowed to remain on the land during the night, as well as the day time, and their droppings properly spreaded, this land will continue to improve year after year, and the quality of the grasses being improved, will make it richer in milk and butter qualities. It is the old pastures, well treated, that continue to improve and make farms more valuable.

I have seen farms considered poor-grass far from first quality-thoroughly underdrained, and a dressing o' compost applied, without plowing, vastly improved; so much so that a good sized bullock per acre can be fattened, or a Shorthorn cow pastured, and this land is still increasing in value. I knew a twelve-acre field, owned by my grandfather, which had not been plowed for many generations. This field pastured ten to twelve milch cows, and eight to ten large wethers every year. In 1852 this land did not show any signs of exhaustion, but contrary, the surface was covered with a rich, luxuriant berbage. Let such a field be put into a grain crop, and its value would decrease fifty per cent. or more.

Unless our lands had been ruined by continued plowing and cropping they never would have been exhausted by continual grazing. It is the grain crops, under injudicious manageme t, that exhausts the soil.

I do not wish to be understood that I would discourage those intending to usa fertilizers; for, when such are judiciously used on the pastures, especially' bone dust,” the result would be an improvement. Also, I do not wish to run contrary to my friends, Major Millikin and Mr. Bateham, for I am aware that some of Ohio soils have deteriorated, and that to a great extent; but I claim that the continual grazing, with dairy cows, or otherwise used for pasturage, has not necessarily been the cause, believing that long continued grazing, under good husbandry, does not exhaust but improves the land for dairying purposes.

W. B. McClung desired to know if the subject was open for discussion.' The President suggested that all the papers be first read, as essays prepared would consume considerable time in their reading, and that any subject which the Convention desired to discuss could be taken up afterwards.

The next essay in order was read by Judge T. C. Jones.


Mr. President and gentlemen of the Convention :

The organization of which the delegates here assembled are representatives, was established by the law-making power of the State. It is not a voluntary association, with discretion to use the authority and the means in its possession for any object its managers see fit. On the contrary, the purpose for which it was enacted, ard the scope of its authority, are clearly and explicitly defined by legislative enactment.

The act of 1846, which incorporates the Ohio State Board of Agriculture, declares the purpose to be,“ to promote the agricultural and household manufacturing interests of the State.”

The county and district societies that are established in pursuance of the same statute, and subject to the authority and supervision of this Board, are allowed appropriations of money from the county treasuries, on condition that they "annually offer, and award premiums for, the improvement of soils, tillage, crops, manures, implements, stock, ar. ticles of domestic industry, and such other articles and productions as they may deem proper, and may perform all such acts as they may deem best calculated to promote the agricultural and houst hold manufacturing interests of the district and State ; and it shall be their duty so to regulate the amount of premiums, and the different grades of the same, that it shall be competent for small as well as large farmers to have an oppor. tunity to compete therefor; and in making their awards special reference shall be had to the profits which may accrue from the improved methods of raising crops, or stock, or of the fabrication of articles thus offered, with the intention that the premiums shall be given for the most economical mode of improvements."

The statute further provides that the local societies shall, annually, publish a list of their awards, and an abstract of the treasurer's account, and sball make a report of their proceedings during the year, and a synopsis of the awards for improvement in agriculture and household manufactures, together with an abstract of the several descriptions of improvements, and also make a report of the condition of agriculture in their county or district, which reports shall be made out in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Ohio State Board of Agriculture, and forwarded to the Board at their annual meeting, etc.

The law also provides that the annual meeting of this Board shall be "for the purpose of deliberation and consultation as to the wants, prospects, and condition of the agricultural interests throughout the State, of all which a report must be annually made to the General A88 mbly."

These provisions of the law, specifying the object of your organization, and defining your authority, I have thought it well to present before proceeding to the discussion of the special topics assigned me.

From these sections of the statute, you will observe that the sole purpose of organizing the Ohio State Board of Agriculture, with the auxil. iary county societies, was to promote the agricultural interests of the

The means provided for accomplishing this purpose are the annual exhibitions of the products of the farm and the household, at the county fairs, with premiums so arranged as to attract all classes as exhibiters. Not all classes of all pursuits, be it observed, but all classes of farmers, for the provision is, that "it shall be their duty so to regulate the amount of the premiums, and the different grades of the same, that it shall be competent for small as well as large farmers to compete therefor."

The whole spirit of the law is, that these fairs shall be for the exhibition of the products of the industry of the country people; and this for the obvious reason that this interest, because of the isolated life of the farmer, requires this aid from the State, as other great industries, gathered in dense communities, do not; for these latter, as we know, have every facility for coöperation to advance their special interests, and to stimulate improvement. These annual fairs for the exhibition of the farmer's products were, therefore, provided as means for the education of the country population in better methods, by placing before them for observation the best specimens in all departments of rural art.

To accomplish this, it is essential that every encouragement shall be given to secure the participation of farmers in the exbibition : 1st. By providing proper facilities for bringing their products, and furnishing every convenience for their accommodation and the satisfactory display of their exhibits; and 2d. By so arranging the whole management of the exhibition that people interested in agricultural improvement shall

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