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labors in forestry, are the most energetic tree planters, rather than those just entering upon life, with a bright future opening up to them decades of prospective enjoyment, and with a reasonable expectation of life even comparable to the term necessary for the development of a useful tree. Old men are proverbially the tree planters everywhere.
In regard to their periods of development, there is a great diversity among trees; some have a brief rotation. The coppice growths in European forestry are often utilized in periods of ten or fifteen years. In our own country, too, we have many trees of short rotation, and some of the most useful and most profitable trees are of this character.
The black locust may be harvested after it has grown from twenty to thirty years.
The catalya speciosa, in the same period, will make good cross ties and
The ailanthus very soon attains a useful size, and for certain purposes has been very highly commended, both in this country and in Europe. Professor C. S. Sargent is advising its extensive plantation, and some years ago it was spoken of as the most promising tree for the arid plains of the south-west.
The forests of Scotch pine in Germany are allowed sixty years to reach their useful size for fuel and for timbers.
The birch there reaches its miturity in about half a century.
The willow, used for charcoal, needed in the manufacture of gun powder, may be cut after growing twenty years, or even less.
Chestnut, in its second growth, is most profitably cut every twenty or twenty five years.
The beautiful wood of the wild cherry soon reaches a profitable size for many purposes, though for saw-logs anu 'umber the trees a hould be larger.
Many individual trees, planted by the pioneers upon the broad plains of Nebraska, within the few years that white men have occupied the so. called " American desert,” have already attained to useful size, and will yield each a cord of fire-wood to cheer their owners. While the census reports represent the extent of wood lands in Ohio as covering about onethird of its total area, which is a full ratio for lands situated like ours, we are not informed as to its condition. The skillful forester, however, cannot fail to observe that these tracts are very far from being in a condition to yield the best results, either economically or in their influence upon the climate and water courses of the adjacent regions, and he finds them much less satisfactory in regard to their own improvement and perpetuation by succession.
Nearly all our wood-lands have been culled severely, robbed of their most valuable products and species; they are rarely in a condition for natural reproduction. In many cases they have been carefully cleared up, aye, charred up by the removal of all their undergrowth, both of bushes and of young forest trees, and they are even deprived of nature's own favorite carpeting, com po-ed of the fallen spray, the leaves, the logs, with the mosses and lichens that feed upon these decaying tissues. All these make up an admirable mulching material, that prevents evaporation, and which receives and retains the fallen rain, which quietly sinks into the mellow soil beneath, but which, when falling upon the bared surface of cleared lands, quickly escapes in rushing and destructive torrents. Some very neat and would-be careful and economical farmers, after thus cleaning up their wood lands, attempt to render them profitable by laying them down to gras, and then use the woods as pasture fields. Very beautiful they are considered by the poet, but not by the forester, who gees in all this but the garnished tomb of the trees
Yes, my friends, the time has indeed arrived when we, as a people possessing a full share of common sense, ought to realize the absolute necessity for devoting a portion of our energies and intelligence to the conservation and care of our sylvan treasures, and this will be followed by planting anew the waste tracts, and untillable hillsides, and corners, or rocky ledges, with suitable tri es.
We should plant forest trees for ornament to the landscape. We should plant them for shelter to our crops, our cattle, and ourselves.
Trees should be planted to guard against the failure of the water supply of the country.
Woods should be preserved for their influence in regulating the temperature and humidity of the atmosphere, for it is established by long continued observations made at the forestal stations of Europe, that the woods are cooler in summer and warmer in winter, and that they contain more moisture when compared with tracts of open lands in the same regions.
Finally, we should plant forests were it even for their use, and for the valuable products they yield for our consumption in the multifarious demands of civilized life.
In all this we are forced to acknowledge our ignorance as to the best means of beginning this new industry-this new and important branch of agriculture. We are brought to a stand by the grave question of HOW TO DO IT ?
The Rev. Frederick Starr, of St. Louis, in a very excellent article presenting the urgent need for the preservation of our forests, which ap
peared in the United States A :ricultural Report for 1866, appeals for Government aid, in lands and appropriations, to support and carry on suitable nurseries and forest plantations for the common good, as exemplars of such a character as no private individual can affyrd.
More recently some of yourselves, joined by hundreds of earnest men in very many of the States, memorializei Congress to send a suitable and well informed commissioner to Eu:ope to gather up important and valuable information that should be adapted to our conditions and wants, which might enable us to emulate in our own country the perfected plans of their admirable systematic forestry management. Though urgently and persistently presented to the Senate and House Committees, those bdies could not be persuaded to report upon the bills and memorials laid before them.
It may well be asked, Why should not this important subject be referred to those great institutions founded upon the Government landgrants for the endowments of agricultural and mechanical colleges ? This has already been urged, and a few of them are paying some attention to forestry and tree.planting.
Some of yo: now present may recollect that a similar convention of agriculturists, assembled in this chamber in 1872, uid me the honor to listen to a set of resolutions begging the managers of our own Agricultural College to take the preliminary steps toward the teaching of forestry by beginning the establishment of an arboretum upon a part of their extensive grounds here at the Capital of Ohio, where, eventually, all the woody plants possible to the soil might be grown, and be,ever open to the inspection of students and interested visitors.
Even at this late date I feel impelled to record the gratifying circumstance that the Convention of 1872 did itst1f credit by heartily endorsing the offered resolutions and to acknowledge that the effort of that day, though barren in tangible or visible results upon the broad acres of the college farm, was not absolutely a case of wasted effort in the cause, nor of love's labor lost.
There is now undoubtedly a more encouraging outlook for the patriotic statesman, in this direction, as manifested in the increased interest felt by many in the subject of forestry. This is seen in the daily and agri. cultural press, and in the fact that the topic under discussion should have been put upon the programme for this meeting, and, my good friends, let me add, in the marked attention and apparent interest you have shown in this imperfect response to the question before us, and to which query is rendered the decided a flirmative response.
Yes! yes, truly and most emphatically, the time has fully come when we, the people of Ohio, should plant trees for timber.
NOMINATIONS FOR MEMBERS OF STATE BOARD
The hour having arrived for nominations of members of the State Board of Agriculture to fill the places of those whose time have expired, the following nominations were made: Leo Weltz. of Clinton county; D. L. Pope, Geauga; W. N. Cowden, of Guernsey; R. H. Hayman, of Scioto; O P. Chaney, of Franklin ; Chas. D. Bailey, of Gallia; S. H. Pitkin, of Summit; Moses H. Neil, of Franklin; A. B. Byal, of Hancock; Isaac Claypool, of Fairfield; Thos. A. Cowgill, of Champaign; S. A. Leckey, of Shelby.
W. B. McClung. Mr. President, I wish to say that the subject of forestry, in the paper of Dr. Warder, has been so ably discussed in all its parts that I feel it should be recommended by the Convention. I will say this to the Convention, that some years ago when Dr. Warder brought the subject before us in our annual meeting, I was one who could not see any particular reason why this question should be agitated in this country. It is not very strange, my fellow-citizens, that one who has bad a hand in doing away with the forests could not appreciate this subject, as has been the case. We have all been entertained and instructed by the paper on this subject, and I move that the Convention return their thanks to Dr. Warder for the essay he has given us upon the subject of forestry.
The motion was agreed to.
Mr. McClung remarked that though the essay would doubtless appear in the Annual Report, he would like if there were some way by which this paper could be brought forth in pamphlet form and a large number of them scattered throughtout the State.
On motion, the Convention took a recess until 2 P.M.
The Convention reassembled at 2 PM
Topics for discussion being first in order, Mr. R. Baker read a paper as follows:
WHICH IS THE BEST BREED OF COW3 FOR DAIRY PURPOSES, AND DOES
In opening the discussion on this “ double" question, “Which are the best breed of cows for dairy purposes, and does long continued grazing exhaust or improve the land for dairying?” It seem to me that the former questio i may be met and more easily discussed. But the latter re. quires more care and attention by the Convention, and should draw out quite a number of Ohio dairymen and others interested in the improvement of our pastures. I fell sorry that the former question was assigned to me, inasmuch, as the discussion opened by me last last year treated some upon this question.
The question has been, and is still agitating the dairymen of Ohio, has been discussed many times, but they seem to be no near united on any one breed of cows to day than they were ten years ago. Many thought the Alderneys were the breed for the purpose, others the Ayrshire, when up comes the Holsteins to the front, and many are anxious to obtain animals of this breed Also, a few men hold to the common native or low grade cows, others still claim that the long tried and trusty Shorthorn, wbich has been for so long a period the faithful, cow at the pail is still the best for butter and cheese combined.
This question depends, whether a person is dairying extensively or only using one or two cows, or, whether he has a lot of two or three acres or a good sized farm. If but a paddock only, probably he may derive a good profit from one or two Jerseys, they being sure to give nice yellow cream and butter for family use. Moreover, they are convenient around a small barn and yard. Profit, in tbis case, is not altogether looked at. Individuals using cows in this small way would not undertake to fatten them for beef after ceasing to breed, but let them go, when dry, for what they would make and substitute fresh c'w8. But for the gen. eral farmer, or dairymen of Ohio, they evidently are not adapted. Many of them being of a delicate constitution, and failing to breed, are nearly worthless.
The Ayrshires are adapted for some localities where the land is poor, and the cows have to trave; wide for their feed. Perhaps, for milk, no cow of any breed and equal size will do better. Many claim that this breed excel in furnishing milk for cheese, but do not succeed so well for butter as some others. Wben they have ceased to give milk, they are not very desirable to make into beef. It is claimed by many, that no cow of equal size and weight will produce a greater weight of milk during the year than the Ayrshire. Some men have claimed that this breed of cows consumed a greater amount of feed in proportion to their live weight than any other class of cattle. This I do not indorse from experience. I know that I have a half-blood Ayshire, she always eats sufficient to fill herself and manages to keep in good flesh, and gives a good quantity of milk, but her cream does not compare favorably with my Shorthorns or their grades.
The Holsteins are not very numerous in Ohio. Doubtless, these Dutch Cows, many of them, are heavy milkers, and have been considered such in their native country for many years. But what is there in this breed, to call out an extra demand? Ohio dairymen cannot, to any extent (for