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2. Plant and animal disease and pest control:
(1) Plant pest control.
(1) Animal disease control and eradication
Total, plant and animal disease and pest control..
1 Represents total amount available. $192,841 was obligated in 1963 and the balance of $2,587,159 is available until expended.
Does not include funds for cost of production research or utilization research and development available in fiscal year 1964 from Commodity Credit Corporation funds or
from sec. 32 funds.
3 Includes $191,952 for mandatory reimbursement to the Employees Compensation Fund for payments made from that fund in fiscal year 1963.
Salaries and expenses (special foreign currency program) Appropriation Act, 1964 and base for 1965_
$1,250,000 Budget estimate, 1965.---.
5,000,000 Increase (for market development, agricultural, and forestry research)
+3,750,000 Project statement
The appropriation requested for 1965 is based upon, and would be restricted to, purchase of those foreign currencies which are determined by the Treasury Department to be available in amounts in excess of normal U.S. requirements. For 1965, excess currencies are expected to be available in only seven countries—Burma, United Arab Republic (Egypt), India, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, and Yugoslavia. It has been determined, through surveys of the scientific capacity of foreign institutions and evaluation of research proposals submitted by the institutions, that the appropriation requested for 1965 can be used to finance research beneficial to American agriculture in five of these seven countries.
Oversea research utilizing foreign currencies under sections 104 (a) and (k) of Public Law 480 supplements and complements that financed by regular dollar appropriations. These foreign research projects do not duplicate or displace domestic research conducted by the Department or its cooperators, nor do they reduce the need for regular dollar appropriations for such research.
The estimate of $5 million in 1965 would provide additional financing in five excess currency countries—$2 million in India, Poland, United Arab Republic (Egypt), and Yugoslavia for market development research and $3 million in India and Israel for agricultural and forestry research, of which $100,000 is for translation of scientific publications. It would permit obtaining translations of a wide variety of scientific findings, now available in several foreign languages, that would benefit agricultural and forestry workers in the United States. This project is intended to be in addition to, and not displace, the translation activities conducted by the National Science Foundation which only partially meet the Department's needs.
The following statement presents the request for this appropriation on a funds available basis. Amounts for 1964 and 1965 include carryovers from prior years.
1 Allocation from “Translation of publications and scientific cooperation, Executive Office of the President."
The following tables show the distribution by country of the estimates for (1) new obligational authority and unobligated balances brought forward for 1965, and (2) estimated expenditures for 1964 and 1965. The tables do not reflect conversion of foreign courrencies which may become possible in fiscal year 1965. If such conversion should be possible, the Department would request conversion of a portion of these currencies to finance research in selected foreign countries having capabilities for effective research.
Estimated obligations, fiscal year 1965, by country and project
Estimated expenditures by country, fiscal years 1964 and 1965
! Includes expenditures under previous allocations from the appropriation “Translation of publications and scientific cooperation, Executive Office of the President," as follows: 1964, $470,000, and 1965, $520,000. These amounts have been included in order to provide a single consolidated schedule of all expenditures relating to the special foreign currency program.
Current activities and trends.-Marketing the products of the farmers in this country is a vast enterprise. These products pass through a succession of facilities between the farm and consumers. In this process they are subject to deterioration and spoilage, must be transported from one facility to another and handled and rehandled, stored until needed, protected from insect infestation, and placed where consumers can get them. Consumers are becoming more discriminating in their demands, with increasing insistence on dependable quality and unquestioned safety
in foods. The gap between producer and consumer must be bridged by an efficient distribution system.
Marketing efficiency has improved only about one-half as fast as efficiency on the farm. The marketing research program of AMS is aimed at finding ways to improve the efficiency of the marketing system, hold down marketing costs, and minimize deterioration and spoilage. It focuses attention on two major and important problem areas. One deals with quality, its identification, measurement, and improvement and its protection from time of harvest until the commodity is consumed. The other is concerned with developing improved equipment, facilities, work methods, techniques, and practices for the efficient handling and movement of the commodity from the farm to the market and to the ultimate consumer.
Marketing research continues to benefit the grading and inspection activities for which AMS is responsible. Quality evaluation research is closely linked to the development of improved instruments and methods for measuring significant quality characteristics of agricultural products. By using instruments to eliminate or supplement human judgment in the grading and inspection process it is possible to increase the accuracy and objectivity and lower the cost of that operation,
Programs concerned with establishing quality standards and operating grading and inspection services are benefiting from new knowledge of factors constituting quality in different agricultural products and the methods and devices for identifying and measuring quality which are being developed through research programs. For example, studies are underway to provide guidance for poultry inspectors in identifying the relationship between various disease syndromes and the antemortem and postmortem quality characteristics, to mechanize the analysis of seed crops for purity, to improve methods for mechanizing the cleaning of eggs in the grading and packing line, to develop a fundamental method for determining moisture content in grain and other agricultural products which is not dependent on drying, and to evaluate cotton fiber testing instruments and techniques for measuring cotton fiber quality characteristics.
Projects completed during the past fiscal year which directly affect AMS marketing service programs include methods and equipment for the rapid meas