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were grown, and the market was practically the same as for Arlington. There were also about 9,000 sash used in the culture of cucumbers, and about 3,000 for lettuce. Under these sash it is estimated 80,000 heads of lettuce and 350,000 cucumbers were produced. It is estimated that 400,000 heads of lettuce and 625,000 cucumbers were grown under glass in this town.
Fitchburg. — There were found to be thirteen greenhouses in this city, owned by nine parties, and all heated by hot water. Only two crops of lettuce were grown in one house, the other houses being devoted to cucumbers. The lettuce crop began to mature in September, and lasted until April. Some 6,000 heads of fair quality were grown, selling for from 50 cents to $1.00 per dozen, or an average of about 75 cents. The cucumbers began to mature in November, , and lasted until July. About 50,000 were grown, selling for from 3 to 30 cents apiece, or an average of from 10 to 14 cents. The market was largely in Boston, some in New York. No one bad entire success this year, while in some cases the failure was nearly complete. Thrip and aphis were unusually prevalent, and some notwell-understood diseases stood in the way.
Leominster. — There were found to be nine greenhouses in this town, covering some 26,000 square feet, and heated by hot water. The cucumbers were started in the open air the middle of August, and transplanted to the house about the middle of September, and picking began about the middle of October. The vines were allowed to bear as long as they would, were then removed, and another set put in their place. It is estimated that 100,000 cucumbers were grown, which sold in the winter for from 10 to 23 cents apiece, or an average of about 17 cents. The market in winter and early spring was New York and Chicago, and in spring and early summer some were also sent to Boston. They were shipped pressed in bushel boxes. The black fly and thrip were the only obstacles to their culture.
Marlborough. - There were found to be four greenhouses in this place, all of which were heated by hot water, and covered some 10,000 square feet. The cucumber season lasted from October to July. When the vines of the first
crop were through bearing, they were pulled up, and other vines put in their place. About 22,000 cucumbers of fair quality were grown the past year. One grower with two houses only grows one crop of cucumbers in the fall, and then runs tomatoes. The price received ranged from 5 to 25 cents apiece, with perhaps an average of 10 cents apiece. The market was New York, Boston and home. No lettuce was grown in greenhouses, but about 15,000 heads were grown in hot-beds.
Newton. — There were found to be twelve greenhouses in which cucumbers and lettuce were grown, covering some 55,000 square feet, and heated by hot water. Usually three crops of lettuce were grown, the first crop being started in September. After the lettuce crops were over, cucumber vines were started, and about June 1 the growers began to pick the cucumbers. Some 200,000 heads of lettuce were grown, selling for an average price of about 40 cents per dozen. It is estimated some 150,000 cucumbers were grown ; but, owing to their lateness, the average price received was hardly more than 2, cents apiece. The market was Boston and local.
Revere. — There were found no regular greenhouses in this town, but three sash-houses, covering about 9,000 square. feet, and heated by hot water. In two of these houses cucumber plants were set about May 20, and the cucumbers were picked until September. About 30,000 cucumbers were grown in the houses. About 4,000 sash were used for out-door culture, and it is estimated that 170,000 cucumbers were grown this year in this way. Two thousand sash were used for lettuce last winter. The plants were set December 1, and were all gone February 1. The second crop came off April 1. About 150,000 heads were grown in this way, selling for an average price of 50 cents per dozen. In one sash-house two crops of lettuce were grown, and then cucumbers. Probably 150,000 heads of lettuce were grown under glass in town, and about 200,000 cucumbers, the past year. The market was Boston.
Sudbury. — There were found sixteen growers in this town, mostly in South Sudbury, having thirty-one houses, in which cucumbers were grown a part or all of the year.
These houses covered some 46,000 square feet, and, with two minor exceptions, were heated by hot water. Usually only one crop of cucumbers was grown, and the houses were occupied the rest of the year with beets, radishes, tomatoes, parsley and flowers. It is estimated that some 150,000 cucumbers were grown in these houses, selling for from 2 to 30 cents apiece. The market was Boston, sometimes New York. Red spiders, aphis, thrip, black lice and stump foot have bothered the past year. Very little lettuce was grown. Quite a large amount of tomatoes and flowers were produced. There were also some 600 sash, under which some 25,000 cucumbers were grown.
Templeton. — There were found to be three greenhouses in this town, covering about 5,000 square feet, and heated by hot water. Two crops of cucumbers were grown, occupying the houses nearly the entire year. . The past year some 25,000 No. 1 cucumbers were grown, selling in New York and Boston markets for from 6 to 33 cents apiece, or an average of 15 cents. Also, some 2,500 No. 2, selling in home market for from 3 to 10 cents apiece, or an average of 6 cents. One crop in one house was destroyed by green flies, and the best remedy seemed to be to pull up the plants, fumigate heavily with tobacco smoke, and start anew. But little lettuce was grown under glass in this vicinity, and that was started so as to be ready about June 5. Perhaps 2,000 heads were grown, selling for an average of 50 cents per dozen.
Winchester. There were found to be five regular greenhouses and two sash-houses in this town, owned by three parties; and, with the exception of one sash-house which was without artificial heating apparatus, all were heated by hot water. The greenhouses covered some 18,000 square feet, and the sash-houses some 6,000 square feet, or a total of 24,000 square feet. Last season some 16,000 heads of lettuce were grown in these houses, which sold in Boston markets for from $1.25 per dozen down. It is estimated that 100,000 cucumbers were grown in these houses. Also some 14,000 heads of lettuce were grown under some 400 sash, and some 2,500 sash were devoted to cucumbers, under which some 125,000 cucumbers were produced. It is estimated that during the past year 225,000 cucumbers and 30,000 heads of lettuce were grown in this town. The price received for cucumbers ranged from 18 cents apiece down. The market was Boston.
These industries are carried on to a small extent in many other places in the Commonwealth, among which are Allston, Brookline, Swansea, Watertown, Waltham, Framingham, Worcester, Shrewsbury, Westborough, Concord, Ashby, Lowell, Franklin and Lexington. It is estimated that in the State during the year ending September, 1890, some 1,000,000 heads of lettuce and 1,200,000 cucumbers were grown in houses, and some 1,300,000 heads of lettuce and 2,500,000 cucumbers under hot-bed sash, or a total of 2,300,000 heads of lettuce and 3,700,000 cucumbers as the product under glass for the year. Estimating 30 cents per dozen to be the average price received for the lettuce, would make its value about $60,000; and estimating that the cucumbers averaged 32 cents apiece, would make their value about $140,000, or a total of some $200,000.
THE GRAPE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHU
From Bulletin No. 4, Crop Report for August, 1890.
The vine is indigenous in this country, and was found in profusion by the Northmen in their discoveries on this continent more than eight hundred years ago, inducing them to name the country “Vin-land dat gode” (the good wineland).
Our native varieties, called “ fox grapes,” characterized by their hard pulp, thick skins and pungent aromatic flavor, are found in every kind of soil and situation.
6. Here are grapes," wrote Edward Winslow in 1621, " white and red, and very sweet and strong also.”
Plants and seeds of foreign varieties were brought to this country by colonists during the first fifty years after its settlement, but no considerable attention seems to have been given to their propagation until after the close of the Revolutionary War, when efforts began to be more especially directed to the cultivation of various kinds of fruit. Among these, though not the most prominent, was the grape.
Experience soon showed that these foreign varieties would not withstand the severity of our New England winters without protection; and that our short and variable summers and early autumnal frosts presented an insurmountable barrier to their successful cultivation except under glass.
These efforts in relation to grapes of foreign origin having failed, the attention of the fruit grower was wisely directed to the examination of our more hardy native varieties. By a careful selection of the most promising for propagation, and by reproduction, several new varieties were obtained, of acknowledged excellence and well adapted to our New England climate. Prominent among the varieties obtained from the native grape were the Isabella and Catawba, excellent grapes where the climate permitted them to ripen, but