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and, together with that active writer and worker in the cause of Massachusetts agriculture, John Lowell, Esq., as secretary, accomplished much for the advancement of farming interests in this State. It was thus that Massachusetts agriculture received the aid of two most advanced workers to forward her cause; and records prove that they did it well.
While it has been shown that organized efforts to promote and advance agriculture were at that time making headway in this country, the same spirit was accomplishing like results in Great Britain, and in 1793 the British Board of Agriculture was established, through the efforts of Sir John Sinclair and others.
In 1795 the South Carolina Agricultural Society was incorporated, and I am told still exists.
In 1798 the famous Smithfield Club of London, well known to this day for its exhibits of superb specimens of live stock, chiefly beef cattle, was founded.
In 1838 that distinguished organization, the Royal Agricultural Society of England, commenced its admirable work. This organization was, and is, so thorough and complete, and its work so useful, that it commands from the men of England all money and effort that are from time to time necessary to make its regular work of the year and its very extensive annual exhibitions always most valuable and progressive. It is well ahead of any other agricultural society in the world for the completeness of all its work, and purity of its efforts for agricultural advancement.
The example set by this society is well worth presenting at this time, for the consideration of those who are unfamiliar with its organization and methods, and is here given, omitting that part which relates to its annual fairs and their list of prizes.
The present membership of the Royal Agricultural Society of England (June, 1890) consists of about eleven thousand persons. These may be divided into two classes, — annual and life; and each of these in turn is sub-divided into governors and members, but both these are entitled equally to all the special privileges offered by the society.
The annual members pay one pound (five dollars) yearly,
while the life members pay fifteen pounds (seventy-five dollars). The governors are those members who are not only able to pay a larger sum for the good cause of promoting agriculture, but who are patriotic and liberal enough to do so. An annual governor pays five pounds (twenty-five dollars) yearly, while a life governor pays fifty pounds (two hundred and fifty dollars). After payment of ten or more annual subscriptions, a member may compound for future subscriptions.
All members have privileges in the chemical, veterinary, entomological and botanical departments; in addition to which they have certain general privileges, as follows: Free admission to show yards, reduced rates for entry of live stock and implements, free copy of society's quarterly journal, and free access to library and reading-room. They also have the duties of attending the quarterly meetings, which are designated: annual, anniversary, show yard and the December.
The council or governing body consists of the president, twelve trustees, twelve vice-presidents, and fifty other members. The governors have the privileges of an extra copy of the journal, to attend and speak at all meetings of the council, and are alone eligible for election as president, trustee and vice-president.
The chemical department is applicable only to the case of persons who are not commercially engaged in the manufacture or sale of any substance sent for analysis. It is located in the city of London, in connection with the society's headquarters.
This society publishes, in all its journals, a guide to the purchase of artificial manures and feeding stuffs. This I will soon read, as it suggests methods and customs which are the results of long and careful experience.
I understand that all persons may employ the services of the society's departments, so far as those departments can attend to work outside of their own membership; but all members not only have precedence, but also have the services of the departments at prices considerably reduced from what would be charged to outsiders.
The tariff schedules, with directions, are published in all
the society's journals, so that correspondence in regard to the work of the departments is greatly facilitated and simplified.
It is surprising, but at the same time instructive, to an American, to learn the many cautionary measures taken by the English in managing their farming operations: in the preparations of the soil; the selection of pure fertilizers; the providing of manure enriched by good feeding; the choice of seed that is pure, fresh, and free from foreign germs; the choosing of the best-made implements for preparation and cultivation; and in harvesting at the time when the crop is thoroughly matured for their purpose. I refer to these points not that our own farmers may not be equally cautious, but as an introduction to a statement of the opportunitiesoffered by the Royal Society for making these cautionary measures effective.
GUIDE TO OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED BY THE SOCIETY. Feeding Cakes.
[How purchases should be made to protect the purchaser against impurities.]
1. Linseed cake should be purchased as "pure," and the insertion of this word on the invoice (or bill) should be insisted upon. The use of such words as "best," "genuine,” etc., should be objected to by the purchaser.
2. Rape cake for feeding purposes should be guaranteed "pure," and purchased by sample.
3. Decorticated cotton cake (stripped of seed cover) should be guaranteed "pure," and purchased by sample. 4. Undecorticated cotton cake should be guaranteed pure," and purchased by sample.
N. B. All feeding cakes should be purchased in good condition, and the guarantee of the vendor (seller) should be immediately checked by a fair sample (taken out of the middle of one of the cakes) being at once sent for examination to a competent analytical chemist. The remainder of the cake from which the sample sent for examination had been taken should be sealed up in the presence of a witness, and retained by the purchaser for reference in case of dispute.
1. Raw or green bones or bone-dust should be purchased as "pure." Raw bones guaranteed to contain forty-five to forty-eight per cent of tribasic phosphate of lime, and to yield not less than four per cent of ammonia.
2. Boiled bones should be purchased as "pure." Boiled bones guaranteed to contain from fifty-five to sixty per cent of tribasic phosphate of lime, and to yield not less than one per cent of ammonia.
3. Dissolved bones are made of various qualities, and are sold at various prices per ton; therefore the quality should be guaranteed under the heads of soluble phosphate of lime, insoluble phosphate of lime, and nitrogen, or its equivalent as ammonia. The purchaser should also stipulate for an allowance for each unit per cent which the dissolved bones should be found on analysis to contain less than the guaranteed percentages of the three substances already mentioned.
4. Mineral superphosphates should be guaranteed to be delivered in a sufficiently dry and powdery condition, and to contain a certain percentage of soluble phosphate of lime, at a certain price per unit per cent, no value to be attached to insoluble phosphates.
5. Compound artificial manures should be purchased in the same manner and with the same guarantees as dissolved bones.
6. Nitrate of soda should be guaranteed by the vendor to contain ninety-five per cent of pure nitrate.
7. Sulphate of ammonia should be guaranteed by the vendor to contain not less than twenty-four per cent of ammonia.
8. Peruvian guano should be sold under that name, and guaranteed to be in a dry and friable condition, and to contain a certain percentage of ammonia.
N. B. Artificial manures should be guaranteed to be in a sufficiently dry and powdery condition to admit of distribution by the drill. A sample for analysis should be taken, not later than three days after delivery, by emptying several bags, mixing the contents together, and filling two tins hold
ing about half a pound each, in the presence of a witness. Both the tins should be sealed; one kept by the purchaser for reference in case of dispute, and the other forwarded to a competent analytical chemist for examination.
In the Veterinary Department.
1. Members of the society have all the privileges of subscribers to the Royal Veterinary College, so far as the admission for treatment of cattle, sheep and swine is concerned, without being called upon to pay the annual subscription to the college of two guineas ($10.50). The charges made by the college for keep and treatment are as follows: cattle, 10s. 6d. ($2.621); sheep and pigs, 3s. 6d. ($0.871⁄2) per week for each animal.
2. The full privileges of subscribers, including the examination of horses, and the admission of horses and dogs into the college infirmary for surgical or medical treatment, on payment of the cost of keep, will be accorded to members of the society on payment of a subscription to the college of one guinea instead of two guineas per annum.
A schedule of prices is given for consultation analyses, and examinations at the Veterinary College, and for investigation of outbreaks of diseases among farm stock. The member will be relieved from payment of fee if the outbreak proves to be of an important character, or of general interest. Members of the Royal Agricultural Society are requested to send to the Veterinary College any diseased animals (cattle, sheep or swine) which they would otherwise destroy as useless, and also any diseased parts of an unusual character.
A list of "provincial veterinary surgeons" is published in the journals, who are recommended by the society, but with whom the members must arrange as to payment of fees. ("Provincial" here means living in different districts of England.)
In the entomological department, the charge is fixed, for members, at 2s. 6d. ($0.621) for the determination of the species of any insect, worm or other animal, which, in any stage of its life, injuriously affects farm crops, with a report on its habits, and suggestions as to the methods of prevention and remedy.