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Of the entire number of pupils enrolled, 1,934 were studying one or more of the following advanced branches: Latin, Greek, French, algebra, geometry, chemistry, and natural philosophy.


The total number of teachers employed was 473, of whom 247 were men and 226 The number of women teachers employed increases each year, the excess of men having fallen from 71 in 1881 to 21 in 1883. Average salaries range, for men, from $226.90 in the third class to $491.52 in the first class; for women, from $130 to $295, in the same classes.

The attendance for the year at the Prince of Wales College and normal school was 130 pupils.

The total expenditure for the year was $136,817.09; the rate of expenditure for each pupil enrolled was $6.36, for each pupil in daily attendance $11.64.

g. QUEBEC: area, 188,688 square miles; population, 1,359,027. Capital, Quebec: population, 62,446. Superintendent of public instruction, Gédéon Ouimet.

The department of public instruction in the province of Quebec is placed under a superintendent, and the council of instruction is divided into two distinct committees, one Roman Catholic and the other Protestant. The province is divided into school municipalities managed by five school commissioners. When in any locality there exists a certain number of families who do not profess the religious belief of the majority of the inhabitants, the minority have a right to demand for their children separate schools, which are placed under the control of three trustees, and they receive a grant from Government proportioned to the number of children of school age. Thus it is sought to protect both Protestants and Roman Catholics in their beliefs. This is considered necessary, owing to the fact that the system of public instruction in Quebec is distinctly religious, and not secular.

From the report of the superintendent of public instruction for the year 1833-'84, it appears that the number of pupils enrolled in the schools for that year was 250,000, being an increase of 7,277 over the previous year. The average attendance was 192,852, being an increase of 6,960.

The superintendent reports marked improvement in school buildings and furniture. He goes on to say:

The law of 1876, which obliges the municipalities not to construct school-houses except under certain conditions as to size and distribution of rooms, was not passed without considerable hesitation by the legislature. It was feared that popular indignation would be provoked at the restraint and additional expense which might follow, and that this feeling would manifest itself at the elections. Nothing of the kind, however, happened. The ideas of the people were misunderstood, I am happy to be able to state, in the matter of public instruction; the opposition made to the law is scarcely perceptible.

The superintendent calls attention to the very unsatisfactory positions of the teachers of the primary schools on account of their meager salaries; a domestic servant earning $5 a month is better off than the female teacher who receives from $60 to $100 a year; of these there are 1,863, leaving out the nuns. An annual salary of $200 is paid to 154 teachers. "The time seems to have come," says the superintendent, "when the proposition to fix a minimum for salaries by special legislation ought to be carried into effect. The law respecting the pension fund, though incomplete, is said to have yielded excellent results. The superintendent advises that the examinations for teachers' diplomas be made more severe. "There are," he says, "enough certificated teachers, but not enough good teachers." This he attributes to the too great facility with which certificates of competency have been granted.

The great agricultural progress in the province for several successive years is, in the judgment of the superintendent, attributable in some measure to the instruction given on the subject in the schools.

The total amount of grant, assessments, and contributions for school purposes amounted for the year to $10,951.90.

From the statistics of superior education, Catholic and Protestant, it appears that the whole number of institutions was 563; the amount of government grants to the same, $113,362. For 560 institutions the annual revenue was $1,223,579; the annual expenditure, $1,234,607; the value of buildings and of real estate, $5,695,896; the number of professors and of teachers, 2,842; and the number of pupils, 74,592.

The above statistics include 3 normal schools, in which there were entered for the year 286 pupils; of these, 244 remained to the end of the sessions, and 173 received diplomas.

JAMAICA, British colony: area, including Turks and Caicos islands, 4,362 square miles; population 585,536. Capital, Kingston. Inspector of schools, Thomas Capper.

From the report of the inspector for the year ending September 30, 1885, it appears that there were 728 schools on the government list, having an enrollment of 62,106 scholars, with 36,079, or 58.1 per cent., in average attendance.

The prominence that has lately been given to the subject of education in the legislature, in the public press, and in the report of the royal commissioners, has greatly stimulated the work in this island. Enrollment, average attendance, and the amount of school fees collected show large increase over the same for 1882.

The difficulty which is experienced in the endeavor to secure qualified teachers will, it is hoped, be diminished by the operations of the Female Training College established in accordance with the legislative act of 1884. The opinion is expressed that, taking one source of income with another, a well qualified first-class teacher may secure an annual income of 1001. A new building for the Jamaica High School was formally opened in July. Unusual success has attended the operation of the adult and juvenile reading clubs organized through the persistent efforts of the assistant inspector, Col. George Hicks.

The grant in aid of education amounted in 1884-'85 to 21,7071, and the fees collected to 7,9032.

TRINIDAD, British colony: area, 1,754 square miles; population, 153,128. Superintendent of education, R. J. L. Guppy.

The following information is derived from the report of the superintendent of education for the two years ending June 30, 1885:

The number of schools under inspection at the date mentioned was 116, having an enrollment of 11,747 scholars and an average attendance of 8,132. There were also 20 Coolie schools, toward the maintenance of which a special grant of 2501 is made; these had an enrollment of 645 scholars and an average attendance of 441. This gives in all a total of 136 schools, 12,392 scholars, and 8,573 in average attendance. These figures, the superintendent observes, show "a marvelous increase upon those last published, namely, for the year 1882-'83;" but he estimates that there are still in Trinidad over 5,000 children who do not go to any school.

Exclusive of buildings and repairs, the total expenditure for elementary and higher elementary education during the year 1884 was 16,4157 18s 2d, or 5 per cent. of the public expenditure of the island. Of this sum, 2,3681 were returned in fees and reimbursements.


My Report for 1883-84 contained information with regard to education in several countries of South America. Later information has been received from Ecuador, Chili, and Uruguay, but not in time for insertion in this Report. The interest felt in the progress of the South American countries leads me to hope for full data from the same for use in the next Annual Report of this Office.


HAWAII, constitutional monarchy: area, 6,677 square miles; population (census of 1884), 80,578. Capi. tal, Honolulu; population, 20,487.

The latest information respecting education in Hawaii will be found in my Report for 1883-84. Since that date the Office has received an interesting account of the industrial and reformatory school of Honolulu, established in 1865.

Boys are committed to this school by a magistrate's order, on conviction of crime or misdemeanor, or for being truants, vagabonds, or orphans. In addition to the ordinary elementary branches the boys are trained in agriculture and in carpentry, provided they show any aptitude for mechanical pursuits. Instrumental music is also a feature of the training. Since the school was founded there have been about 450 admissions and 395 discharges.

NEW SOUTH WALES, British colony: area, 309,175 square miles; population (estimated, 1884), 250,000. Capital, Sydney. Minister of public instruction, W. J. Trickett.

In his report for 1884 the minister of public instruction gives the following sum. mary of the year's work: 241 new schools were opened; 1,912 schools were in operation during the whole or some part of the year, and 1,875 schools were in existence at its close. The whole school accommodation thus provided was equal to 151,166 seats. Two hundred and thirty applications for new schools were received, and 181 granted. The total number of schools established from 1881, the year following the passage of the public instruction act, to 1884, was 575, and notwithstanding the withdrawal of aid from denominational schools at the close of 1882, the net increase for the period was 404. The total school population (4 to 15 years) was 250,628, and the statutory school population (6 to 14 years) was 180,577, showing an increase from April 1, 1881 (when the census was last taken), of 32,257, or 22 per cent.; 167,134 pupils, showing an increase of 71,216 for the year, attended state schools; 126,469, or 754 per cent., were of the statutory school age, and 40,665, or 244 per cent., were under or over that age; 86,665 were on the school rolls nine months or more in the year, and the remainder, 80,469, less than nine months; 83,541 attended school 140 days or more, and 83,593 attended less than 140 days in the year.

The percentages of enrolled pupils in average attendance, and attending 140 days or more, were nearly the same for 1883 and 1884. In 2,526 cases of default in school attendance, the parents were prosecuted and convicted. Steps were taken towards appointing additional school boards in each district, so that local supervision might become more active and efficient.

196 additional school sites were obtained, 406 new school buildings and 41 substantial additions to existing buildings were completed, affording accommodation for 33,027 pupils. At the close of the year, the total number of places provided in school accommodation exceeded the average number of pupils in quarterly enrollment by 12,581, and was only 14,990 less than the number of distinct pupils on the school rolls during the year. Other new buildings and additions, for the accommodation of 9,924 pupils, were in progress at the close of the year; 45 new weather sheds and repairs to 446 school buildings were also completed or in progress.

The inspectoral staff was rearranged, and improved standards of proficiency were brought into operation. 98,540 pupils were examined, 82 per cent. being of the statutory school age. In all respects the proficiency of the pupils evidences satisfactory progress. 8 high schools and 26 superior schools were in operation. The superior schools are doing fairly satisfactory work, but the amount of support high schools have hitherto received from the public is not encouraging. Night schools have still further declined, and the experience so far gained respecting them tends to show that their usefulness is very limited. 40 itinerant teachers are at work, and the results achieved are very encouraging.

2,264 teachers and assistants, 823 pupil-teachers, and 88 work-mistresses were em


ployed; 119 students attended the training school, and, of these, 74 completed their course and obtained certificates.

774,3571 were expended during the year, and toward this amount 56,7661 were paid into the treasury as school fees. This expenditure shows a decrease of 47,4957 compared with that of the previous year. The total amount expended per pupil was 128 84d less, and the net state expenditure was 128 114d per pupil less, than in the previous year, while the state expenditure per pupil for education-exclusive of the expenditure on buildings-was 21 98 54d, or an excess of 18 51d per pupil over the like expenditure of 1883.

Technical education.-The board of technical education was appointed on August 1, 1883. On October 1st the Technical College of the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts, which had been subsidized by the Government for four years previously, was transferred to the management of the board, and the large hall, the chemical laboratory, the art room, and seven other apartments were leased from the committee of the School of Arts.

The number of individual students who received instruction at the Technical College during at least one session of the year was 2,128, or an increase of 887 over those attending some of the terms of 1883.

The popular science lectures, given under the auspices of the board, in the large hall of the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts, leased for four nights weekly for that purpose, are principally intended for the benefit of workingmen, and to induce students to attend the college classes, and they have proved highly valuable in giving information on a variety of subjects to numbers of artisans engaged in the leading industries. The estimated number of persons who attended 187 of these lectures during last year was 34,298, or an average of 183 at each lecture.

The total advance from the parliamentary vote for technical education in 1884 was 17,0937 38 4d.

NEW ZEALAND, British colony: area, 104,027 square miles; population, exclusive of Maoris (1884), 596,604. Capital, Wellington. Minister of education, Robert Stout.

The following information is derived from the report of the minister of education for the year ending December 31, 1884.

The number of public schools reported in operation at the date mentioned was 987, being an increase of 44 since 1883. The number of scholars belonging at the end of the year was 97,238; the average attendance for the whole year was 75,391, being 77.9 per cent. of the mean of the number enrolled for the four quarters. The increase in enrollment and in average attendance over 1883 was greater than in any similar period since 1880. The attendances reported include 163 pure Maoris, and 540 of mixed races.

The branches pursued, in addition to the three elementary subjects, and the number of scholars in each were as follows: English grammar and composition, 42,784; geography, 55,128; history, 36,915; elementary science, 20,331; drawing, 59,066; object lessons, 74,656; vocal music, 70,157; needle-work (girls), 34,504; domestic economy, 6,462.

The number of teachers employed during the last quarter of 1884 was 2,447, an increase of 156 over the corresponding number in 1883. This increase kept equal pace with the increase in average attendance. The total receipts for elementary education during the year were 371,5487 198 9d; adding to this sum receipts for public libraries and secondary schools, and balances, the total income was 384,5567 118 5d. The total expenditure by the school board for elementary schools, public libraries, and secondary schools, was 365,0027 198 2d.

Four training colleges for teachers are reported, having an enrollment in December, 1884, of 139 students. The expenditure for these schools was 8,6521 68 6d, and the government grant 7,6181 48 9d.

The report contains interesting particulars of 71 native schools maintained by the

department, and 10 industrial schools and orphanages maintained wholly or in part by the department. Separate reports are made by the department to the general assembly respecting secondary and superior institutions. The latter comprise Canterbury College, the Auckland University College, the University of New Zealand, and the University of Otago.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA, British colony: area, 903,690 square miles; estimated population (1883), 304,515. Capital, Adelaide. Minister of education, R. C. Baker.

The following information is derived from the report of the minister of education for 1884.

The total number of children under instruction during the year in public and provisional schools was 42,758, and the average daily attendance 25,048. The schools were in charge of 241 head teachers, the whole number of teachers and assistants being 1,000. The report on the operation of the compulsory law shows that 15.34 per cent. of the children of compulsory age did not make the required thirty-five days' attendance, and that 5.44 per cent. of the total number of compulsory age were reported as cases of neglect.

The cost of enforcing compulsion was 1,9861 18. Of 30 pupils of the training college, 5 passed the examination for second-class certificates, and 28 the examination for third-class certificates.

The cost of the training college for the year was 3,5041 28 6d. The total cost of education, exclusive of buildings, was 102,1431 28 7d. The amount of school fees paid by the parents was 23,7581 08 8d.

VICTORIA, British colony: area, 87,884 square miles; population, 1884 (estimated), 945,703. Cap tal, Melbourne. Minister of public instruction, D. Gillies.

The following information is derived from the report of the minister of public instruction for the years 1883 and 1884.

The number of schools in operation December 31, 1883, was 1,750. Of these, 1,680 were conducted as full time, and 70 as half time schools. The number of localities supplied with means of education was 1,820, showing a net increase of 26 during the year.

Twenty-nine night schools were opened in 1883, and 27 remained in operation on December 31st. Of these, 8 were for boys, 4 for girls, and 15 for both sexes.

The enrollment in the day schools for 1883 was 217,447; average attendance, 116,716; enrollment in night schools, 4,981; average attendance, 1,612; total enrollment, 222,428; total average attendance, 118,328.

A careful examination of the returns indicates that these totals include many duplicate enrollments; it is estimated that if the rolls were cleared of these duplicates the number of pupils in day and night schools would not exceed 188,949, being a increase of 1,559 over the number in 1882.

The number of private schools which furnished returns for the year 1883 in compliance with the requirements of the Education Art Amendment Act was 673; in addition three private schools were reported by the government statistician. The enrollment in these private schools was 41,922.

The percentages of passes in the several subjects of instruction were as follows: reading (I), 91.3; reading (II-comprehension of matter read), 62.6; spelling, 83.3; writing, 95.4; arithmetic, 81.7; grammar, 70.6; geography, 82. During the year 10,036 children passed the examination qualifying for the certificate of exemption from further attendance at school. Extra subjects were taught in 210 schools, a number less by 8 than in the preceding year. The subjects numbered 20 altogether, but usually not more than 2 or 3 were taught in one school. The amount received from pupils for this instruction was 4,8321 98 7d.

Instruction in singing was given by 23 visiting teachers and 87 of the ordinary staff. The attendance at the classes was 33,566, being 440 less than the number un

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