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stitutions in 1883-84 was 54,728; in 1884-'85 it was 55,922; and in 1885-'86 it was 56,441. The attendance at the Realschulen was 16,940 in 1883-84, 17,562 in 1884-'85, and 18,371 in 1885-'86. The industrial schools had 7,312 students in all the courses in 1885-'86, the schools of drawing and modeling 1,230, and the schools in which instruction in special industrial branches is given, 5,671. The normal schools for males numbered 39, with an attendance of 4,156 in 1884-'85, and 4,215 in 1885-'86; those for females numbered 18, with 2,032 students in 1884-'85, and 2,041 in 1885–86.

b. HUNGARY, constitutional monarchy: area, 125,039 square miles; population (Dec. 31, 1880), 15,642,102 (including Croatia and Slavonia with military frontier, Transylvania and the town of Fiume). Capital, Buda-Pesth: population, 360,551. Minister of public instruction, Dr. August von Trefort. Primary instruction.-The number of children of school age in 1883 was 2,242,537, an increase of 27,150 over the preceding year. The number attending school was 1,756,836. The number of schools was 16,090, with 22,858 rooms. Of the total number 85 per cent. were confessional schools, 2.63 per cent. state schools, 11.14 per cent. communal or district schools, and 1.04 per cent. private schools. The teachers numbered 22,984, of whom 20,607, or 89.65 per cent., were males. The expenditures for elementary schools were 12,186,895 fl. in 1883 ($4,789,422). This amount was obtained as follows:

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Most of the expenditure was for salaries, viz., 9,558,608 fl., or 78.45 per cent. of the whole; heating and cleaning cost 823,347 fl., or 6.75 per cent. of the total expenditure; building and repairs 966,053 fl., or 7.92 per cent.; and aid for poor scholars 128,215 fl., or 1.05 per cent.

The teachers' seminaries numbered 71, of which 53 were for males, 17 for females, and 1 for both sexes. Twenty-four of them were government seminaries, 46 confessional, and 1 private. There were 674 teachers and 3,594 pupils.

In 1883-284 there were 34 independent schools for instruction in technical industries (weaving, wood-working, sewing, etc.), 12 combined with other schools, and 13 in orphan asylums. They had 83 teachers and 2,529 pupils.

The teachers' pension institute had 30,091 members, with a fund of 3,998,967 fl. ($157,159); 1,756 persons, 1,573 of whom were widows and orphans, received aid from the institute.

Of the 1,756,836 children attending school, 923,958 were Roman Catholics, 135,134 were Greek Catholics, 192,545 Greek Orientals, 252,701 Reformed, 165,482 Evangelical, 7,248 Unitarians, and 79,754 Jews. As to language, 877,656 were Magyars, 269,856 Germans, 221,848 Roumanians, 273,118 Slovakians, 43,670 Servians, 30,221 Croatians, and 40,467 Ruthenians.

Secondary instruction.-The new law affecting secondary instruction went into effect in 1884. It redistributes the educational districts with reference to the language spoken in different parts of the country and the prevailing religion. This change made modifications in regard to the supervision necessary, and changes in the examinations were also introduced.

In the school year 1883-'84 there were 178 secondary schools in Hungary, of which 145

were Gymnasien of different degrees, 27 Realschulen, and 6 were mixed-Realgymnasien. Twenty-eight of these schools were maintained and aided by the Government, 23 by city treasuries, 18 from the Studienfond, 42 by the Roman Catholic clergy, 3 by the Greek Catholics, 3 by the Greek Orientals, 27 by Protestants of the Augsburg confession, 28 by the Protestants of the Helvetian confession, 1 by both combined, 2 by Unitarians, 1 by Jews, and 3 were private institutions. These schools were attended by 40,473 students, 35,243 at the Gymnasien and 5,230 at the Realschulen, during the year, of whom 37,520 remained at the end of the year. Of this number 45.41 per cent. were Roman Catholics, 4.41 per cent. were Greek Catholics, 5.01 per cent. were Oriental Greeks, 14 per cent. were Protestants of the Helvetian confession and 11.11 per cent. of the Augsburg confession, 19.69 per cent. were Jews, and 0.38 per cent. Unitarians. As to nationality, 70.5 per cent. were Hungarians, 15.4 per cent. Germans, 5.9 per cent. Roumanians, 0.5 per cent. Italians, 4.5 per cent. Slovakians, 2.1 per cent. Servo-Croatians, 0.4 per cent. Ruthenians, and 0.6 per cent. of other nationalities.

The number of professors and teachers was 2,256. The expenditure for secondary instruction was 3,568,989 fl. ($1,402,613), 60.87 per cent. of which was paid for salaries. Of the 37,520 students of the secondary schools, 3,171, or 8.5 per cent., were stipendiaries.

There were seminaries for teachers of secondary schools at Buda-Pesth and Klausenburg, with 21 professors and 48 students, and 15 professors and 31 students, respectively.

Superior instruction.-In 1883-'84 there were 51 theological institutions, with 1,857 students and 298 professors. Classified as to religious belief, 45.4 per cent. of the students were Roman Catholics, 15.5 per cent. Greek Catholics, 12.8 per cent. Greek Orientals, 7.5 per cent. Evangelicals (Augsburg confession), 14.6 per cent. Evangelicals (Helvetian confession), 0.7 per cent. Unitarians, and 3.5 per cent. were Jews.

The 13 law academies had 367 students in the winter semester of 1883-'84, and in summer 733. The Roman Catholics amounted to 45.4 per cent. of the total, the Protestants of both confessions to 38.5 per cent., and the Jews to 8 per cent. The great majority, amounting to 88.9 per cent., spoke Hungarian, 3.9 per cent. German, 5.3 per cent. Roumanian, and the rest other languages. There were 135 professors.

The university buildings at Buda-Pesth, which were begun in the previous year, were completed in 1883-84. The university had 173 professors and teachers of various grades, and 3,369 students in the winter semester, which number fell to 3,083 in summer. Almost all the students, viz., 98.12 per cent., were from Hungary proper. As to religion, 38.7 per cent. were Roman Catholics, 2.1 per cent. and 2.8 per cent. were Greek Catholics and Greek Orientals, respectively, 24.2 per cent. were Evangelicals, 2 per cent. Unitarians, and 32 per cent. were Jews. The Franz-Josef University at Klausenburg had 62 professors and teachers, with 477 students in the winter and 446 in the summer semester, all of whom were from Hungary. The Roman Catholics -formed 50.2 per cent. of the total number of students, the Greek Catholics 6.9 per cent., the Greek Orientals 1.8 per cent., the two Evangelical confessions 29.5 per cent., the Unitarians 4.5 per cent., and the Jews 5.8 per cent. In both universities the law faculties had the greatest number of students, and the medical faculties stood next. The expenditures for the universities were 833,463 fl. ($327,551) for Buda-Pesth, and 263,121 fl. ($103,406) for Klausenburg.

The Josefs-Polytechnicum in Buda-Pesth had 38 professors, and 645 students in the winter and 571 in the summer semester of 1883-'84. The classes or faculties were those of architecture, engineering, mechanical engineering, and chemistry. The engineering class had 57.4 per cent. of the total number of students, mechanical engineering 23.7 per cent., architecture 7.9 per cent., and chemistry 3.7 per cent.

Philanthropic and art institutions.-The Royal National Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at Waitzen had 93 deaf and dumb children, in charge of a director, with 7 male teachers, two assistants, and one female teacher to give instruction in female handwork. Pupils are taught to speak and understand others by the movement of the lips. They learn handicrafts also. The institution is supported partly by the State,

partly from the income from foundations and gifts of private individuals. Of the 93 students, 43 were supported by foundations established by the State, 31 by private foundations, and the rest were educated at their own expense. Fifty-nine of the pupils were boys and 34 were girls. The national Jewish institution for the deaf and dumb at Buda-Pesth was founded by a former resident of that city, Anton Fochs, for deaf and dumb Jewish children of both sexes born in Hungary. It occupies a large and handsome building, containing 33 rooms. It had sixty pupils and 4 male and 3 female teachers in 1883-'84.

The blind asylum at Buda-Pesth had 86 pupils and 16 teachers. The boys numbered 67 and the girls 19. Music (instrumental) and handwork (basket-work, straw-work, etc.) were the principal practical subjects studied. The theoretical instruction was adapted to the sense of touch of the pupils, and consisted principally of reading and writing in relief letters (Punctirschrift) and arithmetic.

The orphan asylums and crèches numbered 58, with 2,001 inmates, 96 male and female teachers, and 58 curators and managers. There were 1 secondary and 24 elementary common schools, and 1 burgher school at the asylums. Various handicrafts were taught in addition to the usual school studies. The private institution for the care and education of idiots at Buda-Pesth had 18 inmates.

Of the art institutions the national theater school had 26 students in the dramatic section (11 males and 15 females), and nine in the operatic section-all of whom were females. The national music academy had 43 male and 404 female students in 1883-'84. The school for painting (Meisterschule) was opened at Buda-Pesth on November 19, 1883, and forms the first step towards the establishment of an academy of arts. Its students numbered 14. Three of them were sent at the expense of the Government to Munich, Vienna, and Florence, to make copies of celebrated pictures there. Besides this institution the drawing school (also a Meisterschule) had 109 pupils in the winter semester of 1883-84.

The Royal Hungarian Art-Industrial School is of recent origin, and is still in course of development. It is a government institution, and is intended to supply a complete education in the different branches of art-industry, with instruction in the principles of special branches of applied science. Accordingly the preparatory course embraces technical and art drawing, elementary and descriptive geometry and perspective, ornamental, architectural, and figure drawing, history of art and principles of style, and anatomy. The special instruction embraces architectural designing, wood, metal, and ceramic decoration, modeling in clay, wood, plaster, and wax, metal working, galvano-plastics, wood cutting, wall and ceiling frescoing, etc.

The Hungarian national museum contains a library, a numismatic and archæological collection, a collection of prehistoric relics, a zoological and mineralogical collection, and a picture gallery.

The Royal Hungarian Technological Industrial Museum was started in 1883, and is devoted principally to wood and metal working industries. Lectures on subjects connected therewith are given in the evenings, with demonstrations. The museum contains collections of machines and products, and a library.

BELGIUM, constitutional monarchy: area, 11,373 square miles; population (Dec. 31, 1884), 5,784,958. Minister of public instruction, M. J. Thonissen.

Effect of the school law of 1884.-The text of the law was given in my Report for 1883-84. The immediate effect of its operation has been to close a large number of public primary schools and retire their teachers, so that it is said that many communes are now destitute of public elementary schools. Several normal schools have also been closed and their teachers dismissed. On the other hand, the number of cloister schools has increased, and several episcopal normal schools have been established.

Elementary instruction.-The statistics of elementary instruction proper, in the "Annuaire statistique de la Belgique" for 1884, are not given for a later date than 1881, and were published in my Report for 1882-'83.

At the close of 1883 there were 6 state normal schools, and 8 normal sections at institutions for secondary instruction for male students, with a total of 1,375 students, a decrease of 177 since 1881. The 6 state normal schools and 7 normal sections for female students had an attendance of 1,282 students in 1883, a decrease of 268 since 1881.

Secondary instruction.-The two normal schools and two normal sections for secondary instruction for males had a total attendance of 153 students in 1883-'84, a decrease of 9 from the previous year, and the two normal sections for females at Liége and Brussels had an attendance of 63, a decrease of 11 from the previous year.

The number of state institutions for secondary instruction was 146 in 1883, of which 25 were royal atheneums, 85 were secondary schools for young men and 36 for young women. The communal colleges and secondary schools (for boys) subsidized by the state numbered 10, making a total of 156 secondary institutions. The number of state institutions in 1881 was 113, in 1882, 135, thus showing a constant increase up to the end of 1883, when it was, as above stated, 146. The communal institutions decreased from 17 in 1881, to 10 in 1883. The royal atheneums had an attendance of 5,943 in 1883, the state secondary schools for young men 13,192, and for young women 4,673. Of the subsidized communal schools the colleges had 407, and the secondary schools 1,380 students. This makes a total of 25,595 persons receiving secondary instruction in 1883, an increase of 2,648 since 1881.

The allowance for secondary instruction in 1882 was 4,105,352 fr. ($792,333), of which 2,652,360 fr. were from state appropriations.

Superior and special instruction.-At the state university of Ghent there were 870 students in the school year 1883-'84, and at Liége 1,454 students. At the independent universities of Brussels and Louvain there were 1,686 and 1,554 students, respectively. These figures include students of the special schools, viz, 292 at the schools of civil engineering and arts and manufactures at Ghent, the schools of unines, arts and manufactures, and mechanics at Liége, with 295 students, the polytechnic school at the university of Brussels with 126 students, and 184 at the special schools of the university of Louvain. The total number of students was 5,564 in 1883-'84, of whom 720 were in the philosophical faculty, 1,213 in the faculty of sciences, 1,403 in the law faculty, 1,272 in the medical, and 59 in the theological, and 897 attended the special schools. The number of students of this grade of instruction per 100,000 inhabitants was 97. The allowance for the two state universities in 1882 was 1,369,035 fr., of which 1,366,013 fr. ($263,640) were expended.

The Royal Academy of Fine Arts at Antwerp had an attendance of 1,436 students in 1883. Besides this institution the 80 academies and drawing schools in the different provinces were attended by 10,790 students. The royal conservatories of music at Brussels and Liége had an attendance of 574 and 557 students, respectively. The 89 other conservatories and schools of music in the various provinces had a total of 8,508 students.

The veterinary school at Brussels had 87 students in 1883, the agricultural institute at Gembloux 75, the school of practical horticulture at Vilvoorden 32, the state horticultural school at Ghent 25; total, 219 students. There were 49 apprentice workshops subsidized by the state, with 969 apprentices, of whom 8.77 per cent, were illiterate. The number of workmen who were trained in these schools in 1883 was 493, and 23,977 have been so trained since the shops were established. There were 35 industrial schools with 9,354 pupils in 1881-82, and in 1882-'83 the schools numbered 36 with 10,417 pupils. The school of industry and mines of the province of Hainault at Mons had 75 students in 1882-'83, and the superior commercial institute at Antwerp 111 students.

The expenditures for this branch of instruction in 1883 were 71,151 fr. for the apprentice schools, 541,473 fr. for the industrial schools, 79,598 fr. for the school at Mons, and 81,285 fr. for the commercial institute at Antwerp; total, 773,507 fr. ($149,287). Of this sum 341,875 fr. ($65,982) were appropriated by the state.

Illiteracy among recruits.—Of the young men drawn for military service in 1884, 15.59

per cent. could neither read nor write, 2.91 per cent. could read only, 48.31 per cent. could read and write and no more, and 33.19 had received more advanced instruction. Those who could not write were therefore 18.50 per cent. of the number drawn. The proportion of men in the contingent for the militia who signed their names was 83.42 per cent., and of those signing with a cross 16.58 per cent.

In 1884 there were 392 political journals and periodicals in Belgium, of which 63 were dailies; 21 devoted to finance; 66 to agriculture, commerce, and industry; and 322 literary and other; total, 801 periodical publications of all kinds. In 1883 there were only 641.

DENMARK, Constitutional monarchy: area, 14,124 square miles; population (estimated January 1, 1882), 2,018,432. Capital, Copenhagen: population (with suburbs), 273,323. Minister of public instruction, J. F. Scavenius.

The latest general information received at this Office in regard to education in Denmark may be found in my Report for 1882-'83.

FINLAND, a dependency of Russia: area, 144,255 square miles; population (1883), 2, 142, 093. Capital, Helsingfors: population (1883), 43, 316.


Superior instruction.-Official statistics (from the "Statistik Årsbok för Finland,” 1885) show that there were 70 professors and 805 students in the first semester, 1885. these, 119 were in the theological faculty, 200 in the law, 78 in the medical, 208 in the historical-philological section and 200 in the physical-mathematical section of the philosophical faculty. The income of the university in 1884 was 989,900 marks ($191,051), of which 619,900 marks were from state aid, and the expenditure was 873,900 marks ($168,673).

Secondary instruction.-The state complete lyceums numbered 11, of which 8 were Swedish and 3 Finnish; those with incomplete courses numbered 5, 2 being Swedish and 3 Finnish. The Realschulen with complete courses were 10 in number, 5 Swedish and 5 Finnish, and the incomplete Realschulen were 7, 2 Swedish and 5 Finnish. There were also 7 state schools for women, and 6 "lower elementary "schools classified in this grade. The totals were 29 Swedish and 17 Finnish institutions supported by the state, and 31 Swedish, 23 Finnish, and 2 German private schools aided by the state, including 38 for girls and 2 for female teachers. The 16 state and 12 private (subsidized) lyceums had 379 teachers and 4,069 students in 1883-'94, 248 teachers and 2,697 students being in the state schools and 131 teachers and 1,372 students in the private (subsidized) institutions. As to native language, 2,383 of the students were Swedes, 1,620 Finns, and 66 were of other nationalities. As to social position, 1,079 were sons of public functionaries, 668 were sons of ordinary citizens, 273 were sons of small proprietors, 120 of rustics, and 557 were unspecified. There were 4 preparatory schools with 13 teachers and 148 students.

The 17 Realschulen had 128 teachers and 776 students in 1883-'84, of whom 486 were Swedes, 275 Finns, and 15 were of other nationalities. Their social position was as follows: sons of public officers, 161; 238 belonged to the citizen class; 69 were sons of small proprietors, 40 of rustics; and 268 were unclassified.

The 7 state and 40 private (subsidized) schools for girls, including two female teachers' seminaries, had 483 teachers and 3,834 students, 311 teachers and 2,510 students being Swedish, 133 teachers and 1,051 students Finnish, and 39 teachers and 273 students German.

Primary instruction.-There were 771 primary schools, with 993 teachers and 46,687 pupils, in the school year 1883-84. Of these, 184 were boys' schools, 168 girls' schools, and 418 were mixed. As to nationality, 593 of the schools were Finnish, 158 were Swedish, 18 were Swedish-Finnish, and 2 were Russian. Of the 993 teachers, 447 were males and 546 females. There were 47 pupils to a teacher on the average. The majority of the schools, viz, 581, were in rural districts, leaving 190 for cities and towns. There were 322 rural districts, or communes, with schools, and 149 without. There were 42 teachers (29 male and 13 female) in the normal schools and 551 students.

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