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entific School, Morris. At the Danville Normal Kindergarten Training School and at the Teachers' Training School and School of Individual Instruction, Oregon, the time, in ordinary cases, appears to be a year or more. At the Northern Illinois Normal School,

Dixon, the course is of 2 years; at the Northern Illinois College and Normal School, Fulton, of 1 year, with an option as to longer continuance for a certificate of higher grade.

Hedding, Carthage, Eureka, Ewing, German-English, Illinois, McKendree, Monmouth, Mt. Morris, Chaddock, Shurtleff, Westfield, and Wheaton Colleges, and Lincoln University, have normal courses of 3 months to 3 years; Northwestern University, a normal class each term, with lectures 1 hour a week.

For statistics of normal schools, see Table III of the Appendix.


Each county superintendent is required to hold annually a teachers' institute, with a session of at least five days, and two or more adjoining counties may hold an institute together. These institutes are generally held in the summer recess of the public schools, and county boards are authorized to make appropriations for them. Instruction at such institutes is free to teachers that hold certificates good in the counties where they are held; others pay a fee of $1, unless such fee has been paid before without securing a certificate.


The Word-Carrier, a monthly publication, meant to aid educational influences among the Indians in the Northwest, continued its issue from a Chicago press in 1884-'85, being then in the 2d volume of its new series. The Practical Teacher, from a like press, had Col. F. W. Parker's vigorous editorship in its 8th volume, from September, 1884, to June, 1885, with fair prospects of continuance; while the Present Age, going on from January 3 to June 12, 1884, seems to have then ceased. The Schoolmaster, which had taken in June, 1884, the additional title of " Intelligence," dropped the former name and retained the latter, passing into its 5th volume January 1, 1885. It is a semi-monthly. From its office and under the same editor, Mr. E. O. Vaile, came also the Week's Current, meant to give fresh educational and general news for schools and families. The New Method, a monthly, published first at Chicago and afterward at Englewood, in the interest of a school for the cultivation of the sense of hearing in the deaf, seems to have closed its first volume in October, 1884. Additional to these appears, also from Chicago, the Correspondence University Journal, organ of that university, which proposes to furnish instruction by correspondence to any person, in any study. This was in its first volume at the close of 1884, and began a second, January, 1885.

Besides these Chicago journals, there still appeared from Normal, Ill., the Illinois School Journal, which was in its 4th volume from May, 1884, to April, 1885; and from East Illinois College, Danville, the Normal Mirror, in its 2d volume.



The boards of education in incorporated cities and villages are substantially authorized to establish high schools by a permission given them to establish "schools of different grades." School townships may have them, through a majority vote in favor of establishing them, after notice given of a vote upon the subject fifteen days before the time for an annual election of a trustee or trustees. Number of high schools reported in 1884-'85, 160.



The chief collegiate institution of this State has been, since 1868, the Illinois Industrial University, Urbana. In June of 1885, an Act of the legislature, to take effect July 1 of that year, changed this title to the University of Illinois. The change appears

to indicate an idea that the agricultural, engineering, and natural science courses, which belonged to it as one of the land grant colleges of 1862, may possibly have overshadowed the literary and liberal ones, and that a State University must be broad enough to take all such studies in with equal welcome. Place has been given these in a School of English and Modern Languages and a School of Ancient Languages and Literature, which form a "College of Literature and Science" and prepare for the general duties of life, or for any business that requires literary and scientific training. The arrangements for these lines of study appear to be excellent, but the drift at the University is evidently much more toward technical and modern language studies than toward the old classical curriculum. Of 330 students in 1883-'84, the studies of 294 are indicated, and of them

186 were in agricultural, engineering, architectural, chemical, or natural science courses, 94 in modern languages, and only 8 in Latin and Greek. In 1884-'85 the studies of 322 are indicated, and of them 205 were in the technical studies above mentioned, 102 in modern languages, and only 4 in ancient languages.

In Table IX of the Appendix may be found the statistics of 29 other universities and colleges in this State. In most cases their work seems to be done with fair facilities, good courses, sufficient buildings, and at least living means. But in too many other cases there is evidently a struggle for existence, in which, every few years, some drop away, while others only tide over their difficulties through special aid from friends. Such aid came to the amount of $109,870 for 9 colleges in 1884-'85, as may be seen in Table XXIII of the Appendix.

Of the 29 colleges referred to, 16 offered normal courses of three months to three years: 21 had business departments; 3, arrangements for instruction in stenography; 2 trained for type-writing; one of these last, Saint Viateur's, and also Westfield College, in telegraphy; and nearly all in French, German, music, and art. Illinois Wesleyan University had post-graduate and non-resident courses; also a department of physiology and health; Knox College, physical training and military drill under an army officer, to secure robust health.

A new institution for superior instruction, the Correspondence University, received in January, 1885, a charter from the legislature of Illinois. Having united with it the Correspondence University of Ithaca, N. Y., it presents for 1884-'85 a faculty of 36 or more professors, each of repute in some special line, to which his instruction will be specifically directed. This instruction is to be by correspondence, and to embrace preparatory, collegiate, and post-graduate studies, leading to the degrees of A. B., Sci. B., Lit. B., Ph. B., &c., according to the subjects pursued and the attainments proven. The seat of the University, for correspondence, is at 162 La Salle street, Chicago. Its teaching force is composed of professors and instructors connected with many of the best colleges of the United States. The topics for study embrace the sciences, arts, mathematics, languages, philosophy, history, political science, law, and theology.


Nearly all the colleges for young men in this State, including the University, are open also to young women. In Table VIII of the Appendix may be found the titles and statistics of colleges especially for young women, the instruction in most of which is apparently of fair collegiate character, though not of the highest type. Of these the Woman's College, Evanston; Knox Seminary, Galesburg; and Ferry Hall, Lake Forest, are departments, respectively, of Northwestern University, of Knox College, and of Lake Forest University, occupying buildings separate from the institutions with which they are connected. Another, St. Mary's School, Knoxville, lost its buildings by fire in 1883, but prosecuted its work in a neighboring college building, and now presents an elegant new structure, among the most beautiful of its kind in all the West.



At the University of Illinois the scientific courses provided are in agriculture, engineering, natural science, aud military science. For the prosecution of these and other courses a wide range of studies is presented, from which each student is expected to select at least 3, affording as many class exercises daily. To secure a diffusion of the sciences relating to great industries, it is required that at least one of the 3 studies be chosen from a list of 45 different ones presented, that cover almost the whole field of industrial training. Aids to such training are provided in a spacious mechanical building and drill-hall, with large appliances for practical work; a chemical building with 5 laboratories; a veterinary hall; a museum of zoology and geology, as well as one of engineering and architecture; a school of art and design; and a domain of 623 acres, including a stock farm, experimental farm, orchards, gardens, nurseries, &c.

Nearly all the denominational colleges in the State have scientific courses, usually of 4 years, but none of them equal in thoroughness those presented by the University. The Dearborn Observatory, of the University of Chicago, though painfully embarrassed by the financial difficulties of that university, continued its careful astronomical observations, and appears to have done very serviceable work.

The Sugar Grove Industrial School, Kane county, is understood to have gone forward with its training in scientific agriculture and horticulture, in connection with school studies.

The Chicago Manual Training School, next only in interest to that of Washington University, St. Louis, was substantially in its second year of work in 1884-'85, the school exercises having begun in February, 1884. For this second year 77 new students were

added to the 66 of the first year, making, with 4 in a partial course, 147, under 7 professor's aud instructors. The object of the school continued to be "instruction and practice in the use of tools, with such instruction as may be deemed necessary in mathematies, drawing, and the English branches of a high school course. The full work conemplated includes carpentry, wood-turning, pattern-making, iron-chipping and filing, orge work, brazing and soldering, the use of machine shop tools, and such other like instruction as may be deemed advisable. The working hours are divided, as equally as possible, between manual and mental exercises.1


THEOLOGICAL TRAINING appears to have been continued in the 22 colleges and seminaries mentioned in the reports from this Bureau for 1882-'83 and 1883-'84, sixteen of them having 3-year courses, usually following a collegiate one; 3, courses of 2 years; St. Viateur's gives some theological instruction in its general course; at McKendree College, Lebanon, a complete course in systematic theology is proposed.

The full titles of all these, with their location, denominational status, and reported statistics, may be found in Table XI of the Appendix.

The Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Chicago, is understood to have received from Mrs. Cyrus H. McCormick, of that place, $100,000 in 1884-'85, making about $300,000 from her and her husband, besides some large donations from other members of the family. LAW SCHOOLS with 2-year courses were still existent in 1884-'85 at the Bloomington College of Law of Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington; at the Union College of Law of Northwestern University; at the University of Chicago, with its seat at the latter place; at McKendree College, Lebanon, and at Chaddock College, Quincy. The first had still no preliminary examination to test the qualification for such study; the others required evidence of at least a common-school education.

MEDICAL TRAINING was carried on, as before, in fair courses, by the Rush Medical College, of Chicago; the Chicago Medical College; the Chicago College of Physicians and Surgeons; the Woman's Medical College, of the same city; and the Quincy College of Medicine, a department of Chaddock College, Quincy-all of the regular school.

Of the eclectic school, the Bennett College of Eclectic Medicine and Surgery, Chicago, was still the only representative.

The homeopathic included, as before, the Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital, Chicago, and the Chicago Homeopathic Medical College.

All these schools require at least a good common-school education as a preparation for entrance on their courses, with three years of study under a medical preceptor, and from 20 to 26 weeks of clinical and lecture teaching in 2 of these 3 years. At the Chicago Medical College the lecture courses cover 3 years of graded studies. All combine clinical with lecture training.

PHARMACEUTICAL INSTRUCTION is understood to have been maintained at the Chicago College of Pharmacy, with the usual requirements of 4 years' experience, and attendance on 2 lecture courses of 5 months each, in order to graduate as a licensed pharmacist. MIDWIFERY had from 1880 to 1883 a representative school at Chicago, with a 22 weeks' annual course, but subsequent information respecting it is wanting.



The School of Art and Desiga of the University of Illinois affords the students of the several colleges which form that university, (1) an opportunity to acquire such a knowiedge of free-hand drawing as their chosen courses may require; (2) facilities for pursuing studies in industrial designing, or other branches of fine art. The course is of 4 years: the first 2 in the general principles of art and design, the last 2 in special designing and painting. The study of plane geometry and projection drawing is recommended as a preparation for the course.

At the 12 institutions for the higher instruction of young women which may be found in Table VIII of the Appendix, there are arrangements for teaching drawing and painting, and like arrangements in about the same number of colleges for young men or for both sexes, the young lady students being especially patronizers of these arts.

The art schools of Chicago embrace now, according to official information, the Art Institute, formerly called the Academy of Fine Arts, and the Society of Decorative Ari, a former Academy of Design being, at least for the present, in abeyance. The Art Institute has been substantially maintained since 1879 by a group of well-known business

1That this school and the St. Louis one have met or anticipated a real need, appears from the fact that, closely following them, have come others of like character in Boston, Baltimore, New IIaven, Omaha, Philadelphia, and Toledo, with oncat Tulane University, New Orleans.

men, who manage its affairs through an executive committee of 7 members under a board of 21 trustees. Artists are eligible to membership on the same terms as others, that is, by election and payment of fees, or may be made honorary members, exempt from dues and with the privileges of members, except the right to vote. The regular members number about 100. Annual members, who pay $10 a year, are entitled to admission, with their families, to all exhibitions, receptions, and public entertainments. The instruction at the institute is mainly in academic art; that is, drawing from the antique and from life, with painting from life and from objects in crayon, oil, watercolor, and other mediums. The classes include antique (day and evening) costumed life, nude life, perspective, artistic anatomy, modeling in clay, compositions, still life, time-sketching, ornamental designing, and juvenile classes.

Other information, courteously furnished, belongs properly to 1885-'86, and will be presented in the report of this Bureau for that year.

A society of decorative art has rooms in the Art Institute building.


At the State University music does not enter into the regular courses; but as many students, especially young women, desire instruction in it, the trustees of the university select competent teachers, present an outlined course, and set apart rooms for piano and vocal music, voice culture, and other exercises. The example of the university in this respect is followed by 17 of the colleges for young men or for both sexes, and by all of those for young women.

A college of music at Chicago is reported as projected for 1885-'86. Of the "National Normal Music School," Chicago, and of one at Eureka, there is no report, unless the latter be the music school of Eureka College.


Under the head of "Scientific and professional instruction" something has been said of the instruction in agriculture and horticulture given at the Sugar Grove School, Kane county, in addition to public school training, and at the Chicago Manual Training School. Besides this, instruction in cooking is said to have been successfully and scientifically given by Mrs. Ewing, president of the Chicago Cooking Schools and follower of Miss Corson in the conduct of them, while at Moline, as may be seen under what relates to city systems, there is considerable encouragement of elementary industries.


The Illinois Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, Jacksonville, continued its work in the same lines as before, beginuing September, 1884, with 491 pupils, under 29 teachers, including the superintendent, in its literary and art departments, besides 6 in its industrial departments. Later information shows a total of 580 pupils in the year that closed December 31, 1884.

The Day Schools for Deaf-Mutes connected with the city school system of Chicago, are an adjunct of that system rather than a part of it, being sustained from a fund specially appropriated for the purpose by the legislature of the State. The instruction in them embraces elementary studies mainly, with training in morals and manners and the manual and oral methods of speech. Instructors in 1884-'85, 6, including principal.

The Voice and Hearing School for the Deaf, at Englewood, noticed in the last report from this Bureau, found such favor from the success of its methods for developing a sense of hearing in the deaf that in little more than a year from its opening, in October, 1883, it had reached the limit of its accommodations. The substance of its plan is to have ever present with the child an intelligent instructor ready to direct both play and study, and to see that what is learned in the school is used out of it; to suggest the word and help out the sentence which is struggling for expression; to use the numerous blackboards, impressing correct forms by frequent writing or picturing, and in every possible way endeavoring to make speech attractive and desirable.


The Illinois Institution for the Education of the Blind, Jacksonville, has literary, musical, and industrial departments-the first with 7 teachers, the second with 4, the third with 2, besides a principal. Two matrons have charge of the domestic arrange ments. Pupils enrolled in 1883-'84, 168, from 75 counties.


The Illinois State Reform School, at Pontiac, receives and trains in the lines abovenamed, as well as in school studies, boys, 10 to 18 years of age committed to it by the courts. While there, they attend school 4 hours daily and work 6 hours on week days.

Very gratifying improvement in many of the boys is reported, and in a considerable number a complete and lasting reformation. The State Board of Charities gave 308 as the average number of inmates for the year ending October, 1884.

The Illinois Industrial School for Girls, Evanston, a private benevolence, furnishes a home for dependent girls under 18 years of age; teaches them numerous branches of industry; gives them a good common school education; and thus lays a basis for respectable self-support. Homes are secured for those that leave. It is said that 94 out of 100 of those that have had this training, with the various good influences attending it, have proved the good effect of it by leading honest and industrious lives. The number in 1883-'84 was 78, of whom 47 remained October 1, 1884. In July, 1885, 73 were reported.


The Illinois Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children, Lincoln, aims at the development of the intellectual, moral, and physical faculties of the class for which it is intended, and has done much effective work in this direction. The kindergarten training introduced in 1883-'84, with other object teaching, has aided greatly in developing the interest and the perceptive powers of the children, as have pleasant Sunday exercises, with singing and short talks. Dancing and other amusements brighten the Monday evenings. troduction of industries fitting for partial self-support has been hindered from want of workshops, but is hoped for at an early day. Inmates September 30, 1884, 317.



For the shelter of orphan and homeless children, and for due training of them with a view to decent self-support, 15 institutions under private or church direction were reported by the State Board of Charities at the opening of 1884-'85.

At the Illinois Soldiers' Orphans' Home, Normal, the State Board of Charities reported an average of 317 inmates for 1884. September 30, 1884, the number reported by the trustees as actually present was 353; total for the year then ended, 572.



The annual meeting of this body was held at Springfield, December 29-31, 1884, the same time as the State Teachers' Association. The only paper read the first day was on the question whether county superintendents should encourage school exhibits at county fairs. The writer and reader, Charles J. Kinnie, of Winnebago, answered the question in the affirmative. The question, "Shall the county institute have a model county school consisting of teachers or of pupils?" was also discussed. The answer, from at least Superintendent Anderson, of Perry, was in favor of the latter, as he held it wrong to try to practice upon grown people as if they were children. Real and live children were used by teachers in his county to practice teaching.

The morning session of the second day began with a paper on "The necessary steps to be taken in the introduction of a course of study in country schools, and how to overcome the difficulties." In the afternoon the question was, "What should an outline of study for country schools comprise?" For more on this point, see report of Commissioner.

Wednesday morning was occupied with expressions of opinion as to the proper testing of the professional skill of applicants for county teachers' certificates, Mr. Hood, of Randolph, opening. Mr. Trainer, of Macon, then called attention to elementary work and foundation principles. Mr. S. Y. Gillan said that he favored oral examination and placing the teacher in the position of questioner. At the final session in the afternoon there were adopted resolutions in favor of annual school exhibits; of a comparative examination of country schools and schools of villages, with exhibits of at least a portion of the work; of an increase in the pay and visitorial time of county superintendents; of a rebuilding of the burned Southern Normal School and the erection of another normal school in the northern section of the State; and of the institution of an Illinois Teachers' Reading Circle.


The thirty-first annual meeting of this body was held in the Representatives' Hall of the State Capitol, Springfield, December 29-31, 1884, the heart of the school year 1884-'85. The address of welcome was by State Superintendent Raab; the annual address by the president, Professor M. Andrews. Miss Mary A. West, president of the Illinois Woman's Christian Temperance Union, then urged, by permission, the need of legislation to secure, in every public school throughout the State, a systematic teaching of the evil effects of alcohol, tobacco, and other stimulants and narcotics on the human system. The next day the first topic was the proper teaching of language. Mr. O. T. Bright, of Chi

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