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The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the National Educational Association was held at Saratoga, N. Y., July 14-17, 1835, President F. Louis Soldan in the chair.

Except the Madison meeting this gathering was the largest ever held, enrolling 1,570 persons, among whom was an unusually large number of prominent educators from all sections of the country. The fees for new members amounted to $1,300.

After the address of welcome by Hon. David Murray, secretary of the New York State Board of Regents, and response by Superintendent Geo. T. Church, of Saratoga, the following topics were presented and fully discussed: "The ideal schoolmaster," by Gen. Thomas Morgan, of Providence, R. I.; "The teacher's tenure of office," by H. R. Waite, Boston; " Psychological inquiry," by Dr. Wm. T. Harris, of Concord, Mass.; "Learning to do by doing," by Rev. A. D. Mayo, Boston, Mass.; "The child's environments," by Miss Clara Conway, of Memphis, Tenn.; "The apprenticeship question and industrial schools in the United States," by Thomas Hampson, Washington, D. C.; and Training for citizenship," by Geo. L. Fox, of New Haven, Conn.

Among those reported deceased during the year were Phineas Allen, of Newton. Mass.; C. W. Smith, superintendent of schools in Hennepin County, Minn.; Col. Mark Johnson, Atlanta, Ga.; William Harvey Wells, A. M., former superintendent of schools in Chicago and ex-president of the association; Charles Oliver Thompson, Ph. D., Terre Haute, Ind.; Superintendent C. W. Smith, St. Paul, Minn.; and Henry B. Norton, Santa Cruz, Cal.


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The committee on resolutions submitted and the association adopted a series of utterances upon Higher education of women,' Tenure of office," "Supervision of schools," "Use of tools," "Drawing and music," "National aid to education," "Indian education,' "Education in Alaska," Reading circles," "Pernicious literature," "Temperance," and also one of sympathy with General Grant in his dying hours.

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The session closed with short addresses from representatives of the different sections of the United States, Principal C. C. Rounds speaking for New England, Dr. J. H. Hoose for the Middle States, Dr. E. E. White and Prest. Geo. T. Fairchild for the Western, and Miss Clara Conway and others for the Southern States.


This body held its fifth annual session at Saratoga, July 10-13, 1835, President White, of Cincinnati, in the chair.

The first business of the session was a report supplementary to the one submitted at the meeting in Madison, 1881, upon the subject, Recess or no recess," by Dr. loose, of Cortland, N. Y. The discussion developed a preponderance of sentiment in favor of recess in public schools, and of more space for play grounds.

The other topics presented and discussed by the council were as follows: "Practice departments in normal schools," by Mr. Rounds, of New Hampshire; "State supervision of schools," by President Smart, of Indiana; "Academies, their place and function," by W. A. Mowry, of Massachusetts; "School reports," by John D. Philbrick, of Massachusetts; "Reforms in statistics," by T. W. Bicknell, of Massachusetts;" and "Methods of pedagogical inquiry," by Dr. W. T. Harris, of Massachusetts. The council resolved that the legal school age should be from 4 to 21, and the obligatory school age from 6 to 14.

The session closed by a fitting memorial of the late Dr. Charles O. Thompson, and the introduction of Dr. D. B. Hagar as president for the ensuing year.


This department held its annual session at Saratoga, July 15-16, 1885, Supt. W. N. Barringer, of Newark, N. J., presiding, who, in his opening address, called attention to the rapid progress in improvements of methods in elementary instruction. Christine Schenck, of New York, inade au earnest appeal for better moral instruction in schools. Papers were read by Clarence E. Meleney, of New Jersey, on "The true obiect of early school training;" by Zalmon Richards, of Washington, D. C., on "Language as an educator;" by Prof. L. R. Klemm, of Hamilton, Ohio, on "Methods in teaching geography;" and by W. M. Griffin, of Newark, N. J., on "Avenues to the mind."


This department, over which George P. Brown, of Terre Haute, Ind., presided, considered: "The relation of normal schools to the teachers' reading circle;" The function of the normal school in our educational system;" and "The educational value of common school studies." These topics were fully discussed in the 2 sessions held by the depart



The president of this department, W. W. Folwell, being absent, Dr. Eli T. Tappan, of Ohio, took the chair. An hour was spent in discussing the differences between the nniversity and the college, drifting into the consideration of the comparative educational value of prescribed and elective courses of study in colleges. Prof. Andrew F. West, of Princeton College, read a paper on "The relation of secondary education to the American university problem." followed by one from Prof. S. N. Fellows, of the University of Iowa, on "The practical value of college education." He stated that college graduates include one-half of one per cent. of the young men of our country, that these graduates have illed 58 per cent. of the chief national offices during the past hundred years; that the same results appear in the professional and organized industries; and also that the higher the rank of position the larger the per cent. of college graduates who occupy it; and still further, that a college education virtually adds ten years to a man's life, and not only increases the chances of material success, but refines, elevates, and ennobles character.


This branch of the association in its two sessions considered the subject of "County school supervision," by Hon. John W. Holcombe, of Indiana. This paper excited unusual interest, especially in regard to gradation in country schools, and a special committee was appointed to study the subject and report at the next meeting of the department. The other two subjects presented were "High schools and the state," by J. E. Seaman, of New Orleans, La., and the "School superintendent as a business man," by Aaron Gove, of Denver, Colo.


During the two sessions of this department three interesting papers were read and discussed. The first was a report from Sec'y S. R. Thompson, on "The progress of industrial education during the year," in which he said that ten years ago, when it was proposed to start such an industrial department in connection with the National Association, its success was regarded as doubtful, but that the result had exceeded the expectation of the most sanguine. Charles H. Ham, of Chicago, read a paper on "Educational value of manual training," followed by one on “An outline of technical work for a manual training school," by Wm. F. M. Gross, of La Fayette, Ind.


The sessions of this department of the National Educational Association were held July 15-17, 1885, President Otto Fuchs, of Maryland Institute, in the chair.

After the opening address by the president, Mrs. E. F. Dimock, of Chicago, introduced the topic of "Drawing in primary schools," illustrated by drawings of pupils. On motion of Mrs. Hicks, a committee was appointed to consider the relation of drawing to other studies and how its use in that direction can be best promoted.

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Mr. Goodnough presented a plan for the supervision of several towns or cities by one teacher of drawing. Walter S. Perry, of Worcester, Mass., addressed the meeting on "Drawing in high schools," illustrated by an exhibit. This address is said to have been exceedingly instructive. Miss Kate C. Shattuck, of the St. Louis Normal School, read a paper on Drawing in normal schools," illustrated by drawings and examples in terra cotta work by pupils. Charles M. Carter, of Massachusetts Normal Art School, Boston, gave an address on "Industrial drawing for primary and grammar schools," illustrating by an exhibit from Quincy, Mass., the method of teaching at the Massachusetts normal schools, the Normal Art School, and at the State teachers' institutes. Professor Fuchs read a paper on "Evening and industrial drawing schools," illustrated by a complete exhibit of the industrial drawing classes of the Maryland Institute. Prof. George H. Bartlett, principal of the Massachusetts Normal Art School, made the closing address, on Course of study now used in the Normal Art School," in which he compared results obtained from former instruction with that of to-day. The normal art school of the past is not that of the present. Former students were obliged to get their training as teachers after leaving the school. Now such is the demand for the best class of teachers that it is impossible to complete their training.


The sessions of this department occupied parts of three days, President Daniel B. Hagar, of Salem, Mass., in the chair, who read the first paper of the session on "The importance of music as a branch of school education," regarding it as a means of mental culture and considering its moral effects and its physical relations. "Voice building, physical culture, and elocution" was the theme of a paper by Prof. T. H. Brand, of Madison, Wis., followed by demonstrations of the tonic sol-fa system of singing, with the aid of a class of 30 children, by Prof. Theo. F. Seward. Prof. B. Jepson, of New Haven, Conn., followed with a paper on “A plea for the element of music in primary grades." He deprecated marching songs and the combination of music with gymnastics as being disastrous to a proper management of the breath, emission of pure tone, attention to time, careful regard for expression, and correct pronunciation of words or syllables. He would have children regard song-singing as secondary. Omit the practice of music in the high school if you must, but begin and keep up systematic instruction in primary grades. An auxiliary committee of ladies was added to the officers of the department, and the sessions closed by the introduction of a class of young children from Boston, by Mr. H. E. Holtz, whose exercises in music greatly delighted the audience.


This department held its second annual meeting in parts of two days, President W. W. Hailmann in the chair. He stated that the purpose of the department was to test and sift kindergarten principles and methods, and to devise ways for their application in the school, and mapped out, in a general way, a plan of operations, but found many difficulties in the way. A paper by Mrs. Elizabeth Bond, on "The kindergarten in the mother's work," elicited hearty approval. Then followed a paper by Albert C. Boyden on "The relations of the kindergärten to the primary schools," in which he said, among other things, that every child, either at home or in an organized class, should from his earliest years be directed toward spontaneous activity. If the child can be started off from the first in the race of life in a way that will co-operate with nature in producing natural results, the primary school will not be burdened with preparing him to begin his school work. With a paper from Mrs. Hailmann, on "Some essentials of the kindergarten," the sessions closed.


This institute held its fifty-sixth annual session at Newport, R. I., July 7–10, 1885, with about 1,500 men and women in attendance. At the opening exercises on the evening of July 7th, President Patterson, of New Hampshire, introduced as the first speaker Rev. W. Randolph, who delivered a pleasing address of welcome to the educators. He was followed by Mayor Franklin and ex-Senator Sheffield, for the governor. In response to the welcome of the city and State, President Patterson in behalf of the institute said that the progress of education in the last fifty years has been as surprising as the triumphs in the fields of industrial enterprise. The special efforts of the scholars in this age are to bring the profoundest and truest scholarship to the aid of practical life. Education has made the masses masters of themselves and of the world.


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Part of the morning session of the second day was devoted to President Patterson's annual address, in which he said that the true teacher must be a scholar; he need not necessarily have compassed the circle of the sciences, but must possess a spirit that instinctively seeks for hidden things. The function of the public school, he said, is to lift the standard of national taste, and to improve our educational methods. Prof. W. H. Paine followed, on The new education," and L. H. Marvel, of Lewiston, Me., on "The province of supervision." One hour of the evening was occupied with an address on "Civil service reform among teachers," by Thomas W. Bicknell, editor of the N. E. Journal of Education, in which he gave the number of teachers in the United States, cited the importance of the profession, and gave as the causes tending to depreciate teaching, "inadequate preparation, "lack of professional enthusiasm," and "short tenure of office and small pay." This was followed by Mrs. A. G. Woolson, on George Eliot and her heroines." The exercises of the third day consisted of papers on "The teacher's duty," by F. W. Tilton; "The education needed," by H. M. Willard," of Virginia; "Too much of a good thing," by Prof. S. R. Thompson. The evening was devoted to addresses by Miss Freeman, president of Wellesley College, on "Influence of woman's education on national character," and by Col. H. B. Sprague on the need of "An educational party." Papers and addresses of the last day were on "Horace Mann," by Prof. Amos Hadley; "Geometry and its methods as a means of discipline," by Prof. R. Fletcher, of Dartmouth College; "The necessity for evening schools," by Edwin P. Seaver, city superintendent of schools, Boston; and "Greek in the colleges," by Noah Porter, president of Yale College. President Patterson was unanimously re-elected for the ensuing year, and resolutions presented by J. R. Blackinton and Rev. A. A. Miner, of Boston, were adopted, after which the institute adjourned.

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. The annual meeting of this association was held at Ann Arbor; August 27, 1885. In Section A papers were read on subjects relating to the sun, planets, and astronomical instruments.

In Section B Prof. S. P. Langley, of Allegheny, opened with a paper on "The spectra of some sources of invisible heat," describing experiments with a spectroscope which led him to believe that the wave length of light is greater than has been believed. Other papers were read on different phases of optics, and on the chemical behavior of iron in the magnetic field.

In Section C papers were read on "Butter crystallization;" "Calorimetric method for estimation of phosphorus in iron and steel;" and "The electrical furnace, and reduction of the oxides of boron, silicon, aluminum, and other metals, by carbon."

In Section D, on mechanical science, papers were read on "Strength of staybolts in boilers;" "Universal form of pressure motor;" and "The use and value of accurate standards for surveyors' chains;" and a committee reported as to the best method of teaching mechanical engineering.

In Section E the geology of Ann Arbor was described; also papers were read on the lower Helderberg period in New York; the structure and relations of the Dakota group; the structure of the quaternary deposits of Illinois; the post-glacial changes of level in the basin of Lake Ontario, as observed in the old beach outline of that lake; the sources of trend and crustal surplusages in mountain structure.

In Section F papers were read on "Cross fertilization;"" Germination;" "Influence of cocoaine and atropine on the organs of circulation;" "The song notes of the periodical locust;" and "Some popular fallacies and new facts regarding the seventeen-year locusts;" "Proof that bacteria are the direct cause of the disease in trees known as 'pearblight;'" ;'"' and on "Mechanical injury of trees by cold."


In the series of meetings held by this association at Saratoga, 1885, the department of education met Sept. 8th, Dr. W. T. Harris in the chair. In his address he spoke of the advance in material civilization as the mainspring by which the highest mental, moral, and ethical powers of mankind are developed and brought into action. This was followed by papers on "The relation of the drama to education;" "Education in the city, as contrasted with the country;" on "Schools of political science;" "The place of art in education," by Prof. Thos. Davidson, of Orange, N. J. This paper was regarded as a thoughtful presentation of a subject too generally misunderstood or ignored.


A few gentlemen met at Saratoga September 8, 1885, to consider the advisability of organizing an American economic association, the need of one having for some time been felt by the advanced American political economists. After due deliberation an organization was effected, the object being the encouragement of research, the publication of monographs, and the establishment of a bureau of information.

Among its principles are: (1) We regard the State as an agency whose positive assistance is one of the indispensable conditions of human progress. (2) We hold that the conflict of labor and capital has brought into prominence a vast number of social problems whose solution requires the united efforts of the church, the state, and of science.

Francis A. Walker, LL. D., of Boston, was appointed president; Henry C. Adams, Ph. D. of the University of Michigan, Edmund J. James, Ph. D. of the University of Pennsylvania, and J. B. Clark, Ph. D. of Smith College, vice presidents; and R. T. Ely, Ph. D. of Johns Hopkins University, secretary. The direction of the work was given to a council, consisting of some educators of wide reputation. The association began with fifty members, and with fair prospects of influence and usefulness.


This association held its second annual session at Saratoga, September 8-10, 1885, Hon. Andrew D. White presiding. His opening address was on "The influence of American ideas upon the French Revolution," followed by Goldwin Smith, of Canada, on "The political history of Canada." Prof. T. R. Bracket, of Johns Hopkins University, made a report on certain studies in the institution of African slavery in the United States; Justin Winsor, of Harvard University, read a paper on "An Italian Portolano in the sixteenth century:" Prof. Herbert Tuttle, of Cornell University, on "New materials for the history of Frederick the Great;" Prof. E. Emerton, of Harvard, on "Recent controversies concerning the Reformation;" Rt. Rev. C. F. Robertson, Bishop of Missouri, on "The

Louisiana purchase and its influence upon the American system;" Miss Lucy M. Salmon, of the University of Michigan, on "The history of the appointing power of the President of the United States;" John A. Porter, of Washington, D. C., on "The origin and administration of the city of Washington;" Prof. H. R. Adams, on "The Society to encourage home study;" Irving Elting, A. B. of Harvard, on "Dutch village communities on the Hudson River;" Josiah Royce, Ph. D. of Harvard, on "The secret history of the acquisition of California." "The development of the modern cometary system," "The study of the constitutional and political history of the United States," "History of American political economy," and "Materials for American history in foreign archives," were topics for papers of large interest. The closing one was from Gen. George W. Cullum, on "The disposal of Burgoyne's troops after the Saratoga convention of 1777." President for ensuing year, Hon. George Bancroft.


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The convocation of this new institute, representing State councils, held its first meeting at Saratoga in July, 1885, General John Eaton, LL. D., in the chair. The purpose of its founders was stated as being "education for citizenship." B. G. Northrop, LL. D., of the Connecticut council, delivered an address on Right thinking in its relation to citizenship," with special reference to its influence upon the relations of capital and labor; Wm. N. Hailmann, LL. D., of the Indiana council, followed in an address entitled "When shall teaching in civics begin?" Prof. W. H. Paine, of the University of Michigan, spoke on "Education with reference to taxation;" Gen. H. B. Carrington, LL. D., U. S. Army, presented as one feature of the work the promotion of not only equality, but quality in citizenship. President Waite stated that it was the purpose of its officers not to present a complete syllabus of its plans until they could have the benefit of the fullest possible consensus of the opinions of its counselors.

"The science of civics and the subjects it should embrace" was presented by Hon. E. E. White, of the Ohio council, who said that it had a broader significance than that attached to political science, including not only the science of government, but also political economy, and that part of social science which is related to government and citizenship. Prof. E. J. James, of the Pennsylvania council, said that however important was the definition of the new term "civics," it was of more immediate importance to decide upon means for making the work of the institute effectual, as in the majority of college courses almost nothing of value is offered in relation to this important subject. Educational means must be employed to cure the evils of strikes and communistic governments. The work of the institute should be to provide these means. Dr. E. L. Youmans believed that the work contemplated by the institute was of the highest importance. John S. Clark, of the Massachusetts council, spoke on Industrial training as related to citizenship;" and Hon. J. P. Wickersham, of the Pennsylvania council, urged the need of a popular sentiment which shall secure fuller protection of the jury system and the ballotbox. J. W. Holcombe, of the Indiana council, said, "We must train political leaders who will bring intelligence to the discussion of public questions." W. E. Sheldon, of the Massachusetts council, believed that the institute would find a useful field in connection with lyceums and similar organizations. Its official organ is the Citizen, a monthly periodical published by D. Lothrop & Co., Boston, Mass.

The institute has over 2,000 members, including in its active membership and State counselors many of the foremost men in the country.

Its advisory board consists of Hon. Morrison R. Waite, Chief Justice of the United States, as president; Hon. II. Colquitt, Georgia; Hon. John Eaton, LL. D.; Rev. Noah Porter, late president of Yale College; Hon. Wm. Preston Johnston, president of Tulane University, Louisiana; Hon. Hugh McCullough; Rev. Julius Seeley, president of Amherst College; and Hon. Justin S. Morrill, of Vermont.

THE NEW ENGLAND ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS. This association held its semi-annual meeting in Boston, October 30, 1885, Superintendent Fisher, of Weymouth, Mass., presiding. Forty-nine State and city superintendents of schools were in attendance, representing all the New England States but Connecticut. The subject of the meeting was "Criticism of the public schools." Papers were read on "The position of the press," by B. F. Tweed, of Cambridge; "The old and the new," by A. P. Stone, of Springfield, in which he cited, as some of the fruits of the new system, the abolition of the rate bill, the establishment of free schools, admitting girls into the public schools, increased length of schools, the establishment of colored and evening schools, better teachers, text books, school-houses, and health conditions, and the introduction of industrial elements.

"Views of business men on the advantages of a public school education in business life" were presented by Superintendent Conley, of Lowell. In relation to industrial

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