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For the same year, Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers, Tuskegee, reports a State appropriation of $3,000, $1,000 from the Slater fund, and $6,573 from other sources; a new 4-story brick building, a new 2-room cottage for boys, several new outhouses, and other aids to more effective work. Brick making, farming, carpentering, printing, and cutting and making of garments, have helped the students to pay for their instruction, and have trained them to industries that may secure them a support. A written return tells of 207 normal students 'under 12 instructors; graduates of the year, 10.

In all these State normal schools students that do not otherwise pay for their tuition are required to do it by teaching in the public schools of the State for 2 years after graduation. Music, vocal and instrumental, is taught in all, and drawing in all but one.


Rust Normal Institute (Meth. Ep.), Huntsville, with 3 teachers and 81 normal pupils, besides 88 others, continued its work in 1884-'85, as did also Emerson Institute (Cong.), Mobile, with 9 teachers, 22 normal pupils, and 307 others; Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School, Selma, with 148 pupils under 8 teachers, without distinction of the two kinds of students; and Talladega College, Talladega, with 6 teachers of preparatory grades and 6 of normal grades, the normal pupils numbering 51, others 60. These figures all indicate advances on preceding years. Rust Normal and Talladega add instruction in drawing and music to their other training.


Each county educational board is required to organize and maintain teachers' institutes, one for the colored race and one for the white, where there are not less than ten licensed teachers of the race for which such institutes are held, and to hold three or more meetings of such institutes annually for the improvement of the teaching force. How many such institute meetings were held in 1884-'85 does not appear. A union institute, composed of teachers from Bibb, Jefferson, and Tuscaloosa counties, is the only one of that character mentioned. This is said to have been a great success, and to have stimulated the large number of teachers and citizens present to earnest efforts for increased efficiency in school work.


The Alabama Progress, noticed in the report of 1882-'83 as established at Montgomery April, 1882, ceased to appear at this Bureau, May, 1883, and has not been since heard from. The Southern Journal of Education began monthly issues at Birmingham March, 1885, and is believed to be still issued, though its appearance at the Bureau has not been continuous. The Alabama Teachers' Journal appeared first in July, 1885, at Huntsville, as a monthly, and has already reached a circulation of some 3,000 copies. It has the full indorsement of the State superintendent.



Schools of this class do not formally enter into the State school system, but rely entirely upon local support. What information the Bureau possesses in regard to them is of a fragmentary character.

In the State report of 1870-'71 there were 251 high schools presented; in that of 1874-75, 218; in 1875-'76, 169; in 1876-'77, 166. There the record of them seems to cease, the form of return from teachers and school officers being changed to include elementary branches almost wholly. In the State tables for 1884-'85, beyond the 6 common elementary studies, appear 13,733 pupils in history and 3,675 in algebra.


For information concerning business colleges, private academic schools, and preparatory departments of colleges, see Tables IV, VI, VII, and IX of the Appendix; for summaries of same, the report of the Commissioner preceding.



The collegiate institutions of this State continue to be the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Southern University, Greensborough: Howard College, Marion; and Spring H. College, Mobile. The three last mentioned have preparatory, all have classical, and all but Spring Hill scientific courses; all but the State University give instruction Talladegllege, Talladega, does not appear to have yet reached full collegiate instruction.

in business; Howard gives instruction in theology; the State University, in law; Spring Hill, in music; and all, in German and French.

The University of Alabama continues to arrange the studies of its classical, scientific, and engineering courses of 4 years each, under 10 schools, each having its own head and giving attention wholly either to one specific study or to two or three closely-related ones. Appropriate combinations of these studies form a classical and a scientific course, the same for the first 2 years, and lead to the degree of A. B. Other combinations beyond the first year lead to the degree of Eng. B. Students unable to complete a regalar course may take an elective one, combining the studies of at least 3 schools, and on completing the subjects taught in these may graduate in them. The degree of A. M. or of civil engineer is obtained by bachelors of arts or of engineering that pursue advanced studies in arts, science, or engineering, under the direction of the professors at the university, for a year after graduation, and reach 90 per cent. of the merit marks possible at the final examination.

Southern University and Howard College also have their studies, the former under 7, the latter under 11 schools, including a business school and one in military science. The former institution confers the degrees of graduate of a school, bachelor of civil engineering, Ph. B., Sci. B., A. B., and A. M.; the latter those of Sci. B., A. B., A. M., and C. E. Spring Hill College has a preparatory course of 1 year, followed either by a classical course of 6 years or a commercial course of 4 years. All but Spring Hill have schools of military science.

For statistics of these institutions, see Table IX of the Appendix; for summary of same, the report of the Commissioner preceding.


Of this class of schools only 7 of the 12 on the list of this Bureau report for 1884-'85. Of those reporting all show primary or preparatory courses.



Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College, Auburn, offers three regular courses of four years each, in 1884-'85, each leading to the degree of Sci. B.,-the first in agriculture and chemistry, the second in mechanics and engineering, the third a general course. Besides these there appear in 1884-'85, two partial courses of two years each. The State agricultural experiment station being now a part of the institution, and the State affording aid for the equipment of the farm and scientific department, the college is in accord with the purpose for which it was founded by the Federal and State laws, which is to give a liberal and practical education to the farming and industrial classes.1

Scientific instruction is also given by the Southern and State Universities, and at Howard College, in courses of general science and engineering, each of four years. For statistics see Table X of Appendix; for a summary of same, the report of the Commissioner preceding.


THEOLOGICAL.-The Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School, Selma, presents still a three-year theological course of 32 weeks each year; the Talladega Theological Seminary, Talladega (Cong.), a like one of 36 weeks each year; the Institute for Training Colored Ministers (Southern Presbyterian), at Tuscaloosa, one of 4 years, with 44 weeks each year. At this last the attendance was 28 in 1884-'85; at Selma there was a total attendance of 148 normal and theological students; at Talladega of 365, 10 of them theological.

Some training for ministerial work is given also at Howard and Spring Hill Colleges; the former, Baptist; the latter, Roman Catholic.

LEGAL.-The University of Alabama offers instruction in international and constitutional law; in common and statute law; and in equity jurisprudence. Moot courts are held for the practical application of the student's legal acquirements. By diligent study it is said that the entire course of three terms of five months each may be completed in nine months. The degree of LL. B. is conferred only upon those who complete the entire course and pass a satisfactory final examination in the presence of the faculty.

MEDICAL.-The Medical College of Alabama in 1885 had 8 professors, 1 assistant professor, 3 lecturers, and 2 demonstrators. It recommends, but does not require, attendatice on 3 annual lecture terms of 20 weeks each; will graduate on evidence of full age, good morals, 3 years of study, attendance on 2 full courses of lectures and a course in prac

1 The beginning of a "Mechanic Art Laboratory," for giving instruction in practical mechanics, was made in 1884 through an appropriation of $5,000 of the amount given to the college for the year; this laboratory to be an auxiliary to a general industrial education, and not to teach any particular trade. The laboratory has been since completed and equipped, and other improvements made.

tical anatomy, and passing a satisfactory examination. Matriculates 75, graduates 12, alumni 364.

Graduation at this college or any other does not confer a right to practice medicine in the State. To secure this, graduates must obtain certificates of qualification from the medical examining boards of the counties in which they expect to practice; non-graduates, like certificates from the board of censors of the State Medical Association. Persons purposing to begin the study of medicine are examined as to their preparation for such study by the county boards of censors. The constant supervision of the State board is said to hold the county boards up to a high standard.



The Alabama Institute for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, Talladega, reports for 1845 a total of 76 pupils-49 of them deaf-mutes, 27 blind--all under 8 teachers. Three teachers were for the blind pupils, 1 for a class of deaf who were under training in the utterance of oral sounds, by the provisions of a special act of the legislature of 1884-'85. An accomplished oralist from Philadelphia was in charge of this class. Music for the blind was also under charge of a special teacher. The buildings and premises of the institution are said to be in good condition, through an appropriation of $2,000 from the legislature for necessary repairs. The accommodations would suffice for 24 more pupils; yet it appears that there are not less than 200 mute and blind children in the State who ought to be under instruction, but are not.



The Alabama State Teachers' Association for teachers of colored schools held its fourth annual meeting at Marion, May, 1885, and was in session three days. It is said to have been largely attended, most of the counties in the State being represented.

Papers were read and discussed on the following subjects: "What are the greatest needs of the public schools?" "How can we secure good English?" "How can the teacher successfully imbue the minds of the pupils with temperance principles?" "The teachers' moral influence." Prof. James Storum, president of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, at Petersburg, Va., delivered a lecture on "Our profession; what is it?" said to have been scholarly and instructive. The last evening of the session was occupied in hearing reports on the condition of the schools in the counties represented. This is said to have been the most interesting part of the programme, many of the reports being given in a very graphic manner.

The association is reported to have been admirably organized and most intelligently conducted.

The teachers of schools for whites met at Auburn, July 1, 1885, in the hall of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, to the number of 53, including 3 from Georgia and Virginia. The president of the college welcomed the association, and the State superintendent made an appropriate response. The first discussion was on the commonschool system of the State, when Mr. McAdory, of McCalla, pronounced the State school law good, but not as well administered as it might be, the State appropriating too little to its schools, the money being sometimes paid out illegally, and the school officers failing to meet fully either the requirements of the law or the needs of the schools. Professor O. D. Smith held that the State erred in not depending mainly on local taxation for support of schools, merely supplementing this with a certain measure of State funds. Professor Godsey, of Blount County, thought that county institutes were doing great good, and that county teachers should be compelled to attend them. To this there was a hearty assent from several teachers and school oflicers. A paper of Hon. J. N. Slaughter attributed the illiteracy of the South to its warm climate and the bad influences of slavery; Dr. A. S. Andrews held that it was due to want of money for support of schools, and to the difficulty of collecting children in the sparsely settled distri ́s, evils which time would remedy. While "The analytic and the synthetic methods of instruetion" was under discussion, a youth from the State school for deaf-mutes and blind was introduced and shown to be ready in algebraic solutions of problems. A paper on "Technical education," by Mr. Calloway, held that each child should have special preparation for his specific vocation in life. One on Industrial training" dwelt on the advantages offered for this in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State. "The functions of the normal school" were subsequently discussed, and the prerequisites of every normal teacher were declared to be: (1) to know what to teach, (2) to have a general knowledge of the science of teaching, and (3) to understand the best methods of teaching.

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An important series of resolutions by Hon. J. N. Slaughter was presented by that gentleman for reference to the next General Assembly. They were, in substance, that in view of the great need of normal instruction for the teachers in the public schools it is recommended to the next General Assembly to enact a law for the appointment of a normal instructor in each Congressional district, such instructor (1) to receive a yearly salary and a sum not exceeding $500 annually for contingent expenses; (2) to organize the public school teachers of his district into normal classes without reference to county lines; (3) to spend 32 weeks each year in the instruction of such classes, all the teachers being required to attend and to get from the instructor a certificate of attendance on pain of forfeiting a quarter's pay; and it was also recommended that after 2 years the present grades of teachers be abolished, and certificates of qualification be granted to each teacher only on evidence of thorough qualification.

State Superintendent Palmer was made chairman of a committee to report on these resolutions at the next annual meeting of the association, and in his State school report since published he speaks of them as being in the right direction, and as substantially coinciding with a recommendation of a former efficient State superintendent, the Hon. Joseph Hodgson.


Hon. SOLOMON PALMER, State superintendent of education, Montgomery.
[First term, December 1, 1884, to December 1, 1886.]

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a Enrollment imperfectly presented, nearly a third of the districts failing to report in 1884. b Eight counties not reporting.

e Nine counties not reporting.

(From figures furnished by State Superintendent W. E. Thompson for the two years indicated.)



The system is administered by (1) a State superintendent of public instruction; (2) a board of commissioners of the common school fund; (3) a county examiner for each county; and (4) three district directors for each school district.

District directors are to report school statistics annually to their county examiners, the examiners to the State superintendent, he to the governor, and the governor to the General Assembly. Directors failing to make this report are personally liable for any dam

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