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cal purposes of the Office to abbreviate labor and save expenditure in other directions, but as it has become known to the educators of the country that there is such a literature of education, students and investigators are coming from a distance for its use, and the stream of inquiries for quotations and drafts upon it is steadily increasing. Besides, the literature of education throughout the world is multiplying rapidly, and, if we would keep up with its progress, more instead of less should be appropriated. Shall there not be one point in the United States where the educators of the country can be sure they will find the literature of their subject? I only ask that the $500 some time since taken from the $1,000 previously appropriated for this purpose, may be restored.
Fifth. In the last appropriation there was granted the Office $3,000 for the collection of statistics, making of special reports, preparing circulars of information, etc., and I have the honor to submit an estimate for an increase of $17,000, or a total appropriation of $20,000. Is it necessary in the American Republic to set forth the reasons for this estimate? As a government we properly expend large amounts of money to promote the science of physics, of chemistry, of geology, and the sciences which especially promote the efficiency of instruments of war. Can we as a people of liberty, whose institutions we claim depend solely upon the free, intelligent, virtuous choice of the people, not afford to expend $20,000 outside of the regular clerical work of this Office for the promotion of the science of education, our progress in which determines the progress in every other science and in every other art? Over a hundred million of dollars are expended annually on education through the various agencies of the country, and no one knows how much of this amount is wasted on houses badly heated, ventilated, and lighted, and unhealthy in other respects, or how much is expended on inferior books, appliances, and methods. No one knows how much barm comes through neglect, unwise action, or inferior conditions, for which these millions are expended, when better and more healthy aids would be less expensive, and could be ascertained, and thus teachers and school officers placed in a way to prevent them by a slight expenditure of means, by this Office, in observing the facts of the science of education as applied to school architecture and school administration. Something of what this Office has done with its small means in this behalf is known to the world in showing the relation of education to labor, the relation of ignorance to crime, in pointing out the best conditions of lighting and heating school apartments, and collating facts bearing upon the hygiene of school life. It is not too much to say that the world of educators have pronounced their approval upon these endeavors, and for the enlargement of this work to meet immediate demands I ask for an increase of $17,000.
Sixth. I submit an estimated increase of $4,000 to the amount appropriated for the two purposes of (a) distribution and exchange of educational documents, and (b) the exchange, cataloguing, and care of articles, apparatus, and appliances of the pedagogical museum. As there comes in upon the Office from the different nations of the world the literature they are preparing upon the subject of education, and their promotion of improvements in educational management by means of pedagogical museums, and I see how little is done in our own country for the same purpose, I am made to feel deeply the danger that we shall fall behind in the race of intelligence and virtue, and thereby also in the possession of the advantages of free government of which we justly boast.
The revolution of education in Japan, for instance, as it may be called, has been carried forward with great rapidity by the establishment of a separate building for the collection and exhibition and dissemination of pedagogical appliances from other portions of the world. The Republic of France, as is known, has organized an office of education, modeled on this Office in Washington, and, in staking the perpetuity of its liberties on the education of its people, makes pre-eminent among its instrumentalities the presentation of illustrations to the eye of articles showing the improvements in educational principles, methods, and appliances.
Seventh. The Department has seen fit to order the execution, through this Office, of the requirements of the law directing the establishment of schools in Alaska, for the education of its children without respect to differences of race, and I have estimated that an additional sum of $50,000 should be appropriated for this purpose. Several times, by the request of the Department, or by the request of others interested in education in this remote region, I have been carefully over the plans for introducing schools for that widely scattered population, and it should be noted (a) that there are few houses anywhere in the country available for school purposes. There is, therefore, the first cost of erecting houses. (b) In many places the teachers must be, under the circumstances, the only parties representing the civilization of the States, in which case the teacher should have his family with him, and the expenses must be increased accordingly. (c) In most cases the books, maps, charts, slates and pencils, as well as the fuel and furniture, must be furnished by the Government at the start. (d) I need not allude to the expenses necessarily connected with the vast distances and inconveniences of travel in that country. The people, as a rule, wherever found in that territory, it should be observed, have manifested a desire for the education of their children, and the young are found to be teachable wherever the experiment of establishing schools has been made. The policy of feeding or supporting need not be introduced.
If schools are promptly established and the people taken as they are, and by well fitted, skillful education advanced in intelligence, and virtue, and skill in the industries by which they now live, and in ability to improve themselves with their present environment, it can hardly be doubted that they will not only continue self supporting, but that they will contribute vastly more to the commercial profits of the country. If, on the other hand, their education is neglected and the vices of civilization go before its virtues, the evils to be expected can hardly be described, nor would it be possible to foretell the expense likely to be incurred in preserving order and establishing peaceful commercial relations.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
I take pleasure in acknowledging my indebtedness to the faithful laborers in the Office and to all others elsewhere who have contributed to the success of its work. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Hon. L. Q. C. LAMAR,
Secretary of the Interior.
OFFICIAL REPORTS OF THE SCHOOL OFFICERS OF STATES, TERRITORIES, AND CITIES,
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES.