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place on record its opinion that in every country provision should be made for higher education in geography, either in the universities or otherwise.

Turning to the continent of Europe, Mr. Keltie notes a marked contrast with Great Britain. In all these countries, education being more or less under control of the state, geography has a distinct place upon the programmes of schools and higher institutions. At the head of the list, undoubtedly, is Germany, although even there the standard is not yet as high as leading geographers desire to see it raised. This standard Mr. Keltie admits to be far beyond any his native country has ever had sight of. Yet even in Germany there are differences among the several provinces in the amount of independence given to the subject, some putting it along with history on one basis of time, while in others these are separate and have each its own period. The establishment of chairs in the universities has contributed to bring about uniformity. The most thorough instruction is given in elementary schools and those denominated Bürgerschulen, where the teachers have been trained in normal schools.

Eminently noteworthy are the Heimatskunde, wherein it is indeed surprising how extensive and varied knowledge may be imparted to even young children by judicious training of teachers who have been made thoroughly competent in every particular. The inspector gives some very instructing accounts of several recitations which he attended. He relates an interview held with Dr. Finger, the inventor of the system, wherein he found that among other modes of instruction teachers often took the pupils on excursions to the districts around the school, and even sometimes, as on holidays, on extended tours. "With their maps in their hands, they identify the leading features, become personally acquainted with cities, rivers, mining districts, minerals, and manufactories. This plan of making excursions, sometimes to a considerable distance and lasting for days, is carried out in Germany and France, and even in Spain.”

In the matter of map reading, German schools are extremely painstaking, pupils being required over and over again to explain maps given for their use and to draw them themselves, often in outlines drawn upon the floor, using sand to build up the prominent features of a district to which their studies are at any time particularly devoted.

The following programme the inspector subjoins, being taken from one of the high schools in Leipsic, which, he says, may be regarded as a fair representative of that class in Germany. To those not acquainted with the immense progress made within a few years in teaching geography, this programme, extending throughout nine years, might seem astonishing.

Sixta.-Two hours per week. Fundamental positions of mathematical geography and the leading principles of physical geography. General view of the division of land and water on the surface of the earth. Geography of Saxony. Exercises in reading and drawing maps.

Quinta.-Two hours per week. Further instruction of the fundamental conceptions of geography. General description of Europe, especially of Germany. Exercises in map drawing.

Quarta.-Two hours per week. Revision of the leading principles of physical and mathematical geography. Extra European continents. Map drawing. Tertia. Two hours per week. Germany, physical and political.__ Map drawing. Unter-sekunda.-Two hours per week. Geography of foreign European countries and their colonies.

Ober-sekunda.-Two hours per week. references to their physical conditions. Unter-prima.-Two hours per week. Revision of the whole field of geography. Astronomical geography; continuous observations of the apparent course of the sun by means of the gnomon. Observations of stars. True and mean solar time and stellar time; the ecliptic.

Extra-European continents, with special

Ober-prima.-Two hours per week. Revision of the whole field of geography. Astronomical geography. Proof of the globular form of the earth, of its rotation, of its revolution round the sun, the orbits of the planets.

The inspector remarks at considerable length on the methods employed by geography teaching in quite a number of schools into which he was admitted, where he was impressed by the little use made of text-books, for which lectures were substituted by their teachers, supported by maps and materials for present construction of them by himself and the class. Some of these recitations might well be included in this article if there were sufficient space. In all the higher schools geography holds its position on an even line with other subjects, and the certificate awarded to a pupil upon leaving has equal dignity with one in Greek and Latin prose.

In the German universities geography was slow in being admitted to its just rank. Down to 1873 the only chair was in the University of Berlin, which was held by Ritter. At the time when this report was made (1885) there were twelve, and another (at Münster) was to be established in that year. Holders of these chairs have equal rank with other professors, and receive the same salary. As to the University of Göttingen, the inspector was assured by Prof. H. Wagner that in examination for the degree of doctor of philosophy, geography "has the same position and value as all the other subjects in the philosophical branch-languages, history, archæology, mathematics, physics, chemistry, zoology, geology, and botany. If geography is the principal subject in which the candidate wishes to obtain his doctorate, he is obliged to write a scientific dissertation, which is printed, and which must show the progress of the science."

A special degree, named Facultas Docendi, is for those who are qualifying themselves especially for teaching the subject. For this a more than usually extensive course is undergone by candidates.

The inspector dwells at considerable length on the courses of Professors Rein, Wagner, Clausius, Richthofen, Kirchoff, Kiepert, Partsch, and others.

Of the Austrian universities, chairs of geography are in Vienna, Czernowitz, Graz, Innspruck, Prag, Budapest, Klausenburg, and Krakau.

The subject, though extensively treated, is not up to the standard of Germany, being limited almost entirely to Europe and particularly devoted to Austria itself. In the schools, however, of all grades the subject ranks in all respects equal with Germany, except that in some it is connected too closely with history. The country is particularly rich in text-books, school wall maps, and atlases. The following is quoted from the inspector's report concerning the Vienna Commercial Academy:

Vienna possesses what is probably the leading commercial academy in the world; attended by about 900 students, many of them from foreign countries. Under Professor Zehden, geography forms one of the most important branches of instruction in the school, the course extending over three years. As in all the best schools in Germany and Austria, there is a special room for geographical apparatus. Here I found about 150 maps, all of the best class, including special maps from foreign countries. There are two sets of Hölzel's Charakterbilder. both geographical and historical; Kirchoff's Rassenbilder, besides hundreds of photos and engravings of cities, seaports, etc., Pick's Tellurium, and other specialties.

The report for this country closes with an account of a visit to the Austrian cadet schools and the department of the general staff, the maps produced by the latter being "celebrated the world over."

The report on France ascribes the immense development in the study of geography in that country mainly to efforts in its behalf by Professors Levasseur and Kimley. As a translation of portions of an extended pamphlet by the former is to appear hereafter in this chapter, we pass on.

In Italy the subject is undergoing changes for the better, in emulation of Germany, although there, as in Great Britain and most other countries, the primary schools give more attention to it than the higher. In that country the wall maps and atlases, prepared under the direction of Prof. Cavaliere Guido Cora, of Turin,

Professor Malfatti, of Florence, and others, are equal to those in Germany, and the relief maps are the best in the world. Especial mention is made of the Technical School of Alessandria, the Naval and Technical School of Genoa, and the Military School of Turin. High praise is accorded the ministry of education for its liberality in the supply of needed apparatus of every kind. Professors of geography are on the same footing as others are in the universities at Rome, Naples, Florence, Genoa, Bologna, Milan, Padua, Palermo, Pavia, Pisa, Venice, and Turin. In Switzerland, inasmuch as the separate cantons have themselves control of education, there is a difference in the degree of advancement of geography. It has made greatest progress in Zurich, Berne, and Basel. With the exception of Zurich, there are no professors in the universities. As elsewhere, it is in the lower schools that geography has most attention. The example of Germany is being imitated by Swiss teachers, who are doing everything possible to advance the subject up to the standard of its more and more generally admitted importance. The system of cartography in general is on a high plane.

In Belgium, although geographers are hopeful from the increasing interest taken in the subject, there is yet no professorship in any of the universities. Education being under the control of the State, progress is being made rapidly in the schools of all grades.

Since Mr. Keltie's report was submitted the new University of Brussels has been founded (1894) and a chair of geography established, with M. Élisée Reclus as the incumbent.

In Holland there is no professorship for geography in any of the universities. In a letter from Professor Kan, of Amsterdam, to the inspector he says: "Physical geography is taught in the faculty of mathematics and physics by the professor of physics; political geography in the faculty of literature and philosophy by the professor of history. The comparative value of geography in examinations is very little. In the schools that are regulated by the Government, geography has special courses more extensive in the lower than the higher. Schools are generally well supplied with maps and other apparatus. Particular attention is bestowed upon economic geography. In the University of Leyden is a professorship of the geography and ethnology of the Dutch East Indies."

In Sweden no professorship of geography is in either university, Upsula or Lund. The elements of political geography are taught by the professor of political science. Within a few years past this professor has given special lectures on the subject. It is taught with much care in the schools of all grades.

In Spain, thanks to the work done by M. Levasseur in France, a very strong impluse has been given to geography.

The inspector concludes his report upon the teaching of geography in the countries of Europe in the following words:

Thus it is evident that geography has a serious place in education of all grades on the Continent, and that in Germany, Austria, France, Italy and Holland there are professors of the subject at certain of the universities. The Government of every country I have visited insists that it should be so. Geographical specialists complain that it has not in the higher schools the time allotted to it which it ought to have, and that there is a lack of properly trained teachers. The time, in my opinion, could not be much more than it is at present, and if the carefully arranged programmes are thoroughly carried out by competent men, boys ought to leave the higher continental schools with a very solid knowledge of geography, indeed. As to teachers, well-trained men-men who have taken the course and passed the examination for the Facultas Docendi in geography-are becoming commoner every year under the influence of the universities. In short, we find generally present in the continental systems of geographical instruction all the elements of development and success.


M. E. Levasseur, professor at the College of France and at the Conservatory of Arts and Trades, read a very able and interesting paper before the Sixth International Congress of Geography, held in London, July, 1895. The paper was subsequently published as a pamphlet,' and, through the courtesy of the author, has been placed at the disposal of the Commissioner of Education. Copious extracts are here presented. In the preface M. Levasseur says:

The manner of teaching geography varies according to the institution where instruction is given. It is not the same in primary, in secondary, and in higher schools. There are three degrees which it behooves to study separately. They do not all admit either the same matters or the same development in common matters, nor the same method of exposition. Moreover, each of these degrees admits manifold gradations according to the general development of the pupils in culture and the kind of preparation in the institution; one could not give precisely the same instruction in a small school of a village as in a large city; in a school in Paraguay as in one in Saxony,

Inasmuch as two reporters have been appointed by the committee of organization to treat the subject, I shall not undertake to consider it in all its phases, so as to avoid confusion and repetition by taking points which M. Lehman will not discuss. I shall, indeed, respond with more precision to the desire of the committee who have asked that study of me, and I shall render a better service to my colleagues by devoting myself specially to the teaching of geography in France, and presenting some of my personal views in that behalf.

As for the works in which I have endeavored to make known my sentiments on primary and secondary instruction, I refer the reader to the note on the method of teaching geography proposed by M. Levasseur, which I communicated to the Fifth International Congress of Geographic Science, at Berne.


Geography necessarily should figure in the whole programme of primary education. For it is important for every person to have some knowledge of the subject, and a large majority of the inhabitants of a country, receiving instruction only therein, would suffer loss if the primary school failed to impart it.

I maintain that next to the three fundamental branches-reading, writing, and arithmetic-history and geography are those most important in that instruction. In a report made in America under the name of a special committee, Mr. W. T. Harris, Commissioner of Education of the United States, places geography before history in rank of importance, because it imparts to the child practical, real knowledge which will be useful in life. I cite the argument as having a certain value, but I am content myself to ask for equality in these two studies.

The Maternal School (L'école maternelle).-Before the primary school should we make a place for geography in the maternal school, otherwise called kindergarten? A question to be left, in my opinion, to every directress of a school of that sort. If the directress judges that her children have understandings sufficiently developed to comprehend (their eyes on the globe) that there are lands and seas, that their country and their districts are situate somewhere on that globe, to the degree that they can take some interest in looking at those figures representing men-white, yellow, and black-mountains and valleys-she may inspire in them, by amusing them, an incipient desire to know geography.

But one must guard against general rules and impose nothing as a task. One does not gain time in undertaking to give notions of geography to children before the age of 6 or 7 years, which in general is that of entrance to the primary school. Geography, so named, has no place in the maternal school.


Even in the primary school geography should not be admitted until the pupil has learned sufficiently to read and write. Instruction therein should be very simple, clear, methodical, and demonstrative, and, as far as possible, it also should be regulated by a method, uniform in all schools, of the same degree in the same country.

La Géographie dans les Écoles et à l'Université. Par E. Levasseur, professeur au Collège de France, et au Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers.

Two methods present themselves to lead beginners into the first principles-the commune (or particular) and the earth (or general) methods. I much prefer the former, but I believe that it would be an error to adhere in a manner exclusive or too long to either.

The first programme of special secondary instruction fell into that mistake when, under the title of "Summary study of France," which should be made in the preparatory year, it was prescribed not only to begin with the department in which the school was located, but to continue with neighboring departments and proceed, successively, throughout all the departments of France. Such sequence is not one of order. It could not but make confusion in the memory of pupils, because particular features do not attach themselves to every general plan. If description of the locality interest the child, it is mainly because he knows it before the teacher has described it to him; but when it comes to regions that he has never seen, or which are in no wise connected with those which he has seen, it profits him little to speak about a place situated 50 or 500 kilometers distant.


This is why I have never ceased during thirty years to advise that the first place should be given to the study of the commune, whose territory is familiar to the pupil, especially if it is rural, and even to begin before the commune with the class and the school. I have given an example of the method in a series of small departmental geographies, the first of which (Seine-et-Oise) I composed myself, and the others were prepared by different authors on the same plan and under my direction. The Germans, long before, employed a similar method. The Americans and other peoples use it often.

It is easy to publish a departmental geography. It is not easy to find an editor who will undertake the publication of the geography of a commune unless it be of a large city, because the sale of the volume will be too small. We must therefore trust for that instruction almost entirely to the good will and the tact of the teacher, giving to him, however, some directions.

Of what use is description of the school? Merely to make the new pupil learn how to draw a map of any place on paper or a blackboard, and recognize the right, the left, direction in general, and give to him a first idea of position.

A child having well gotten that idea will be able promptly to read a map. Why the commune? To attain the same end and to impart to pupils, with help of experience, the idea of essential definitions. On the bank of a stream they can easily be made to understand the course of a river, the right bank, the left, and even the basin; on rising ground, they will perceive with their own eyes a watershed, a ridge, a chain; the sight of things will keep up their attention and fix in memory the definition which, isolated, had been arid to them and unintelligible. Without doubt such sight is not enough; there are names and definitions which they must learn by heart; but, as often as possible, they must be shown the thing itself in order to be assisted in retaining the name. Thus learned with help of their eyes, definitions will be fixed in the memory in a way more rational and more enduring. So in this connection, with some modification, one might apply the proposition of Liebnitz, Nihil debet esse in memoria quod non prius fuerit in intellectu.

In some of the geographical text-books assigned for primary instruction, principally in the Elementary Atlas, I have employed that method, while essaying to join with it some general ideas of the earth and geographical definitions. Not being able to put before children examples from nature-that is, for the master alone, whose business it is-I at least keep from giving any definitions without accompanying the text with an image, in order to set it before the eyes of the pupils, and I have advised teachers to complete such images with realities. This is what is done now by almost all writers of books of this kind everywhere.

There is hardly any commune which has not a water course and some variations of ground which the teacher can cite in illustration of his images. If there are none, he can figure them with sand arranged in a large box.

I have often repeated that the smallest phenomenon in nature can furnish comparisons which every intelligent teacher will know how to employ. For example, if a thunderstorm arises, the playground of the school is marked off with streams of water which form confluences, islands, deltas. It is by familiar examples of this kind, by images, and oft-repeated questionings, that initiation into the study is begun.

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