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actions and their collection in a library provided for them in the building. A good protocol is a circumstantial and time-consuming work, and it happens in consequence, even in well-conducted institutions that they are not made. Nevertheless the existence of these archives is the basis for a sure utilization of the results of the autopsy in medical science.

5. To this library of records should be joined a museum of pathological specimens. No institution should be without this. It has the double end to provide the required material for objective study in a logical order and at the same time to preservo an evidence of important facts. But this matter is not capable of being expressed in a general way.

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Professor Wurtz's work has mainly been used in the foregoing descriptions. He saw what lie describes, and studied calmly what he saw. His account, though not “ up to date," as the saying is, is accurate, and therefore contains all the essentials for some time to come. But in the meantime tlo physiological investigations concerning tho-nervous agency,” which ho mentions, låre given rise to a new form of institute or laboratory, called the Laboratory of Psychology. In 1878 Professor Wundt opened the first laboratory of this kind at Leipzig. As we shall follow Professor Binet in noticing this new creation, it will be a French institution—the one of which M. Binet himself is associate director-that will be introduced.

There exist two kinds of psychology—that called experimental and that called morbid. Tho last studies liypnotism, hysteria, mental diseases, and the various troubles of tho sensory and motor nerves. The latter kind does not enter into the work of the Paris laboratory of experimental psychology, which deals with healthy individuals. The laboratory in Paris was created in 1889, and attached to the École Pratique des Hautes Etudes, or rather to the section of the natural sciences of that university, and a director and four other professors were appointed. It is now installed at the new Sorbonne, occupying four rooms: (1) a large room for demonstrations in common; (2) an offico for the director, where are stored the apparatus, etc., of a delicate character; the room also serves for special research; (3) a room which contains the library, a glass case for the glassware, etc.; the room is used for macroscopic and microscopic research on the nervous system; (4) the fourth room is exclusively reserved for the use of the master of conferences ; but a small room opening into this room is used for a dark chamber in experiments upon vision. There are also two other small rooms for chemical vork, etc. “In America laboratories of this kind are extremely numerous," says M. Binet, “but wo lack details concerning their organization. Those of which we positively know the existenco are situated in New York, Philadelpbia, Worcester, New llaven, Providence, Ithaca, Medissina (?), Chompen(?), Harvard (Cambridge), Chicago, Toronto. In Europe the following cities possess laboratories : Leipzig, Göttingen, Bonn, Berlin, Copenhagen, Gronengen (Holland), Geneva, Liege, Brussells, Stockholm, Oxford, and Cambridge.” As there are so many of these institutions in America, more than half of the whole number, it may be of interest to state just what M. Binet thinks the “psychologic method” is as compared with physiological psychology. It will be observed that M. Binet is a keen logician, and is rather incredulous as to the recording of ideas about a mind without a mind. As the following matter is taken from his “Introduction à la psychologie expérimentale,” there can be no impropriety in introducing the Baconian aphorism that tho mind requires instruments and aids in investigating nature, since M. Binet points out that the instruments and aids are not mind.

There has been some disagreement as to the lines of demarkation between psychology and its neighbor-between, in fact, psychology, properly so-called, and the physiology of the nervous system. But our studies have a characteristic which, if understood, will prevent confusion. Everybody knows what the word introspection means. Its synonyms are self-consciousness, consciousness (sens intime, sens interne,


conscience, etc.). It is the act by which we perceive directly that which is going on within us--our thoughts, memories, and einotions. This introspection, it is possible to say, is the base of psychology, and it characterizes psychology so precisely that every study which is made by introspection must be called psychological, and every study which is made by any other method belongs to another science. We (MM. Binet, Philippe, Courtier, and Henri, the professors of the Paris Laboratory) beg to insist upon this point, for the late studies in physiological psychology have sometimes lost sight of the fact.

It is proper to explain, continues M. Binet and lis colleagues, that we are taking the word introspection in the largest sense. Frequently it is used in the sense of withdrawing within one's self for the purpose of reflecting and analyzing the contents of the mind or, as Berkeley puts it in plain English, of the thing I call myself. But this is only one of many cases, and not the best, where introspection may be used. When inany persons are asked to observe an indicated object; when many persons aro interrogated upon the impressions made upon their consciousness, and these answers are collated; when these persons are submitted to regulated tests, and then relate the impressions they received; finally, wheil, without letting tliem know of the fact, their gestures, play of facial expression, their words, judgments, and conduct are observed, and the emotions and passions which are ruling them are inferred from these outward signs-in all these cases, and many others which we could add to the list, we arrivo either directly or indirectly, with certainty or with chances of error, to read the mental state of a person and to represent them to ourselves as if we had ourselves experienced them. Yet, to study phenomena in this way is to use introspection and consequently psychology.

M. Charles Richet, director of the Revuo Scientific, has put forth a statement which may be of interest in this connection. Under the rather vaguo name of "fonction cérébrale," he speaks of the mind as having a “caractère psychologique.” He says the other organic apparatuses, such as tho liver, the heart, ovaries, and muscles, lave functions which are material and reducible to exterior-like phenomena, whether chemical, dynamic, or morphological; but the brain apparatus (le cerveau) has a function which certainly does not exist in the tissues, for it is the seat of consciousness and intelligenco (il a la conscience et l'intelligence). This conscience and this intelligence widely separates (créent un fosse profond) the psychology of the brain and that of the other organs. So wide is this separation that the kuowledgo (la connaissance) of the soul, of tho me, is the object of a science-the science of psychology-that it is frequently attempted to separate from plysiology properly so called. But, notwithstanding every effort of the pyschologues, psychology is mixed up with the physiology of the brain apparatus (cerveau), although the methods of psychology differ in many respects from the methods of physiology. But, although the brain (cerveau) is the seat of tho consciousness, it possesses also other apparatuses which have simple physiological functions through which, liko the other organs, it produces chemical and dynamical phenomena.


When Leeuwenloëck saw that the growth calloi tartar cortaineil a "great number of little animalculio which acted in a remarkable manuer,” he contented himself with naming their different forms A, B, C, etc.! Since then many offorts have been made to classify these “little animals,” but the syllogism in natural science is a very uncertain friend in classification unless fortified by a thorough knowleilge of properties rather than a collection of names. "By their works shall ye know then” is particularly appropriate to the microbe.

Stated on the authority of Dr. H. Dubief, Etudes microbologiques. In this section the compilations of Drs. Tronossart, Arloing, and Dubief bave been mostly used, also the works of M. Duclaux, chief of the Pasteur Institute at Paris.

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Opinion seems unanimous in dleeming the microbe called bacterium (Baxtípior, a stick) a vegetable, but the greatest bewilderment reigns as to its place in the botanical kingdom. The general tendency is to approximate it to the alga and the mushrooms; that is to say, to plants having chlorophyll and plants not having chlorophyll. Thus they may be provisionally located in Sach's “subkingdom," or embranchment, as the French call it, of Thallophytes, in which the class algae and the class mushrooms regard each other, so to speak, from two lotanically opposite poles of nutrition.

Some of these bacteria are dangerous, some aro harmless. The one known as the bacillus of tubereulosis (consumption) is uniloubtedly dangerous, but Professor Koch announces that in some minutes, or, if the “culture" is thick, in some hours, an exposure to the sunlight will kill it dead. “Entirely different (tout autre) is the action of light upon the lower mushrooms," says Dr. Arloing. But then the “composition of the atmosphere” of tho culture and the pressure to which that atmosphere is submitted “profoundly modify the vegetation of microbes,” and we have certain of this gentry that will flourish only in a vacuum or in an atmosphere of carbonic acid, while others only work well in an oxygenated atmospliere like that we breathe. The bacillus anthracis, originally names bactéridie, is usually taken as a type of the bacterium that works well in the air. On trial, it will kill a steer in an liour and a half. In man, the autopsy shows black blood, intestinal hemorrhages, and the gall bladder gorged with blood. Tho bacillus anthracis is therefore an aerobe. The bacillus septicus, more popularly known as “ gangrene,” is usually taken as a type of the microlie that does not work well in the air, though always lying in wait in hospitals for an amputation not performed under cover of a spray of disinfectant, as practiced by the English physician Lister during the sixties. This septicemia-producing microbe is a human infliction, and picks out the enfeebled-women giving birth to children, men losing arms or legs by the surgeon's knife. The autopsy shows that tho muscles have been most violently inflamed, the body bloated; in short, the living being las died putrefying. It is now not the blood that is robbed of its oxygen, but the impure atmospliero

urrounding dead flesh or dried blood calls the aerobo into life, and having once started in the way of fermentation, it pulls a part the tissues of the body, propagating in the atmosphere it thus produces. There is a bacterian, says M. Trouessart, which is excessively common, which is called bacterium termo, or microbe of impure water. It is perfectly liarmloss, and is found in the human inonth.

These three kinds of microbes liave been spoken of as though they were larye, but they have a very small appearance under the highest powers of the microscope, and only the initiated can separate them. Hence the necessity of an institute or place where the investigations of the professor are assisted by the presence and the cooperation of those who are themselves about to profess the stndy of medl. icine. “If we are spared that customary portion of this lecture," says Professor De Bary, “which shows the importance of a subject, because the educated pub. lic knows that a large part of all lealth and disease in the orld is dependent on bacteria, it becomes the more necessary to give prominence to tlie reverse sido of the question anıl to call attention to the fact that the problem can only be solved by quiet scientific examination from every possible point of view of those objects."”;

If there are plants which can attack tho weakeued living body and como out victorious in the struggle against the natural recuperatory energies of the human system, appropriating its elements as a mushroom does those of a fermenting dung heap, and if there are others which are essential to the digestivo processes of the human bolly, it would appear that physiology takes on a new face and becomes a

"Dr. Arloing thinks that it is absolately necessary for erery microbe to have osygen in order to lire and grow.

Lectures on Bactéria, p. 1, by A. De Bary, second edition, Clarendon Press, translation of Garnsey and Lalfour.

question as to what microscopic plants live in beneficial communion or “symbiosis" with the living luman organism, and what plants, “symbiotically," are destructive to it.

In 1888 the Pasteur Institute was opened. The orator of the day, the professor of protection against hydrophobia, called it an autirabies institute (l'institut antirabique). M. Pasteur, however, in his remarks on that occasion, characterized it somewhat differently. “For myself,” he said, “if I have had the happiness, gentlemen, during the course of my investigations to ascertain some principles that time has confirmed and rendered fruitful it is because nothing has been refused to me by my country or my friends in my efforts to reduce tho eft'octs of microbic poisons npon men not only in applying the prophylactic method against hydroplobia, but also the study of virulent and contagious diseases. The professor of the provention of hydrophobia will be M. Granchéa (the orator of the day), assisted by three physicians, while tho minister of public instruction has authorized my oldest pupil and coworker to give here the instruction in biologic chemistry with wbich he is now charged in the faculty of sciences at the Sorbonne. M. Chamberland will be charged with the relations of microbos and hygienic precautions, and Dr. Roux' will teach the relations of microbes and the practice of inedicine. Two learned Russian physicians, Metchnikoff and Gamalêia, have volunteered their assistance, and are charged with the form of the inforior organisms and comparative microbiology."




While the animal branch of biology is thus

FIG. 12.-Pasteur Institute, Paris. giving light to medicine by being organized into schools where study is research ander direction, the other branch, the branch of vegetable biology, is being organized in the same way. Some attention has been given in another part of this report to the researches of Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert, of Saussure, Boussingault, aud Liebig, of Pasteur, Wilfarth, and Hellriegel, Schloesing and Müntz, and of Darwin. But the laboratory of Sachs, at Wiirzburg University, is probably the earliest typical institute for the purpose of investigating the nature of vegetable life. In America cach State has a station known as experimental, for which Congress annually appropriates $15,(100, a large sum as compared with the amounts given to the institutes of Gormany, though it must be remembered that a dollar in Europe will purchase much more than in the castern United States, and very much more than on the Pacific coast. These American experiment stations are not seemingly “institutes," but are a hybrid between the

Sereral years ago mentioned in connection with the discovery of the microbe of diphtheria.

2 In embryology or fecundation of flowers and the growth of the embryo the names of Strassburger, of the l'niversity of Bonn, and of Guignaud, of the laboratory of the Museum of Natural History, are preemiuent.

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Rue de l'arbalète.

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M. Sleeping rooms.
NÅ. Laboratory of a

Mials and Girard.
Nb. Laboratory of assistants.
Ne. Laboratory of stadeats,

third year.
Nd. Laboratory of studeats

second year.

Ne, Laboratory of students F. Inspector of studies.

first year.
G. Examination room.

Nf, Messengers.
H. Museum of physics. Oa. Stable,
J. Museum of inachines. Ob. Amphitheater.
J. Waiting room.

Oe, Laboratory.
A. Janitor.
j. Vestibule.

PP. Experiments with seeds.
B. Clerks.
K. Amphitheater.

Q. Mechanical laboratory,
C. Watchmen.
L. Amphitheater.

Ř Sa. Laboratory of fermen-
C'. Messengers.
Il. Professors' rooms.

EE. Study roots.
a. Court

So, ! Rue Claude Bernard. FIG. 13.-General plan of the Institut National Agronomique. On the second floor, abore G HIL are the museums of agriculture, geology, and zoology; above the chambers E are the rooms for the first-year students; on the third floor, above A and A and B and B, is the library; above the chambers E are tho botanical laboratories; above j is the laboratory of comparative agriculture.

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