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In repealing the third section of the statute of November 16, 1874, governing the character of the examination of the junior medical professors, the following reasons were given for the change, in the report presented to the higher council of public instruction by the commission of the council, to whom the question had been referred'. It was found that the old law governing the examination was better calculated to ascertain the erudition of the candidate than his personal scientific ability. Medicine has changed, says the commission, sinco 1812, when the original law was drawn. Physiology and pathological histology have extenıled their domain and experimental pathology and microbiology have been born. In our day the greatest problems of medicine present themselves and are solved in the laboratory. Yet such is the present organization of the examination of assistant professors that a "young worker," bright and provided with a good memory, is able to pass without having pnt foot within a laboratory, without having made an effort to testify concerning his own personality. Success is for the candidate wlio bas retained the most and who has been exercised the most in the art of speaking well on any subject whatsoever. When this supreme end is attained and the candidate is appointed agrégé ho is 35 or 36 years of age, and it is too late then to turn to the laboratory. He has forgotten the technique that he learned when a student and is ignorant of what has been done since his pupilage.

Now, in the faculties of medicine, the agrégé has a very important role to fill in the direction of the course. He takes part in the assembly of the faculty and in the examinations; he fills the chairs of professors; he takes part, under the title of "chargé de conférences” or of " cours complémentaires,” in the instruction given by the school. It is necessary that the influence which he exercises over the students should be conformable to the scientific tendencies of the day; it is necessary tliat he should know how to utilize the laboratories for the benefit of the student.

Guided by these general ideas, the commission endeavored to frame a substitute to the third title of the 1874 law, which would not only bring ont the crudition of the candidate, but also his "professional aptitudes, his scientific aptitudes, and the amount of practical instruction he had received.” This substitute was issued as an "arrêté” July 30, 1887, and reads as follows:

ART. 37. In the faculties of medicine and in the mixed faculties of medicine and pharmacy the agrégés hold their position for nine years; one-third being reappointed every threo years. [They have become titular professors in the meantime, if capable.]

ART. 38. There are four sections of agrégés: The first, for anato:nical and physiological sciences, comprehends anatomy, physiology, and natural history.

The second, for physical sciences, comprehends physics, chemistry, pharmacy, aud toxicology.

The third for medicine, properly so called, and medical jurisprudence.
The fourth for surgery and accouchements.
ART. 39. The preparatory examination consists of-

(1) An oral lesson of forty-five minutes, had after three hours of preparation in a guarded room upon a question concerning the subject ou which the candidate is being examined. The surveillance shall be provided for by the jury of examination. The candidate shall have the aid of such books as the jury may allow.

(2) A public exhibition by the candidate of his personal work. Į“During thirty minutes the candidate shall say what progress, great or small, he has made in science, what problems he has attacked, what obstacles he has encountered, what solution he has found. If some candidate gives way to the temptation to exaggerate the value of his work, he will thus give to a competent jury the measure of his tact.3"]

(3) For candidates for the subjects of physics, chemistry, and natural history a

1 Rocueil des lois et règlements sur l'enseignement supérieur, tome 4, p. 347 et seq.

2 Each faculty has two deliberative bodies or "council of the faculty," made up wholly of titular professors, and an "assembly of the faculty," of which the agrégés form a part.

3 Rapport par M. Brouardel pour la commission.

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composition on anatomy and plıysiology. Five hours are given for this composition, which is to take place in a closed room, under the supervision of a member of the jury. The composers are not allowed the aid of any printed or manuscript work.

ART. 40. The linal examination consists(1) Of an oral lesson of an hour after forty-eight hours of independent preparation. (2) A series of practical evidences:

(a) For medicine: A clinic lesson pon one or two patients chosen by the jury, examined with all the resources of the laboratory; exercises in pathological anatomy.

(6) For surgery and accouchements: Same practical proofs as for medicine, and, in addition, an operation upon the cadaver for surgery.

(c) For anatomy: A lesson upon a subject of descriptive anatomy; practical exercises in histology.

(d) For physiology: A lesson upon it subject of histologs; practical exercises in experimental physiology.

(e) For physics: A lesson upon an experiment in physics; practical exercises in physics.

(f) For chemistry: I lesson upon a chemical experiment; practical exorcise in chemistry.

(9) For natural history: A lesson upon a subject of natural history; practical exercises in natural history.

(1) For pharmacy: A lessou upon pharmaceutical operation; practical exercises in pharmacy.

ART. 41. The subjects and the duration of the practical exercises are determined by the jury.

By the decree of July 30, 1886, tlio agrégés ire made members of the faculty or school to which they are attached. They take rank after the titular professors. They are members of the assembly of the faculty or school, having a vote if they are conducting a course of instruction that is provideıl for by the budget or are conducting a course of practical work, the other agrégés have only the privilego of giviug an opinion (voix consultative). They participate in the examination; fill the place of professors temporarily absent, and conduct courses with the view of rounding ont the instruction given by the titular professors. In the faculties of medicine the number of agrégés having courses shall not be fewer than one-third nor more than one-half of the chairs of the faculty.

The pay of the agregós for mollicine (including pharmacy) and law Wils fixed in 1876 as follows:

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Agrégés at Paris..
Agriges in the departments

4800 $600-700

$1. 100 $CCO-700

By the decree of July 30, 1876, the ag rés filling the place in the course of instruction of an occupant of a chair received in udition $600 at Paris and $100 in tho other parts of France,

APPOINTMENT OF JUNIOR LAW PROFESSONS (AGRÉGÉS). By the statute of 1874 the French law of 1857 governing the appointment of associate professors of law was modified in that which regards the tests given at the competitive examination to the following estent:

The preparatory or eliminating tests were to be (1) a composition upon a question of French law; (2) two [trial] lessons, one given after four hours of independent preparation upon a subject of French civil law, the other after twenty-four hours of preparation upon a subject of Roman law.

The definite tests were to be (1) a composition in Latin upon a question of Roman law; (2) two lessons, each given after twenty-four hours of independent preparation, the first upon a question of French civil law and the second upon a question selected by the judges from another branch of French law; (3) two arguments, one upon a title of Justinian's Digest, the other upon a question from the French civil law. This examination was found to require too much time and to be an unnecessary multiplication of tests, and it was changed in 1880.


By the regulation of December 27, 1880, the composition in Latin on the Roman law was taken out of the definito or second examination and put in the first or eliminating examination, " for it is necessary," says the committee of the superior council of public instruction, to which the matter had been referred, "that the candidate should have a certain babitudo of using the Latin language;" but one exhibition of teaching power was dropped from the eliminating examination. The committee found themselves, however, unable to drop either of the two lessons required in the definite examination, as they were both calculated to show the ability of the candidates in different subjects of the law, and hence the completeness of his knowledge. They deemed it equally out of the question to drop the argument upon a title of Justinian's Digest, also required in the second examination, as it is a very probing test, which assumed that those who passed throngh it successfully had extended knowledge and two indispensable qualities for teaching—that is to say, promptuess of mind and command of language;" but the argument on a question of French law was thrown out as an unnecessary test.

But this remaniement—this rehandling of the competitive examination of the aspirant for a junior professorship-was not entirely satisfactory. Candidates showed that they were, in spite of the requirements, less and less familiar with the Latin language, and to cause them to use a medium of expression with which they were not familiar paralyzod or altered their ideas. Again, what was the value of the argumentation in point of spontaneity if the contesting parties compared notes before the mere exhibition came off? But these reforms, says tho commission of 1890, are of secondary importance. We wish to go very much farther in this matter, for it appears to us that the competitive examination (concours) as organized by the statnte of December 27, 1880, is very justly criticised in several particulars which we enumerate:

(1) The duration of the examination is too long. This causes a rather considerable ontlay of money by those candidates who are not living with their family, but for all it is a long drawn out cause of feverish excitation injurious to health. (2) The preliminary proofs are too chanceful. A lesson prepared in the short space of four hours and two compositions, both upon a special question! aro these satisfactory criteria upon which to judge of the merits of a candidate? Can an examiner flatter bimself that he knows anything about the admissibility or inadmissibility on such contrivances? Men 30 to 35 well instructed and of brains may have the luck to be pitted against subjects with which they are unfamiliar or which to them are distaste. ful, iro trivial, or far fetched, and thus they are thrown out, eliminated, to the advantage of the otlicr candidates who have not been superior but more lucky than they. (3) The tests do not correspond to the curriculum in the faculty. These tests are exclusively confined to Roman and the French law and do not permit certainty in diagnosing the special aptitudes of each candidate, nor do they interrogate those who are to treat the history of law, public law, and political economy.

The committee having thus reported, the minister immediately (1890) notified the fourteen faculties of law that the tests were no more in relation with the curriculnm of tho faculties and asked their assistance in framing a new scheme of examination. It is rather interesting to compare the position of the important faculty of law of Paris at the date of 1890 and 1893, when a new curriculum had been promulgated on each occasion.

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Concours d'agrégation dans les facultés de droit. Enquêtes et documents relatifs à l'enseignement supérieur, Paris 1800, p. 2.

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The plan of 1895, say tho Parisian faculty of law, is, from a scientific standpoint, good, but from a practical standpoint it has disadvantages. Tho candidates will devote themselves to the study of one of the sections and will become narkoty specialists, so as not to be of use when they become professors and aro called upon to take a university view of affairs. To obviate this the candidate must take two doctors' degrees--one the degree juridique, tho other politique—so as to assure the indispensable all around legal culture.


Before passing to the relation of the profossions of medicine and law to the State it is necessary to speak of the laboratory, the hospital, and the library. The hospital may be sufficient to make the practitioner, but the laboratory and the library are indispensable to make the savant. It has been remarked beforo that the American and English schools are in charge of practitioners, while thoso of Germany and now of Franco-are directed by a pedagogical class of professors. Of nothing connected with their higher instruction in 1870 were the French more ashamed than their laboratories. Two reports upon improvements to be made in that respect were presented by Professor Wurtz, and they are both used freely here to illustrate the necessary accessories to medical instruction.

In the physical and natural sciences, says M. Wurtz in his report to the minister of public instruction in France, the demonstration of the facts is the basis of all solid progress. Observe how science is cultivated in a modern laboratory. It is no more an isolateıl effort--it is work in common. When knowledge was a mystery and the art of experimentation a secret, an operator might be seen bending over his furnaces attended by one or two adepts. But now that the importance of the sciences is increasing as they are being called in to aid civilization, it has become necessary to diffuse sciontific truths. In fact, it is a company of workers who group themselves about a master. Each profits by liis maker's teaching and example, an</ by the work of his colleagues. In such an environment the noblest emulation existsthat is to say, energy and inspiration aro born as the inclination develops, and are perpetuated in the great centers whero flourish the arts. Thus a laboratory is not only a refuge for science, it is a center of propaganda; it is a school.

This panegyric on the value of the laboratory is conclusive evidence of its indispensableness, coming from so high an authority as M. Wurtz, who rises to the diguity of his mission which is to remodel the methods of teaching the physical and natural sciences in the faculties of sciences anıl of medicine in France. But there is another side to the question, which has been expressed by Dr. Le Fort in these terms: "The place to study medicino is in the hospital, and only in the hospital. Some medical savants devote themselves to laboratory study. Nothing can be better. But for the physician, who should above all things learn to care for and, if he can, patients, the only school is the hospital. There may bo courses in hygieno and medical jurisprudence, but there can be no theoretical course in medicine, nono in surgery; there is only a course of clinics, and the professor at the same monent teaches the students the theory (of which they have obtained the principal notions from the books) and the practice."

Let us now inquire what M. Wurtz found in Germany in the way of “Practical high studies.” He found four kinds of institutions : Chemical laboratories, physiological laboratories, anatomical laboratories, and laboratories of pathological research in anatomy and "experimental medicine."



The chemical laboratory, according to M. Wurtz, is the result of the work of Liebig (under whoin 11. Wurtz studied at Giessen). Liebig's example was not lost. During the next twenty years many laboratories were constructed, and brought together a

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great number of practical students. It will suffice to mention the names of only the more important: Carlsruhe, Heidelberg, Göttingen, Greifswald, Munich, and Zurich, which in some sort mark the transition from the old establishments of this nature to the pretentious strnctures which subsequently appeared at Bonn, Berlin, and

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