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The plan of 1895, say the Parisian faculty of law, is, from a scientific standpoint, good, but from a practical standpoint it has disadvantages. Tho candidates will devote themselves to the study of one of the sections and will become narrow specialists, so as not to be of use when they become professors and aro called upon to take a university view of affairs. To obviate this the candidate must take two doctors' degrees--one the degree juridique, tho other politique-so as to assure the indispensable all around legal culture.
III.-THE LIOUSING OF THE INSTRUCTION,
Before passing to the relation of the profossions of medicine and law to the State it is necessary to speak of the laboratory, the hospital, and the library. The hospital may be suflicient to make the practitioner, but the laboratory and the library are indispensable to make the savant. It has been remarked beforo that the American and English schools are in charge of practitioners, while those of Germany-and now of France-are directed by a pedagogical class of profo-sors. Of nothing connected with their liigler instruction in 1870 were the French more ashamed than their laboratories. Two reports upon improvoients to be made in that respect were presented by Professor Wurtz, and they are both used freely here to illustrate the necessary accessories to medical instruction,
In the physical and natural sciences, says J. Wurt: in his report to the minister of public instruction in France, the demonstration of the facts is the basis of all solid progress. Observe how science is cultivated in a modern laboratory. It is no more an isolated effort--it is work in common. When knowledge was a mystery and the art of experimentation a secret, an operator might be seen bending over his furnaces attended by one or two adepts. But now that the importance of the sciences is increasing as they are being called in to aid civilization, it has become necessary to diffuso scientific truths. In fact, it is a company of workers who group themselves about a master. Each profits by liis maker's teaching and example, ancı by the work of his colleagues. In such an environment the noblest emulation existsthat is to say, energy and inspiration aro born as the inclination develops, and are perpetuated in the great centers whero flourislı the arts. Thus a laboratory is not only a refuge for science, it is a center of propaganda; it is a school.
This panegyric on the value of the laboratory conclusive evidence of its indispensableness, coming from so high an authority as M. Wurtz, who rises to the dignity of his mission which is to remodel the methods of teaching the physical and natural sciences in the faculties of sciences anil of medicine in France. But there is another sido to the question, which has been expressed by Dr. Le l'ort in these terms: “The place to study medicino is in the hospital, and only in the hospital. Some medical savants devote themselves to laboratory study. Nothing can be better. But for the physician, who should above all things learn to care for and, if he can, curel.is patients, the only school is the hospital. There may bo courses in hygieno and meilical jurisprudence, but there can bo no theoretical course in medicine, vono in surgery; there is only a course of clinics, and the professor at the samo morrent teaches the students the theory (of which they havo obtained the principal notions from the books) and the practice."
Let us now inquire what M. Wurtz found in Germany in the way of “Practical higli studies." He found four kinds of institutions : Chemical laboratories, physiological laboratories, anatomical laboratories, and laboratories of pathological research in anatomy and "experimental medicine."
THE LABORATORIES OF CHEMISTRY.
The chemical laboratory, according to M. Wurtz, is the result of the work of Liebig (under whom M. Wurtz studio at Giessen). Liebig's example was not lost. During the next twenty years many laboratories were constructed, and brought together a
great number of practical students. It will suffice to mention the names of only the more important: Carlsruhe, Heidelberg, Göttingen, Greisswald, Munich, and Zurich, which in some sort mark the transition from the old establishments of this nature to the preteutious structures which subsequently appeared at Bonn, Berlin, and
LABORATORIES OF PHYSIOLOGY.
Physiology is the daughter of anatomy, says M. Wurtz, and there was a time when the knowledge of tho organs of the human body and tlie ideas which dissoctions gavo were the points of departure and the only methods for research, or rather inductions in physiology. We forced ourselves to divine a function by studying its look and form anıl its place in the system, and we tried to cuth in some way its living action by experiments or living animals. This method has led to great discoveries. By it Harroy discovered tho circulation of the blood, and Haller during the eighteenth century gavo such an impetus to physiology. But it was only good! becauso it was fruitful, not because it was sufficient, for it went little beyond external appearances of the facts, and for tho most part left the investigator in ignorance of the true nature of the connection of the facts. Thus, what uncertainty as to the facts! How many hypotheses in interpreting them! What an uncertain basis for medicino is a physiology fuli of conjectures! A new era opened at the end of the eighteenth century. Respiration is a slow combustion, and as such is tho
source of animal heat. The part played by physics in the progress of physiology is vot less great since the discovery of the source of animal heat. Galvani’s discorery garo birth to the thought that the nervous agency of the body had been found. Undoubteilly the hopo was premature, but if the norvous agency is unknowo, ire can measure its rate of propagation along tho nerves. But questions of this kind are only to be attacked by tho aid of the most advanced methods and the most delicate instruments of modern physics. To these methods and instruments experimental physiology appeals. Formerly the scalpel and the bistoúry were the principal instruments employed in exporimental physiology; to-day it claims all tho resources of a combined laboratory of chemistry and physics. But this is not all. The very science itself is pushing &head with immense strides. It not only describes the exterior form and the relations of the human organs, but it also penetrates into tho intimate structure. The anatomy of the tissues inaugurated by our Bichat, enlarged and transformed by microscopical research, has become, under the name of histology, an important branch of human knowledge. The microscope has made known the framework of the tissues, the morphological constitution of the lumors, and the structure and evolution of tho organs. But is this all, merely to giro minuto description of the form and structure of anatomic destructions in aid of classification ? By 10 meaus. The conquests of histology have acquired great repute in furnishing light to normal and pathological physiology. Ought not tho study of tho secretions of the glands be based upon tlo previous study of their texture? It is evident that i